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Ibrahim mentions Allah's Kindness towards Him

Ibrahim said, "I will not worship any but the One Who does these things:

﴿ ٱلَّذِى خَلَقَنِى فَهُوَ يَہۡدِينِ

(Who has created me, and it is He Who guides me.) He is the Creator Who has decreed certain things to which He guides His creation, so each person follows the path which is decreed for him. Allah is the One Who guides whomsoever He wills and leaves astray whomsoever He wills.

﴿ وَٱلَّذِى هُوَ يُطۡعِمُنِى وَيَسۡقِينِ

(And it is He Who feeds me and gives me to drink.) He is my Creator Who provides for me from that which He has made available in the heavens and on earth. He drives the clouds and causes water to fall with which He revives the earth and brings forth its fruits as provision for mankind. He sends down the water fresh and sweet so that many of those whom He has created, animals and men alike, may drink from it.

﴿ وَإِذَا مَرِضۡتُ فَهُوَ يَشۡفِينِ

(And when I am ill, it is He Who cures me.) Here he attributed sickness to himself, even though it is Allah Who decrees it, out of respect towards Allah. By the same token, Allah commands us to say in the prayer,

﴿ ٱهۡدِنَا ٱلصِّرَٲطَ ٱلۡمُسۡتَقِيمَ

(Guide us to the straight way) (1:6) to the end of the Surah. Grace and guidance are attributed to Allah, may He be exalted, but the subject of the verb with reference to anger is omitted, and going astray is attributed to the people. This is like when the Jinn said:

﴿ وَأَنَّا لَا نَدۡرِىٓ أَشَرٌّ أُرِيدَ بِمَن فِى ٱلۡأَرۡضِ أَمۡ أَرَادَ بِہِمۡ رَبُّہُمۡ رَشَدً۬ا

(And we know not whether evil is intended for those on earth, or whether their Lord intends for them a right path) (72:10) Similarly, Ibrahim said:

﴿ وَإِذَا مَرِضۡتُ فَهُوَ يَشۡفِينِ

(And when I am ill, it is He Who cures me.) meaning, `when I fall sick, no one is able to heal me but Him, Who heals me with the means that may lead to recovery'.

﴿ وَٱلَّذِى يُمِيتُنِى ثُمَّ يُحۡيِينِ

(And Who will cause me to die, and then will bring me to life.) He is the One Who gives life and causes death, and no one besides Him is able to do that, for He is the One Who originates and repeats.

﴿ وَٱلَّذِىٓ أَطۡمَعُ أَن يَغۡفِرَ لِى خَطِيٓـَٔتِى يَوۡمَ ٱلدِّينِ

(And Who, I hope, will forgive me my faults on the Day of Recompense.) means, no one is able to forgive sins in this world or the Hereafter except Him. Who can forgive sins except Allah For He is the One Who does whatever He wills.

﴿ رَبِّ هَبۡ لِى حُڪۡمً۬ا وَأَلۡحِقۡنِى بِٱلصَّـٰلِحِينَ وَٱجۡعَل لِّى لِسَانَ صِدۡقٍ۬ فِى ٱلۡأَخِرِينَ وَٱجۡعَلۡنِى مِن وَرَثَةِ جَنَّةِ ٱلنَّعِيمِ وَٱغۡفِرۡ لِأَبِىٓ إِنَّهُ ۥ كَانَ مِنَ ٱلضَّآلِّينَ وَلَا تُخۡزِنِى يَوۡمَ يُبۡعَثُونَ يَوۡمَ لَا يَنفَعُ مَالٌ۬ وَلَا بَنُونَ إِلَّا مَنۡ أَتَى ٱللَّهَ بِقَلۡبٍ۬ سَلِيمٍ۬

(83. My Lord! Bestow Hukm on me, and join me with the righteous.) (84. And grant me an honorable mention in later generations.) (85. And make me one of the inheritors of the Paradise of Delight.) (86. And forgive my father, verily, he is of the erring.) (87. And disgrace me not on the Day when they will be resurrected.) (88. The Day whereon neither wealth nor sons will avail,) (89. Except him who brings to Allah a clean heart.)

