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The Blessings of the Hereafter for the humble Believers

Allah tells us that He has made the home of the Hereafter, and its eternal delights which will never change or fade away, for His believing, humble servants who do not rebel against the truth with pride and oppression in the land. They do not exalt themselves above the creatures of Allah, arrogantly oppressing them and spreading corruption among them. `Ikrimah said that this phrase referred to haughtiness and arrogance. Ibn Jurayj said:

﴿ لَا يُرِيدُونَ عُلُوًّ۬ا فِى ٱلۡأَرۡضِ

(those who do not want to exalt themselves in the land) "Arrogance and tyranny,

﴿ وَلَا فَسَادً۬ا‌ۚ

(nor cause corruption) committing sins.'' Ibn Jarir recorded that `Ali said, "If a man wants the straps of his sandals to be better than the straps of his companion's sandals, then he is one of those referred to in the Ayah,

﴿ تِلۡكَ ٱلدَّارُ ٱلۡأَخِرَةُ نَجۡعَلُهَا لِلَّذِينَ لَا يُرِيدُونَ عُلُوًّ۬ا فِى ٱلۡأَرۡضِ وَلَا فَسَادً۬ا‌ۚ وَٱلۡعَـٰقِبَةُ لِلۡمُتَّقِينَ

(That is the home of the Hereafter, We shall assign to those who do not want to exalt themselves in the land nor cause corruption. And the good end is for those who have Taqwa.) This is understood to mean that if his intention is to show off and appear better than others, then that is to be condemned, as it was reported in the Sahih that the Prophet said:

« إِنَّهُ أُوحِيَ إِلَيَّ أَنْ تَوَاضَعُوا حَتَّى لَا يَفْخَرَ أَحَدٌ عَلَى أَحَدٍ وَلَا يَبْغِي أَحَدٌ عَلَى أَحَد »

(It has been revealed to me that you should be humble to the extent that none of you boasts to others or mistreats others.) But if a person simply likes to look good, then there is nothing wrong with that. It was recorded that a man said: "O Messenger of Allah, I like to have my garment looking good and my shoes looking good -- is this a kind of arrogance'' The Prophet said:

« لَا، إِنَّ اللهَ جَمِيلٌ يُحِبُّ الْجَمَال »

(No, for Allah is beautiful and loves beauty...) And Allah says:

﴿ مَن جَآءَ بِٱلۡحَسَنَةِ

(Whosoever brings good,) meaning, on the Day of Resurrection,

﴿ فَلَهُ ۥ خَيۡرٌ۬ مِّنۡہَا‌ۖ

(he shall have the better thereof;) meaning, the reward of Allah is better than the good deeds of His servant -- how can it not be, when Allah has multiplied it many times over This is the position of generosity. Then Allah says:

﴿ وَمَن جَآءَ بِٱلسَّيِّئَةِ فَلَا يُجۡزَى ٱلَّذِينَ عَمِلُواْ ٱلسَّيِّـَٔاتِ إِلَّا مَا كَانُواْ يَعۡمَلُونَ

(and whosoever brings evil, then those who do evil deeds will only be requited for what they used to do.) This is like the Ayah,

﴿ وَمَن جَآءَ بِٱلسَّيِّئَةِ فَكُبَّتۡ وُجُوهُهُمۡ فِى ٱلنَّارِ هَلۡ تُجۡزَوۡنَ إِلَّا مَا كُنتُمۡ تَعۡمَلُونَ

(And whoever brings an evil deed, they will be cast down on their faces in the Fire. (And it will be said to them) "Are you being recompensed anything except what you used to do'') (27: 90). This is the position of generosity and justice.

