What is referred to here is the fact that they used to feel too embarrassed to eat with the blind, because they could not see the food or where the best morsels were, so others might take the best pieces before they could. They felt too embarrassed to eat with the lame because they could not sit comfortably, and their companions might take advantage of them, and they felt embarrassed to eat with the sick because they might not eat as much as others. So they were afraid to eat with them lest they were unfair to them in some way. Then Allah revealed this Ayah, granting them a dispensation in this matter. This was the view of Sa`id bin Jubayr and Miqsam. Ad-Dahhak said: "Before the Prophet's Mission, they used to feel too embarrassed and too proud to eat with these people, lest they might have to help them. So Allah revealed this Ayah.''
(nor any restriction on the lame,) `Abdur-Razzaq recorded that Mujahid said: "A man would take a blind, lame or sick person to the house of his brother or sister or aunt, and those disabled people would feel ashamed of that and say, `they are taking us to other people's houses.' So this Ayah was revealed granting permission for that.'' As-Suddi said: "A man would enter the house of his father or brother or son, and the lady of the house would bring him some food, but he would refrain from eating because the master of the house was not there, so Allah revealed:
(There is no restriction on the blind...)
(nor on yourselves, if you eat from your houses,) This is stated here although it is obvious, so that from this starting point the houses of others may be mentioned, and to make it clear that the ruling applies equally to what comes after. Sons' houses are included in this even though they are not mentioned by name, and this is used as evidence by those who regard the son's wealth as being like the father's wealth. In the Musnad and the Sunan, it is reported through several routes that the Messenger of Allah said:
(You and your wealth belong to your father.)
(or the houses of your fathers, or the houses of your mothers,) until His statement;
(or (from that) whereof you hold keys,) This is obvious, and this is used as evidence by those who think that it is obligatory for relatives to spend on one another.
(or (from that) whereof you hold keys,) Sa`id bin Jubayr and As-Suddi said, "This refers to a people's servants, whether a slave or otherwise. There is nothing wrong with them eating from the food that is stored with them, within reason.'' Az-Zuhri narrated from `Urwah that `A'isha (may Allah be pleased with her) said, "The Muslims used to go out on military campaigns with the Messenger of Allah and they would give their keys to people they trusted and say, `We permit you to eat whatever you need.' But they would say, `It is not permissible for us to eat, they have given us permission reluctantly and we are only trustees.' Then Allah revealed:
(or (from that) whereof you hold keys).''
(or (from the house) of a friend.) means, there is no sin on you if you eat from their houses, so long as you know that this does not upset them and they do not dislike it.
(No sin on you whether you eat together or apart.) `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported from Ibn `Abbas concerning this Ayah, "When Allah revealed the Ayah:
(O you who believe! Eat not up your property among yourselves unjustly) ﴿4: 29﴾, the Muslims said, `Allah has forbidden us to eat up our property among ourselves unjustly, and food is the best of property, so it is not permissible for anyone among us to eat at the house of anyone else.' So the people stopped doing that. Then Allah revealed:
(There is no restriction on the blind,) until His statement;
(or (from the house) of a friend.) A man would also feel embarrassed and would refrain from eating alone until someone else came along, but Allah made the matter easier for them and said:
(No sin on you whether you eat together or apart.)'' Qatadah said, "This was a clan of Banu Kinanah who during the Jahiliyyah thought that it was a source of shame for one of them to eat alone, to such an extent that a man might keep on driving his laden camel even though he was hungry, until he could find someone to eat and drink with him. Then Allah revealed:
(No sin on you whether you eat together or apart.) So this was a dispensation from Allah, allowing people to eat either alone or with others, even though eating with others is more blessed and is better. Imam Ahmad recorded from Wahshi bin Harb from his father from his grandfather that a man said to the Prophet, "We eat but we do not feel satisfied.'' He said:
(Perhaps you are eating separately. Eat together and mention the Name of Allah, and He will bless the food for you.) It was also recorded by Abu Dawud and Ibn Majah. Ibn Majah also recorded that Salim reported from his father from `Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) that the Messenger of Allah said:
(Eat together and not separately, for the blessing is in being together.)