The Prayer of Ibrahim for Himself and for His Father

Here Ibrahim, upon him be peace, asks his Lord to give him Hukm. Ibn `Abbas said, "This is knowledge.''

﴿ وَأَلۡحِقۡنِى بِٱلصَّـٰلِحِينَ

(and join me with the righteous.) means, `make me one of the righteous in this world and the Hereafter.' This is like the words the Prophet said three times when he was dying:

« اللَّهُمَّ فِي الرَّفِيقِ الْأَعْلَى »

(O Allah, with the Exalted Companion (of Paradise)).

﴿ وَٱجۡعَل لِّى لِسَانَ صِدۡقٍ۬ فِى ٱلۡأَخِرِينَ

(And grant me an honorable mention in later generations.) meaning, `cause me to be remembered in a good manner after my death, so that I will be spoken of and taken as a good example.' This is like the Ayah,

﴿ وَتَرَكۡنَا عَلَيۡهِ فِى ٱلۡأَخِرِينَ سَلَـٰمٌ عَلَىٰٓ إِبۡرَٲهِيمَ كَذَٲلِكَ نَجۡزِى ٱلۡمُحۡسِنِينَ

(And We left for him (a goodly remembrance) among the later generations: "Salam (peace) be upon Ibrahim. Thus indeed do we reward the good doers.) (37:108-110)

﴿ وَٱجۡعَلۡنِى مِن وَرَثَةِ جَنَّةِ ٱلنَّعِيمِ

(And make me one of the inheritors of the Paradise of Delight.) meaning, `bless me in this world with honorable mention after I am gone, and in the Hereafter by making me one of the inheritors of the Paradise of Delight.'

﴿ وَٱغۡفِرۡ لِأَبِىٓ

(And forgive my father,) This is like the Ayah,

﴿ رَبَّنَا ٱغۡفِرۡ لِى وَلِوَٲلِدَىَّ

(My Lord! Forgive me, and my parents) (71:28). But this is something which Ibrahim (peace be upon him) later stopped doing, as Allah says:

﴿ وَمَا كَانَ ٱسۡتِغۡفَارُ إِبۡرَٲهِيمَ لِأَبِيهِ إِلَّا عَن مَّوۡعِدَةٍ۬ وَعَدَهَآ إِيَّاهُ

(And Ibrahim's supplication for his father's forgiveness was only because of a promise he had made to him) (9:114) until:

﴿ إِنَّ إِبۡرَٲهِيمَ لَأَوَّٲهٌ حَلِيمٌ۬

(Verily, Ibrahim was Awwah and was forbearing) (9:114). Allah stopped Ibrahim from asking for forgiveness for his father, as He says:

﴿ قَدۡ كَانَتۡ لَكُمۡ أُسۡوَةٌ حَسَنَةٌ۬ فِىٓ إِبۡرَٲهِيمَ وَٱلَّذِينَ مَعَهُ ۥۤ

(Indeed there has been an excellent example for you in Ibrahim and those with him), until His saying:

﴿ وَمَآ أَمۡلِكُ لَكَ مِنَ ٱللَّهِ مِن شَىۡءٍ۬‌ۖ

(but I have no power to do anything for you before Allah. ) (60:4),

﴿ وَلَا تُخۡزِنِى يَوۡمَ يُبۡعَثُونَ

(And disgrace me not on the Day when they will be resurrected.) means, `protect me from shame on the Day of Resurrection and the Day when all creatures, the first and the last, will be raised.' Al-Bukhari recorded that Abu Hurayrah (may Allah be pleased with him) said that the Prophet said:

« إِنَّ إِبْرَاهِيمَ رَأَى أَبَاهُ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ عَلَيْهِ الْغَبَرَةُ وَالْقَتَرَة »

(Ibrahim will see his father on the Day of Resurrection, covered with dust and darkness.) According to another narration, also from Abu Hurayrah (may Allah be pleased with him) the Prophet said:

