Allah tells us about the blessings which He gave His servant and Messenger Musa, the speaker, may the best of peace and blessings from his Lord be upon him, He revealed the Tawrah to him after He destroyed Fir`awn and his chiefs.
(after We had destroyed the generations of old) After the revelation of the Tawrah, no nation would again be punished with an overwhelming calamity; instead the believers were now commanded to fight the enemies of Allah among the idolaters, as Allah says:
(And Fir`awn, and those before him, and the cities overthrown committed sin. And they disobeyed their Lord's Messenger, so He seized them with a strong punishment) (69:9-10).
(as an enlightenment for mankind, and a guidance and a mercy,) guidance from blindness and error. A guidance to the truth and a mercy means, to show the way towards doing righteous deeds.
(that they might remember.) means, that the people might be reminded and guided by it.
(44. And you were not on the western side (of the Mount), when We made clear to Musa the commandment, and you were not among the witnesses.) (45. But We created generations, and long were the ages that passed over them. And you were not a dweller among the people of Madyan, reciting Our Ayat to them. But it is We Who kept sending (Messengers).) (46. And you were not at the side of At-Tur when We called. But (you are sent) as a mercy from your Lord, to give warning to a people to whom no warner had come before you, in order that they may remember or receive admonition.) (47. And if (We had) not (sent you to the people of Makkah) in case a calamity should seize them for what their hands have sent forth, they would have said: "Our Lord! Why did You not send us a Messenger We would then have followed Your Ayat and would have been among the believers.'')
Allah points out the proof of the prophethood of Muhammad, whereby he told others about matters of the past, and spoke about them as if he were hearing and seeing them for himself. But he was an illiterate man who could not read books, and he grew up among a people who knew nothing of such things. Similarly, Allah told him about Maryam and her story, as Allah said:
(You were not with them, when they cast lots with their pens as to which of them should be charged with the care of Maryam; nor were you with them when they disputed) (3:44), meaning, `you were not present then, but Allah has revealed this to you.' Similarly, Allah told him about Nuh and his people, and how He saved Nuh and drowned his people, then He said:
(This is of the news of the Unseen which We reveal unto you; neither you nor your people knew it before this. So, be patient. Surely, the (good) end is for those who have Taqwa) (11:49). And at the end of the same Surah (Hud) Allah says:
(That is some of the news of the towns which We relate unto you) (11: 100). And here, after telling the story of Musa from beginning to end and how Allah began His revelation to him and spoke with him, Allah says:
(And you were not on the western side (of the Mount), when We made clear to Musa the commandment,) meaning, `you -- O Muhammad -- were not on the western side of the mountain where Allah spoke to Musa from the tree which was to the east of it, in the valley.'
(and you were not among the witnesses.) `to that event, but Allah has revealed this to you,' so that it may be evidence and proof of events which happened centuries ago, for people have forgotten the evidence that Allah established against them and what was revealed to the earlier Prophets.
(And you were not a dweller among the people of Madyan, reciting Our Ayat to them.) meaning, `you were not living among the people of Madyan reciting Our Ayat to them, when you started to tell about Our Prophet Shu`ayb and what he said to his people and how they responded.'
(But it is We Who kept sending. ) means, `but We revealed that to you and sent you to mankind as a Messenger.'
(And you were not at the side of At-Tur when We called.) Qatadah said that:
(And you were not at the side of At-Tur when We did call.) refers to Musa, and this -- and Allah knows best -- is like the Ayah:
(And you were not on the western side (of the Mount), when We made clear to Musa the commandment,) Here Allah puts it in a different and more specific way by describing it as a call. This is like the Ayat:
(And (remember) when your Lord called Musa) (26:10).
(When his Lord called him in the sacred valley of Tuwa) (79:16).
(And We called him from the right side of At-Tur, and made him draw near to Us for a talk with him) (19:52).
(But (you are sent) as a mercy from your Lord,) means, `you were not a witness to any of those things, but Allah has revealed them to you and told you about them as a mercy from Him to you and to His servants, by sending you to them,'
(to give warning to a people to whom no warner had come before you, in order that they may remember or receive admonition.) means, `so that they may be guided by that which you bring from Allah.'
(And if (We had) not (sent you to the people of Makkah) -- in case a calamity should seize them for (the deeds) that their hands have sent forth, they would have said: "Our Lord! Why did You not send us a Messenger) meaning: `and We have sent you to them to establish proof against them, and to give them no excuse when the punishment of Allah comes to them because of their disbelief, lest they offer the excuse that no Messenger or warner came to them.' This is like what Allah says about the situation after He revealed His blessed Book the Qur'an:
(Lest you should say: "The Book was sent down only to two sects before us, and for our part, we were in fact unaware of what they studied.'' Or lest you should say: "If only the Book had been sent down to us, we would surely have been better guided than they.'' So, now has come unto you a clear proof from your Lord, and a guidance and a mercy) (6:156-157).
(Messengers as bearers of good news as well as warning in order that mankind should have no plea against Allah after the Messengers) (4:165).
(O People of the Scripture! Now has come to you Our Messenger making (things) clear unto you, after a break in (the series of) Messengers, lest you say: "There came unto us no bringer of glad tidings and no warner.'' But now has come unto you a bringer of glad tidings and a warner) (5:19). And there are many similar Ayat.
(48. But when the truth has come to them from Us, they say: "Why is he not given the like of what was given to Musa Did they not disbelieve in that which was given to Musa of old'' They say: "Two kinds of magic, each helping the other!'' And they say: "Verily, in both we are disbelievers.'' (49. Say: "Then bring a Book from Allah, which is a better guide than these two, that I may follow it, if you are truthful.'') (50. But if they answer you not, then know that they only follow their own lusts. And who is more astray than one who follows his own lusts, without guidance from Allah Verily, Allah guides not the people who are wrongdoers.) (51. And indeed now We have conveyed the Word to them, in order that they may remember.)