﴿ إِنَّ ٱلَّذِى فَرَضَ عَلَيۡكَ ٱلۡقُرۡءَانَ لَرَآدُّكَ إِلَىٰ مَعَادٍ۬‌ۚ قُل رَّبِّىٓ أَعۡلَمُ مَن جَآءَ بِٱلۡهُدَىٰ وَمَنۡ هُوَ فِى ضَلَـٰلٍ۬ مُّبِينٍ۬ وَمَا كُنتَ تَرۡجُوٓاْ أَن يُلۡقَىٰٓ إِلَيۡكَ ٱلۡڪِتَـٰبُ إِلَّا رَحۡمَةً۬ مِّن رَّبِّكَ‌ۖ فَلَا تَكُونَنَّ ظَهِيرً۬ا لِّلۡكَـٰفِرِينَ وَلَا يَصُدُّنَّكَ عَنۡ ءَايَـٰتِ ٱللَّهِ بَعۡدَ إِذۡ أُنزِلَتۡ إِلَيۡكَ‌ۖ وَٱدۡعُ إِلَىٰ رَبِّكَ‌ۖ وَلَا تَكُونَنَّ مِنَ ٱلۡمُشۡرِڪِينَ وَلَا تَدۡعُ مَعَ ٱللَّهِ إِلَـٰهًا ءَاخَرَ‌ۘ لَآ إِلَـٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ‌ۚ كُلُّ شَىۡءٍ هَالِكٌ إِلَّا وَجۡهَهُ ۥ‌ۚ لَهُ ٱلۡحُكۡمُ وَإِلَيۡهِ تُرۡجَعُونَ

(85. Verily, He Who has given you the Qur'an, will surely bring you back to the return. Say: "My Lord is Aware of him who brings guidance, and of him who is in manifest error.'') (86. And you were not expecting that the Book would be sent down to you, but it is a mercy from your Lord. So never be a supporter of the disbelievers.) (87. And let them not turn you away from the Ayat of Allah after they have been sent down to you, and invite to your Lord and be not of idolaters.) (88. And invoke not any other god along with Allah, La ilaha illa Huwa. Everything will perish save His Face. His is the decision, and to Him you shall be returned.)

The Command to convey the Message of Tawhid

Here Allah commands His Messenger to convey the Message and recite the Qur'an to people. He tells him that he will be brought back to the return, which is the Day of Resurrection, where he will be asked about the prophethood he was entrusted with. So Allah says:

﴿ إِنَّ ٱلَّذِى فَرَضَ عَلَيۡكَ ٱلۡقُرۡءَانَ لَرَآدُّكَ إِلَىٰ مَعَادٍ۬‌ۚ

(Verily, He Who has given you the Qur'an, will surely bring you back to the return.) meaning, `the One Who has commanded you to put it into practice among mankind,'

﴿ لَرَآدُّكَ إِلَىٰ مَعَادٍ۬‌ۚ

(will surely bring you back to the return.) `On the Day of Resurrection, where He will question you concerning that,' as Allah said:

﴿ فَلَنَسۡـَٔلَنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ أُرۡسِلَ إِلَيۡهِمۡ وَلَنَسۡـَٔلَنَّ ٱلۡمُرۡسَلِينَ

(Then surely, We shall question those to whom it was sent and verily, We shall question the Messengers.) (7:6) Allah said:

﴿ يَوۡمَ يَجۡمَعُ ٱللَّهُ ٱلرُّسُلَ فَيَقُولُ مَاذَآ أُجِبۡتُمۡ‌ۖ

(On the Day when Allah will gather the Messengers together and say to them: "What was the response you received'') (5:109). And He said:

﴿ وَجِاْىٓءَ بِٱلنَّبِيِّـۧنَ وَٱلشُّہَدَآءِ

(and the Prophets and the witnesses will be brought forward) (39: 69) In his Tafsir of his Sahih, Al-Bukhari recorded that Ibn `Abbas commented on the Ayah:

﴿ لَرَآدُّكَ إِلَىٰ مَعَادٍ۬‌ۚ

(will surely bring you back to the return.) "To Makkah.'' This was also recorded by An-Nasa'i in his Tafsir in his Sunan, and by Ibn Jarir. Al-`Awfi also reported from Ibn `Abbas that the phrase:

﴿ لَرَآدُّكَ إِلَىٰ مَعَادٍ۬‌ۚ

(will surely bring you back to the return.) means, "will surely bring you back to Makkah as He brought you out of it.'' Muhammad bin Ishaq recorded that Mujahid commented on:

﴿ لَرَآدُّكَ إِلَىٰ مَعَادٍ۬‌ۚ

(will surely bring you back to the return.) He said, "Back to your place of birth in Makkah.'' Ibn `Abbas is also reported to have interpreted it variously referring to death, to the Day of Resurrection which will come after death, and to Paradise which will be his reward and his destiny for putting the Message of Allah into practice and conveying it to the humans and Jinns, and because he is the most perfect, most eloquent and most noble of all the creation of Allah. Allah's saying:

