(And had We willed, We would have raised a warner in every town.) `Calling them to Allah, but We have singled you out, O Muhammad, to be sent to all the people of earth, and We have commanded you to convey the Qur'an,'
(that I may therewith warn you and whomsoever it may reach) (6:19).
(but those of the sects that reject it, the Fire will be their promised meeting place) (11:17).
(that you may warn the Mother of the Towns and all around it) (42:7).
(Say: "O mankind! Verily, I am sent to you all as the Messenger of Allah...'') (7:158). In the Two Sahihs (it is reported that the Prophet said:)
(I have been sent to the red and the black.) And:
(...A Prophet would be sent to his own people, but I have been sent to all of mankind.) Allah says:
(So obey not the disbelievers, but strive hard against them with it.) meaning, with the Qur'an. This was the view of Ibn `Abbas.
(with the utmost endeavour.) This is like the Ayah,
(O Prophet! Strive hard against the disbelievers and the hypocrites,) (9:73)
(And it is He Who has let free the two seas, this is palatable and sweet, and that is salty and bitter;) means, He has created the two kinds of water, sweet and salty. The sweet water is like that in rivers, springs and wells, which is fresh, sweet, palatable water. This was the view of Ibn Jurayj and of Ibn Jarir, and this is the meaning without a doubt, for nowhere in creation is there a sea which is fresh and sweet. Allah has told us about reality so that His servants may realize His blessings to them and give thanks to Him. The sweet water is that which flows amidst people. Allah has portioned it out among His creatures according to their needs; rivers and springs in every land, according to what they need for themselves and their lands.
(and that is salty and bitter;) meaning that it is salty, bitter and not easy to swallow. This is like the seas that are known in the east and the west, the Atlantic Ocean and the Straits that lead to it, the Red Sea, the Arabian Sea, the Persian Gulf, the China Sea, the Indian Ocean, the Mediterranean Sea, the Black Sea and so on, all the seas that are stable and do not flow, but they swell and surge in the winter and when the winds are strong, and they have tides that ebb and flow. At the beginning of each month the tides ebb and flood, and when the month starts to wane they retreat until they go back to where they started. When the crescent of the following month appears, the tide begins to ebb again until the fourteenth of the month, then it decreases. Allah, may He be glorified, the One Whose power is absolute, has set these laws in motion, so all of these seas are stationary, and He has made their water salty lest the air turn putrid because of them and the whole earth turn rotten as a result, and lest the earth spoil because of the animals dying on it. Because its water is salty, its air is healthy and its dead are good (to eat), hence when the Messenger of Allah was asked whether sea water can be used for Wudu', he said:
(Its water is pure and its dead are lawful.) This was recorded by Malik, Ash-Shafi`i and Ahmad, and by the scholars of Sunan with a good (Jayyid) chain of narration.
(and He has set a barrier and a complete partition between them. ) meaning, between the sweet water and the saltwater.
(a barrier) means a partition, which is dry land.
(and a complete partition) means, a barrier, to prevent one of them from reaching the other. This is like the Ayat:
(He has let loose the two seas meeting together. Between them is a barrier which none of them can transgress. Then which of the blessings of your Lord will you both deny) (55:19-21)
(Is not He Who has made the earth as a fixed abode, and has placed rivers in its midst, and placed firm mountains therein, and set a barrier between the two seas Is there any god with Allah Nay, but most of them know not!) (27:61)
(And it is He Who has created man from water,) means, He created man from a weak Nutfah, then gave him shape and formed him, and completed his form, male and female, as He willed.
(and has appointed for him kindred by blood, and kindred by marriage.) in the beginning, he is someone's child, then he gets married and becomes a son-in-law, then he himself has sons-in-law and other relatives through marriage. All of this comes from a despised liquid, Allah says:
(And your Lord is Ever All-Powerful to do what He wills.)
(55. And they worship besides Allah, that which can neither profit them nor harm them; and the disbeliever is ever a helper against his Lord.) (56. And We have sent you only as a bearer of good news and a warner.) (57. Say: "No reward do I ask of you for this, save that whosoever wills may take a path to his Lord.'') (58. And put your trust in the Ever Living One Who dies not, and glorify His praises, and sufficient is He as the All-Knower of the sins of His servants,) (59. Who created the heavens and the earth and all that is between them in six Days. Then He rose over (Istawa) the Throne. The Most Gracious! Ask Him, as He is the All-Knower.) (60. And when it is said to them: "Prostrate yourselves to Ar-Rahman!'' They say: "And what is Ar-Rahman Shall we fall down in prostration to that which you command us'' And it increases in them only aversion.)