« يَلْقَى إِبْرَاهِيمُ أَبَاهُ فَيَقُولُ: يَا رَبِّ إِنَّكَ وَعَدْتَنِي أَنَّكَ لَا تُخْزِينِي يَوْمَ يُبْعَثُونَ، فَيَقُولُ اللهُ تَعَالَى: إِنِّي حَرَّمْتُ الْجَنَّةَ عَلَى الْكَافِرين »

(Ibrahim will meet his father and will say: "O Lord, You promised me that You would not disgrace me on the Day when all creatures are resurrected.'' And Allah will say to him: "I have forbidden Paradise to the disbelievers.'') He also recorded this in the Hadiths about the Prophets, upon them be peace, where the wording is:

« يَلْقَى إِبْرَاهِيمُ أَبَاهُ آزَرَ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ، وَعَلَى وَجْهِ آزَرَ قَتَرَةٌ وَغَبَرَةٌ، فَيَقُولُ لَهُ إِبْرَاهِيمُ: أَلَمْ أَقُلْ لَكَ لَا تَعْصِينِي، فَيَقُولُ أَبُوهُ: فَالْيَوْمَ لَا أَعْصِيكَ، فَيَقُولُ إِبْرَاهِيمُ: يَا رَبِّ إِنَّكَ وَعَدْتَنِي أَنْ لَا تُخْزِيَنِي يَوْمَ يُبْعَثُونَ، فَأَيُّ خِزْيٍ أَخْزَى مِنْ أَبِي الْأَبْعَدِ فَيَقُولُ اللهُ تَعَالَى: إِنِّي حَرَّمْتُ الْجَنَّةَ عَلَى الْكَافِرِينَ، ثُمَّ يُقَالُ: يَا إِبْرَاهِيمُ انْظُرْ تَحْتَ رِجْلِكَ، فَيَنْظُرَ، فَإِذَا هُوَ بِذِيخٍ مُتَلَطِّخٍ، فَيُؤْخَذُ بِقَوَائِمِهِ فَيُلْقَى فِي النَّار »

(Ibrahim will meet his father Azar on the Day of Resurrection, and there will be dust and darkness on Azar's face. Ibrahim will say to him, "Did I not tell you not to disobey me'' His father will say to him: "Today I will not disobey you.'' Ibrahim will say: "O Lord, You promised me that You would not disgrace me on the Day when they are resurrected, but what disgrace can be greater than seeing my father in this state'' Allah will say to him: "I have forbidden Paradise to the disbelievers.'' Then it will be said: "O Ibrahim! Look beneath your feet.'' So he will look and there he will see (that his father was changed into) a male hyena covered in dung, which will be caught by the legs and thrown in the Fire.) This was also recorded by Abu `Abdur-Rahman An-Nasa'i in the Tafsir of his Sunan Al-Kubra.

﴿ يَوۡمَ لَا يَنفَعُ مَالٌ۬ وَلَا بَنُونَ

(The Day whereon neither wealth nor sons will avail,) means, a man's wealth will not protect him from the punishment of Allah, even if he were to pay a ransom equivalent to an earth full of gold.

﴿ وَلَا بَنُونَ

(nor sons) means, `or if you were to pay a ransom of all the people on earth.' On that Day nothing will be of any avail except faith in Allah and sincere devotion to Him, and renunciation of Shirk and its people. Allah says:

﴿ إِلَّا مَنۡ أَتَى ٱللَّهَ بِقَلۡبٍ۬ سَلِيمٍ۬

(Except him who brings to Allah a clean heart.) meaning, free from any impurity or Shirk. Ibn Sirin said, "The clean heart knows that Allah is true, that the Hour will undoubtedly come and that Allah will resurrect those who are in the graves.'' Sa`id bin Al-Musayyib said, "The clean heart is the sound heart.'' This is the heart of the believer, for the heart of the disbeliever and the hypocrite is sick. Allah says:

﴿ فِى قُلُوبِهِم مَّرَضٌ۬

(In their hearts is a disease) (2:10). Abu `Uthman An-Nisaburi said, "It is the heart that is free from innovation and is content with the Sunnah.''