﴿ قُل رَّبِّىٓ أَعۡلَمُ مَن جَآءَ بِٱلۡهُدَىٰ وَمَنۡ هُوَ فِى ضَلَـٰلٍ۬ مُّبِينٍ۬

(Say: "My Lord is Aware of him who brings guidance, and of him who is in manifest error.'') means: "Say, O Muhammad, to those among your people who oppose you and disbelieve you, among the idolaters and those who follow them in their disbelief, `My Lord knows best which of us, you or I, is rightly guided, and you will come to know for which of us will be the (happy) end in the Hereafter, and for which of us will be a good end and victory in this world and in the Hereafter'.'' Then Allah reminds His Prophet the numerous blessings He granted to him and mankind by virtue of sending him to them:

﴿ وَمَا كُنتَ تَرۡجُوٓاْ أَن يُلۡقَىٰٓ إِلَيۡكَ ٱلۡڪِتَـٰبُ

(And you were not expecting that the Book would be sent down to you,) `Before the revelation was sent down to you, you did not expect that revelation would be sent down to you.'

﴿ وَلَـٰكِن رَّحۡمَةً۬ مِّن رَّبِّكَ

(but it is a mercy from your Lord.) means, `but revelation has been sent down to you from Allah as a mercy to you and to mankind because of you. Since Allah has granted you this great blessing,'

﴿ فَلَا تَكُونَنَّ ظَهِيرً۬ا

(So never be a supporter) i.e., a helper,

﴿ لِّلۡكَـٰفِرِينَ

(of the disbelievers.) rather, separate from them, `express your hostility towards them and oppose them. '

﴿ وَلَا يَصُدُّنَّكَ عَنۡ ءَايَـٰتِ ٱللَّهِ بَعۡدَ إِذۡ أُنزِلَتۡ إِلَيۡكَ‌ۖ

(And let them not turn you away from the Ayat of Allah after they have been sent down to you.) meaning, `Do not let their opposition to you affect you or put people off from following your way; do not worry about that or pay any attention to it, for Allah will make your word supreme, will support your religion and will make the Message with which He has sent you prevail over all other religions.' So He says:

﴿ وَٱدۡعُ إِلَىٰ رَبِّكَ‌ۖ

(and invite to your Lord) to worship your Lord Alone, with no partners or associates,

﴿ وَلَا تَكُونَنَّ مِنَ ٱلۡمُشۡرِكِينَ

(and be not of idolaters.)

﴿ وَلَا تَدۡعُ مَعَ ٱللَّهِ إِلَـٰهًا ءَاخَرَ‌ۘ لَآ إِلَـٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ‌ۚ

(And invoke not any other god along with Allah, there is no God but Him.) means, it is not appropriate to worship anything or anybody except Him, and divinity does not befit any except His glory.

﴿ كُلُّ شَىۡءٍ هَالِكٌ إِلَّا وَجۡهَهُ ۥ‌ۚ

(Everything will perish save His Face.) Here Allah is telling us that He is Eternal, Ever Lasting, Ever Living, Self-Sustaining, Who, although His creation dies, He will never die, as He says:

﴿ كُلُّ مَنۡ عَلَيۡہَا فَانٍ۬ وَيَبۡقَىٰ وَجۡهُ رَبِّكَ ذُو ٱلۡجَلَـٰلِ وَٱلۡإِكۡرَامِ

(Whatsoever is on it will perish. And the Face of your Lord full of majesty and honor will remain forever.) (55:26-27). Allah used the word "Face'' to refer to Himself, as He says here:

﴿ كُلُّ شَىۡءٍ هَالِكٌ إِلَّا وَجۡهَهُ ۥ‌ۚ

(Everything will perish save His Face.) meaning, everything except Him. It was reported in the Sahih via Abu Salamah that Abu Hurayrah said, "The Messenger of Allah said:

« أَصْدَقُ كَلِمَةٍ قَالَهَا الشَّاعِرُ لَبِيدُ أَلَا كُلُّ شَيْءٍ مَا خَلَا اللهَ بَاطِلُ »

(The truest word of a poet was the saying of Labid - indeed everything except Allah is false.)

﴿ لَهُ ٱلۡحُكۡمُ

(His is the decision,) means, dominion and control, and there is none who can reverse His judgment or decision.