(But when you enter the houses, greet one another) Sa`id bin Jubayr, Al-Hasan Al-Basri, Qatadah and Az-Zuhri said, "This means greet one another with Salam.'' Ibn Jurayj said: Abu Az-Zubayr said, "I heard Jabir bin `Abdullah say, `When you enter upon your family, greet them with a greeting from Allah, blessed and good.' He said, `I do not think it is anything but obligatory.''' Ibn Jurayj said: "And Ziyad said that Ibn Tawus used to say: `When any one of you enters his house, let him say Salam.''' Mujahid said: "And when you enter the Masjid, say: `Peace be upon the Messenger of Allah'; when you enter upon your families, greet them with Salam; and when you enter a house in which there is nobody, say: `As-Salamu `Alayna wa `Ala `Ibad-Allah-is-Salihin (peace be upon us and upon the righteous servants of Allah).' This is what one is commanded to do, and it has been narrated to us that the angels will return his greeting.''
(Thus Allah makes clear the Ayat to you that you may understand.) When Allah mentioned what wise rulings and reasonable, well-constructed laws are contained in this Surah, He points out to His servants that He explains the Ayat to them clearly so that they may ponder them and understand their meanings.
(62. The believers are only those who believe in Allah and His Messenger; and when they are with him on some common matter, they go not away until they have asked his permission. Verily, those who ask your permission, those are they who (really) believe in Allah and His Messenger. So if they ask your permission for some affairs of theirs, give permission to whom you will of them, and ask Allah for their forgiveness. Truly, Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.)
This is another matter of etiquette to which Allah has guided His believing servants. Just as He commanded them to seek permission when entering, He also commanded them to seek permission when leaving, especially when they are doing something together with the Messenger , such as the Friday, `Id, or congregational prayers, or a meeting for the purpose of consultation and so on. Allah commanded them not to leave him in these situations until they had asked his permission. If they did this, then they were of the true believers. Then Allah commanded His Messenger to give permission when someone asked for it, if he wanted to. He said:
(give permission to whom you will of them, and ask Allah for their forgiveness.)Abu Dawud reported that Abu Hurayrah said, "The Messenger of Allah said:
(When any of you joins a gathering, let him say Salam, and when he wants to leave, let him say Salam. The former is not more important than the latter.) This was also recorded by At-Tirmidhi and An-Nasa'i; At-Tirmidhi said: "It is a Hasan Hadith.''
(63. Make not the calling of the Messenger among you as your calling one of another. Allah knows those of you who slip away under shelter. And let those beware who oppose the Messenger's commandment, lest some Fitnah should befall them or a painful torment be inflicted on them.)
Ad-Dahhak said, reporting from Ibn `Abbas: "They used to say, `O Muhammad,' or `O Abu Al-Qasim,' but Allah forbade them to do that, as a sign of respect towards His Prophet , and told them to say, `O Prophet of Allah,' `O Messenger of Allah.''' This was also the view of Mujahid and Sa`id bin Jubayr. Qatadah said: "Allah commanded that His Prophet should be treated with respect and honor, and that he should be a leader.'' Muqatil said concerning the Ayah:
(Make not the calling of the Messenger among you as your calling one of another.) "When you address him, do not say, `O Muhammad,' or `O son of `Abdullah'; rather honor him and say, `O Prophet of Allah,' or, `O Messenger of Allah.'
(Make not the calling of the Messenger among you as your calling one of another.) A second view concerning the meaning of the Ayah is that it means `do not think that if he prays against you it is like when anyone else prays against you, because his prayers will be answered; so beware lest he prays against you and you will be doomed.' Ibn Abi Hatim recorded this from Ibn `Abbas, Al-Hasan Al-Basri and `Atiyyah Al-`Awfi. And Allah knows best.
(Allah knows those of you who slip away under shelter.) Muqatil bin Hayyan said, "This refers to the hypocrites who used to find it too difficult to listen to the Khutbah on Fridays, so they would hide behind some of the Companions of Muhammad and sneak out of the Masjid. It was not proper for a man to leave on Fridays once the Khutbah began, unless he had permission from the Prophet. If one of them wanted to leave, he would make a gesture to the Prophet with his finger, and the Prophet would give permission without the man speaking. This is because if the Prophet was giving the Khutbah and a man spoke, it would invalidate his Friday prayer.'' As-Suddi said, "If they were with him for a congregational prayer, they would hide behind one another so that he could not see them.''