Allah tells us how ignorant the idolaters are; instead of worshipping Allah, they worship idols which do not possess the power either to harm or benefit. They do this with no evidence or proof; the only thing that led them to do this was their own whims and desires. So they take these idols as protectors and fight for their sake, and they oppose Allah and His Messenger and the believers for their sake. Similarly Allah says:
(and the disbeliever is ever a helper against his Lord.) meaning, he is a supporter of Shaytan against the party of Allah, but the party of Allah are the ones who will prevail, as Allah says:
(And they have taken besides Allah gods, hoping that they might be helped. They cannot help them, but they will be brought forward as a troop against those who worshipped them.) (36:74-75) meaning, the gods which they worshipped instead of Allah cannot help them. These ignorant people are troops for the idols and are ready to fight for their sake and protect their sanctuaries, but in the end the victory will be for Allah and His Messenger and the believers, in this world and the Hereafter.
(and the disbeliever is ever a helper against his Lord. ) Mujahid said: "He supports and helps the Shaytan in disobedience towards Allah.
Then Allah tells His Messenger:
(And We have sent you only as a bearer of good news and a warner.) meaning, a bringer of good news to the believers, a warner to the disbelievers; bringing good news of Paradise to those who obey Allah, and bringing warnings of a dreadful punishment for those who go against the commandments of Allah.
(Say: "No reward do I ask of you for this...'') `for conveying this message and this warning, I do not ask for any reward from your wealth; I am only doing this for the sake of Allah, may He be exalted.'
(To whomsoever among you who wills to walk straight) (81:28).
(save that whosoever wills, may take a path to his Lord.) means, a way and a methodology to be followed.
Then Allah says:
(And put your trust in the Ever Living One Who dies not,) meaning, in all your affairs, put your trust in Allah, the Ever-Living Who never dies, the One Who
(is the First and the Last, the Most High and the Most Near. And He is the All-Knower of everything) (57:3). The Eternal, Ever-Lasting, Ever-Living, Self-Sufficient One, the Lord and Sovereign of all things, the One to Whom you should always turn. Allah is the One in Whom you should put your trust and to Whom you should turn for refuge, He will be sufficient for you and will be your helper and supporter, and will cause you to prevail. As Allah says:
(O Messenger! Proclaim which has been sent down to you from your Lord. And if you do not, then you have not conveyed His Message. Allah will protect you from mankind) (5:67).
(and glorify His praises,) means, combine praising Him with glorifying Him. Hence the Messenger of Allah used to say:
(Glory be to You, O Allah, and with Your praise.) So the Ayah means: be sincere in worshipping Him and putting your trust in Him. This is like the Ayat:
(The Lord of the east and the west; there is no God but He. So take Him as a Trustee.) (73:9)
(So worship Him and put your trust in Him) (11:123).
(Say: "He is the Most Gracious, in Him we believe, and in Him we put our trust.'') (67:29)
(and sufficient is He as the All-Knower of the sins of His servants) means, by His perfect knowledge nothing is hidden from Him nor can anything be hidden from Him, not even a speck of dust's weight.
(Who created the heavens and the earth...) means, He is the Ever-Living Who never dies, He is the Creator, Sustainer and Sovereign of all things, Who by His might and power created the seven heavens with their vast height and width, and the seven earths with their great depths and density.
(in six Days. Then He rose over the Throne.) means, He is running all affairs and He decrees according to the truth, and He is the best of those who decide.
(Then He rose over (Istawa) the Throne. The Most Gracious! Ask Him, as He is the All-Knower.) meaning, find out about Him from one who knows most about Him, and follow him and take him as your example. It is known that there is no one who knows more about Allah than His servant and Messenger Muhammad, the absolute leader of the sons of Adam in this world and the Hereafter, who does not speak of his own desire, but conveys revelation revealed to him. What he says is true, and he is the leader whose decision counts; when there is a dispute, people are obliged to refer to him, and whatever is in accordance with his words and deeds is right, and whatever goes against them should be rejected no matter who says or does it. Allah says:
((And) if you differ in anything among yourselves...) (4:59).