﴿ وَأُزۡلِفَتِ ٱلۡجَنَّةُ لِلۡمُتَّقِينَ وَبُرِّزَتِ ٱلۡجَحِيمُ لِلۡغَاوِينَ وَقِيلَ لَهُمۡ أَيۡنَ مَا كُنتُمۡ تَعۡبُدُونَ مِن دُونِ ٱللَّهِ هَلۡ يَنصُرُونَكُمۡ أَوۡ يَنتَصِرُونَ فَكُبۡكِبُواْ فِيہَا هُمۡ وَٱلۡغَاوُ ۥنَ وَجُنُودُ إِبۡلِيسَ أَجۡمَعُونَ قَالُواْ وَهُمۡ فِيہَا يَخۡتَصِمُونَ تَٱللَّهِ إِن كُنَّا لَفِى ضَلَـٰلٍ۬ مُّبِينٍ إِذۡ نُسَوِّيكُم بِرَبِّ ٱلۡعَـٰلَمِينَ وَمَآ أَضَلَّنَآ إِلَّا ٱلۡمُجۡرِمُونَ فَمَا لَنَا مِن شَـٰفِعِينَ وَلَا صَدِيقٍ حَمِيمٍ۬ فَلَوۡ أَنَّ لَنَا كَرَّةً۬ فَنَكُونَ مِنَ ٱلۡمُؤۡمِنِينَ إِنَّ فِى ذَٲلِكَ لَأَيَةً۬‌ۖ وَمَا كَانَ أَكۡثَرُهُم مُّؤۡمِنِينَ وَإِنَّ رَبَّكَ لَهُوَ ٱلۡعَزِيزُ ٱلرَّحِيمُ

(90. And Paradise will be brought near to those who had Taqwa.) (91. And the (Hell) Fire will be placed in full view of the astray.) (92. And it will be said to them: "Where are those that you used to worship.'') (93. "Instead of Allah Can they help you or help themselves'') (94. Then they will be thrown on their faces into it (the Fire), they and the astray.) (95. And all of the hosts of Iblis together.) (96. They will say while contending therein,) (97. "By Allah, we were truly in a manifest error,) (98. "When we held you as equals with the Lord of all that exists;'') (99. "And none has brought us into error except the criminals.'') (100. "Now we have no intercessors,'') (101. "Nor a close friend.'') (102. "(Alas!) If we only had a chance to return, we shall truly be among the believers!'') (103. Verily, in this is indeed a sign, yet most of them are not believers.) (104. And verily your Lord, He is truly the All-Mighty, the Most Merciful.)

Those Who have Taqwa and the Astray on the Day of Resurrection, and the Arguments and Sorrow of the Erring
﴿ وَأُزۡلِفَتِ ٱلۡجَنَّةُ

(And Paradise will be brought near) means, it will be brought close to its people, adorned and decorated for them to behold it. Its people are the pious who preferred it to whatever was in this world, and strove for it in this world.

﴿ وَبُرِّزَتِ ٱلۡجَحِيمُ لِلۡغَاوِينَ

(And the (Hell) Fire will be placed in full view of the astray.) meaning, it will be shown to them and a neck will stretch forth from it, moaning and sighing, and their hearts will reach their throats. It will be said to its people by way of reproach and rebuke:

﴿ وَقِيلَ لَهُمۡ أَيۡنَ مَا كُنتُمۡ تَعۡبُدُونَ مِن دُونِ ٱللَّهِ هَلۡ يَنصُرُونَكُمۡ أَوۡ يَنتَصِرُونَ

(Where are those that you used to worship instead of Allah Can they help you or help themselves) meaning, `the gods and idols whom you used to worship instead of Allah cannot help you today, and they cannot even protect themselves. You and they are fuel for Hell today, which you will surely enter.'