(And let those beware who oppose the Messenger's commandment) This means going against the commandment of the Prophet, which is his way, methodology and Sunnah. All words and deeds will be measured against his words and deeds; those that are in accordance with his words and deeds will be accepted, and whatever does not match up will be rejected, no matter who the person is who said and did them. It was recorded in the Two Sahihs and elsewhere that the Messenger of Allah said:
(Whoever does a deed that is not in accordance with this matter of ours will have it rejected.) meaning, let those beware who go against the Shari`ah of the Messenger , in secret and in the open,
(lest some Fitnah should befall them), i.e., lest some disbelief or hypocrisy or innovation enter their hearts.
(or a painful torment be inflicted on them.) means in this world afflicting them with capital punishment, or by law of prescribed punishment, or by confinement in prison, or so on. Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Hurayrah said, "The Messenger of Allah said:
(The parable of me and you is as the example of a man who kindled a fire and when it illuminated all around him, moths and other creatures started falling into the fire, and he was trying to stop them but they overwhelmed him and still kept falling in. This is the parable of me and you. I am trying to restrain you and keep you away from the fire, but you overwhelm me and fall in.) This was also narrated by Al-Bukhari and Muslim.
(64. Certainly, to Allah belongs all that is in the heavens and the earth. Indeed, He knows your condition and the Day when they will be brought back to Him, then He will inform them of what they did. And Allah is All-Knower of everything.)
Allah tells us that He is the Sovereign of the heavens and the earth, and He knows the seen and the unseen. He knows what His servants do in secret and in the open. So He says:
(Indeed, He knows your condition) He knows and it is visible to Him, and not one iota is hidden from him. This is like the Ayah:
(And put your trust in the All-Mighty, the Most Merciful,) until His saying;
(Verily, He, only He, is the All-Hearer, the All-Knower) (26:217-220).
(Neither you do any deed nor recite any portion of the Qur'an, nor you do any deed but We are Witness thereof when you are doing it. And nothing is hidden from your Lord; (even) the weight of a speck of dust on the earth or in the heaven. Not what is less than that or what is greater than that but is in a Clear Record.) (10:61)
(Is then He Who takes charge of every person and knows all that he has earned) (13: 33) He sees all that His servants do, good and evil alike. And Allah says:
(Surely, even when they cover themselves with their garments, He knows what they conceal and what they reveal) (11:5).
(It is the same (to Him) whether any of you conceals his speech or declares it openly) (13:10).
(And no moving creature is there on earth but its provision is due from Allah. And He knows its dwelling place and its deposit. All is in a Clear Book.) (11:6)
(And with Him are the keys of the Unseen, none knows them but He. And He knows whatever there is in the land and in the sea; not a leaf falls, but He knows it. There is not a grain in the darkness of the earth nor anything fresh or dry, but is written in a Clear Record.) (6:59) And there are many Ayat and Hadiths which say similar things.
(the Day when they will be brought back to Him,) means, the day when all creatures will be brought back to Allah, which is the Day of Resurrection.
(then He will inform them of what they did.) means, He will tell them everything they did in this life, major and minor, significant and insignificant. As Allah says:
(On that Day man will be informed of what he sent forward (of deeds), and what he left behind.) (75:13)
(And the Book will be placed, and you will see the criminals, fearful of that which is therein. They will say: "Woe to us! What sort of Book is this that leaves neither a small thing nor a big thing, but has recorded it with numbers!'' And they will find all that they did, placed before them, and your Lord treats no one with injustice.) (18:49) Allah says here:
(the Day when they will be brought back to Him, then He will inform them of what they did. And Allah is All-Knower of everything.) Praise be to Allah, the Lord of all that exists, and we ask Him to help us achieve perfection. The end of the Tafsir of Surat An-Nur, to Allah be praise and thanks.
In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.
(1. Blessed be He Who sent down (Nazzala) the criterion to His servant that he may be a warner to all nations.) (2. He to Whom belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth, and Who has begotten no son and for Whom there is no partner in the dominion. He has created everything, and has measured it exactly according to its due measurements.)