(And in whatsoever you differ, the decision thereof is with Allah) (42:10).
(And the Word of your Lord has been fulfilled in truth and in justice) (6: 115). meaning, He has spoken the truth and is fair and just in His commands and prohibitions. Allah says here:
(Ask Him, as He is Al-Knower.)
Then Allah rebukes the idolaters who prostrate to idols and rivals instead of Allah:
(And when it is said to them: "Prostrate yourselves to Ar-Rahman!'' They say: "And what is Ar-Rahman'') meaning: we do not know Ar-Rahman. They did not like to call Allah by His Name Ar-Rahman (the Most Gracious), as they objected on the day of (the treaty of) Al-Hudaybiyyah, when the Prophet told the scribe:
(Write: "In the Name of Allah, Ar-Rahman (the Most Gracious), Ar-Rahim (the Most Merciful).'') They said, "We do not know Ar-Rahman or Ar-Rahim. Write what you used to write: `Bismika Allahumma (in Your Name, O Allah).''' So Allah revealed the words:
(Say: "Invoke Allah or invoke Ar-Rahman, by whatever name you invoke Him (it is the same), for to Him belong the Best Names) (17:110). meaning, He is Allah and He is the Most Gracious. And in this Ayah, Allah said:
(And when it is said to them: "Prostrate yourselves to Ar-Rahman!'' They say: "And what is the Ar-Rahman'') meaning: we do not know or approve of this Name.
(Shall we fall down in prostration to that which you command us) means, "Just because you tell us to''
(And it increases in them only aversion.) As for the believers, they worship Allah Who is the Most Gracious, Most Merciful, and they attribute divinity to Him Alone and prostrate to Him. The scholars, agree that it is allowed and approved for the reader and the listener to prostrate when he reaches this mention of prostration in Surat Al-Furqan, and Allah knows best.
(61. Blessed be He Who has placed in the heaven Al-Buruj, and has placed therein a great lamp, and a moon giving light.) (62. And He it is Who has put the night and the day in succession (Khilfatan), for such who desires to remember or desires to show his gratitude.)
Here Allah glorifies Himself and praises the beauty He created in the heavens of Al-Buruj, the giant stars, according to the view of Mujahid, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Abu Salih, Al-Hasan and Qatadah. This is like the Ayah,
(And indeed We have adorned the nearest heaven with lamps) (67:5). Allah says:
(Blessed be He Who has placed in the heaven Al-Buruj, and has placed therein a great lamp,) which is the sun which shines like a lamp, as Allah says:
(And We have made (therein) a shining lamp) (78:13).
(and a moon giving light.) means, shining and illuminated by the light of something else, different from the light of the sun, as Allah says:
(It is He Who made the sun a shining thing and the moon as a light) (10:5). And Allah tells us that Nuh, peace be upon him, said to his people:
(See you not how Allah has created the seven heavens one above another And has made the moon a light therein, and made the sun a lamp) (71:15-16). Then Allah says:
(And He it is Who has put the night and the day in succession (Khilfatan),) meaning, each one comes after the other, in a never-ending alternation. When one goes the other comes, and vice versa, as Allah says:
(And He has made the sun and the moon, both constantly pursuing their courses) (14:33).
(He brings the night as a cover over the day, seeking it rapidly) (7:54).
(It is not for the sun to overtake the moon) (36:40).
(for such who desires to remember or desires to show his gratitude.) means, He has caused them both to follow one another to show the times when His servants should worship Him. So whoever misses an act of worship during the night can make it up during the day, and whoever misses an act of worship during the day can make it up during the night. It was recorded in a Sahih Hadith:
(Allah spreads forth His Hand at night for the one who has done evil during the day to repent, and He spreads forth His Hand during the day for the one who has done evil during the night to repent.) Mujahid and Qatadah said: "Khilfatan means different, i.e., because one is dark and the other is light.''
(63. And the servants of the Most Gracious are those who walk on the earth Hawna, and when the foolish address them they say; "Salama.'') (64. And those who spend the night in worship of their Lord, prostrate and standing.) (65. And those who say: "Our Lord! Avert from us the torment of Hell. Verily, its torment is ever an inseparable, permanent punishment.'') (66. Evil indeed it is as an abode and as a place to rest in.) (67. And those who, when they spend, are neither extravagant nor stingy, but are in a just balance between them.)