﴿ فَكُبۡكِبُواْ فِيہَا هُمۡ وَٱلۡغَاوُ ۥنَ

(Then they will be thrown on their faces into it (the Fire), they and the astray.) Mujahid said, "This means, they will be hurled into it.'' Others said: "They will be thrown on top of one another, the disbelievers and their leaders who called them to Shirk. ''

﴿ وَجُنُودُ إِبۡلِيسَ أَجۡمَعُونَ

(And all of the hosts of Iblis together.) they will all be thrown into it.

﴿ قَالُواْ وَهُمۡ فِيہَا يَخۡتَصِمُونَ تَٱللَّهِ إِن كُنَّا لَفِى ضَلَـٰلٍ۬ مُّبِينٍ إِذۡ نُسَوِّيكُم بِرَبِّ ٱلۡعَـٰلَمِينَ

(They will say while contending therein, "By Allah, we were truly in a manifest error, when we held you as equals with the Lord of all that exists.'') The weak ones among them will say to their arrogant leaders: `Verily, we were following you; can you avail us anything from the Fire' Then they will realize that themselves are to blame and will say:

﴿ تَٱللَّهِ إِن كُنَّا لَفِى ضَلَـٰلٍ۬ مُّبِينٍ إِذۡ نُسَوِّيكُم بِرَبِّ ٱلۡعَـٰلَمِينَ

(By Allah, we were truly in a manifest error, when we held you as equals with the Lord of all that exists.) meaning, `we obeyed your commands as we should have obeyed the commands of the Lord of the all that exits, and we worshipped you along with the Lord of all that exists.'

﴿ وَمَآ أَضَلَّنَآ إِلَّا ٱلۡمُجۡرِمُونَ

(And none has brought us into error except the criminals.) meaning, `nobody called us to do that except the evildoers.'

﴿ فَمَا لَنَا مِن شَـٰفِعِينَ

(Now we have no intercessors.) This is like the Ayah which tells us that they will say:

﴿ فَهَل لَّنَا مِن شُفَعَآءَ فَيَشۡفَعُواْ لَنَآ أَوۡ نُرَدُّ فَنَعۡمَلَ غَيۡرَ ٱلَّذِى كُنَّا نَعۡمَلُ‌ۚ

(...now are there any intercessors for us that they might intercede on our behalf Or could we be sent back so that we might do deeds other than those deeds which we used to do) (7:53). Similarly, in this Surah, Allah tells us that they will say:

﴿ فَمَا لَنَا مِن شَـٰفِعِينَ وَلَا صَدِيقٍ حَمِيمٍ۬

(Now we have no intercessors, nor a close friend.)

﴿ فَلَوۡ أَنَّ لَنَا كَرَّةً۬ فَنَكُونَ مِنَ ٱلۡمُؤۡمِنِينَ

((Alas!) If we only had a chance to return, we shall truly be among the believers!) They will wish that they could come back to this world so that they could do deeds of obedience to their Lord -- as they claim -- but Allah knows that if they were to come back to this world, they would only go back to doing forbidden things, and He knows that they are liars. Allah tells us in Surah Sad about how the people of Hell will argue with one another, as He says:

﴿ إِنَّ ذَٲلِكَ لَحَقٌّ۬ تَخَاصُمُ أَهۡلِ ٱلنَّارِ

(Verily, that is the very truth -- the mutual dispute of the people of the Fire!) (38:64) Then He says:

﴿ إِنَّ فِى ذَٲلِكَ لَأَيَةً۬‌ۖ وَمَا كَانَ أَكۡثَرُهُم مُّؤۡمِنِينَ

(Verily, in this is indeed a sign, yet most of them are not believers.) meaning, in the dispute of Ibrahim with his people and his proof of Tawhid there is a sign, i.e., clear evidence that there is no God but Allah.

﴿ إِنَّ فِى ذَٲلِكَ لَأَيَةً۬‌ۖ وَمَا كَانَ أَكۡثَرُهُم مُّؤۡمِنِينَ وَإِنَّ رَبَّكَ لَهُوَ ٱلۡعَزِيزُ ٱلرَّحِيمُ

(yet most of them are not believers. And verily, your Lord, He is truly the All-Mighty, the Most Merciful.)

﴿ كَذَّبَتۡ قَوۡمُ نُوحٍ ٱلۡمُرۡسَلِينَ إِذۡ قَالَ لَهُمۡ أَخُوهُمۡ نُوحٌ أَلَا تَتَّقُونَ إِنِّى لَكُمۡ رَسُولٌ أَمِينٌ۬ فَٱتَّقُواْ ٱللَّهَ وَأَطِيعُونِ وَمَآ أَسۡـَٔلُكُمۡ عَلَيۡهِ مِنۡ أَجۡرٍ‌ۖ إِنۡ أَجۡرِىَ إِلَّا عَلَىٰ رَبِّ ٱلۡعَـٰلَمِينَ فَٱتَّقُواْ ٱللَّهَ وَأَطِيعُونِ

(105. The people of Nuh denied the Messengers.) (106. When their brother Nuh said to them: "Will you not have Taqwa'') (107. "I am a trustworthy Messenger to you.'') (108. "So have Taqwa of Allah, and obey me.'') (109. "No reward do I ask of you for it; my reward is only from the Lord of all that exists.'') (110. "So have Taqwa of Allah, and obey me.'')

Nuh's preaching to His People, and Their Response

Here Allah tells us about His servant and Messenger Nuh (peace be upon him) who was the first Messenger sent by Allah to the people of earth after they started to worship idols. Allah sent him to forbid that and to warn people of the consequences of idol worship. But his people belied him and continued their evil practice of worshipping idols besides Allah. Allah revealed that their disbelieving in him was akin to disbelieving in all the Messengers, So Allah said:

﴿ كَذَّبَتۡ قَوۡمُ نُوحٍ ٱلۡمُرۡسَلِينَ إِذۡ قَالَ لَهُمۡ أَخُوهُمۡ نُوحٌ أَلَا تَتَّقُونَ

(The people of Nuh belied the Messengers. When their brother Nuh said to them: "Will you not have Taqwa'') meaning, `do you not fear Allah when you worship others instead of Him'

﴿ إِنِّى لَكُمۡ رَسُولٌ أَمِينٌ۬

(I am a trustworthy Messenger to you.) means, `I am the Messenger of Allah to you, faithfully fulfilling the mission with which Allah has sent me. I convey the Messages of my Lord to you, and I do not add anything to them or take anything away from them.

﴿ فَٱتَّقُواْ ٱللَّهَ وَأَطِيعُونِ وَمَآ أَسۡـَٔلُكُمۡ عَلَيۡهِ مِنۡ أَجۡرٍ‌ۖ

(So have Taqwa of Allah, and obey me. No reward do I ask of you for it;) means, `I do not want any payment for the advice I give you; I will save my reward for it with Allah. '

﴿ فَٱتَّقُواْ ٱللَّهَ وَأَطِيعُونِ

(So have Taqwa of Allah, and obey me.) `It is clear to you that I am telling the truth and that I am faithfully fulfilling the mission with which Allah has entrusted me.'

﴿ قَالُوٓاْ أَنُؤۡمِنُ لَكَ وَٱتَّبَعَكَ ٱلۡأَرۡذَلُونَ قَالَ وَمَا عِلۡمِى بِمَا كَانُواْ يَعۡمَلُونَ إِنۡ حِسَابُہُمۡ إِلَّا عَلَىٰ رَبِّى‌ۖ لَوۡ تَشۡعُرُونَ وَمَآ أَنَا۟ بِطَارِدِ ٱلۡمُؤۡمِنِينَ إِنۡ أَنَا۟ إِلَّا نَذِيرٌ۬ مُّبِينٌ۬

(111. They said: "Shall we believe in you, when the inferior follow you'') (112. He said: "And what knowledge have I of what they used to do'') (113. "Their account is only with my Lord, if you could (but) know.'') (114. "And I am not going to drive away the believers.'') (115. "I am only a plain warner.'')