﴿ وَإِلَيۡهِ تُرۡجَعُونَ

(and to Him you shall be returned.) means, on the Day when you will be brought back, and He will reward or punish you according to your deeds: if they are good, then you will be rewarded, and if they are bad, then you will be punished. This is the end of the Tafsir of Surat Al-Qasas. To Allah be praise and blessings.

Which was revealed in Makkah
﴿ بِسۡمِ ٱللَّهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

﴿ الٓمٓ أَحَسِبَ ٱلنَّاسُ أَن يُتۡرَكُوٓاْ أَن يَقُولُوٓاْ ءَامَنَّا وَهُمۡ لَا يُفۡتَنُونَ وَلَقَدۡ فَتَنَّا ٱلَّذِينَ مِن قَبۡلِهِمۡ‌ۖ فَلَيَعۡلَمَنَّ ٱللَّهُ ٱلَّذِينَ صَدَقُواْ وَلَيَعۡلَمَنَّ ٱلۡكَـٰذِبِينَ أَمۡ حَسِبَ ٱلَّذِينَ يَعۡمَلُونَ ٱلسَّيِّـَٔاتِ أَن يَسۡبِقُونَا‌ۚ سَآءَ مَا يَحۡكُمُونَ

(1. Alif Lam Mim.) (2. Do people think that they will be left alone because they say: "We believe,'' and will not be tested.) (3. And We indeed tested those who were before them so that Allah will indeed know those who are true, and He will know those who are liars.) (4. Or think those who do evil deeds that they can outstrip Us Evil is that which they judge!)

The Believers are tested so that it may be known Who is Sincere and Who is Lying In the beginning of the Tafsir of Surat Al-Baqarah, we discussed the letters which appear at the beginning of some Surahs.
﴿ أَحَسِبَ ٱلنَّاسُ أَن يُتۡرَكُوٓاْ أَن يَقُولُوٓاْ ءَامَنَّا وَهُمۡ لَا يُفۡتَنُونَ

(Do people think that they will be left alone because they say: "We believe,'' and will not be tested.) This is a rebuke in the form of a question, meaning that Allah will inevitably test His believing servants according to their level of faith, as it recorded in the authentic Hadith:

« أَشَدُّ النَّاسِ بَلَاءً الْأَنْبِيَاءُ، ثُمَّ الصَّالِحُونَ، ثُمَّ الْأَمْثَلُ فَالْأَمْثَلُ، يُبْتَلَى الرَّجُلُ عَلَى حَسَبِ دِينِهِ، فَإِنْ كَانَ فِي دِينِهِ صَلَابَةٌ زِيدَ لَهُ فِي الْبَلَاء »

(The people most severely tested are the Prophets, then the righteous, then the next best and the next best. A man will be tested in accordance with the degree of his religious commitment; the stronger his religious commitment, the stronger his test.) This Ayah is like the Ayah,

﴿ أَمۡ حَسِبۡتُمۡ أَن تَدۡخُلُواْ ٱلۡجَنَّةَ وَلَمَّا يَعۡلَمِ ٱللَّهُ ٱلَّذِينَ جَـٰهَدُواْ مِنكُمۡ وَيَعۡلَمَ ٱلصَّـٰبِرِينَ

(Do you think that you will enter Paradise without Allah knowing those of you who fought (in His cause) and knowing those who are the patient) (3:142) There is a similar Ayah in Surat At-Tawbah. And Allah says:

﴿ أَمۡ حَسِبۡتُمۡ أَن تَدۡخُلُواْ ٱلۡجَنَّةَ وَلَمَّا يَأۡتِكُم مَّثَلُ ٱلَّذِينَ خَلَوۡاْ مِن قَبۡلِكُم‌ۖ مَّسَّتۡہُمُ ٱلۡبَأۡسَآءُ وَٱلضَّرَّآءُ وَزُلۡزِلُواْ حَتَّىٰ يَقُولَ ٱلرَّسُولُ وَٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ مَعَهُ ۥ مَتَىٰ نَصۡرُ ٱللَّهِ‌ۗ أَلَآ إِنَّ نَصۡرَ ٱللَّهِ قَرِيبٌ۬

(Or think you that you will enter Paradise without such (trials) as came to those who passed away before you They were afflicted with severe poverty and ailments and were so shaken that even the Messenger and those who believed along with him said, "When (will come) the help of Allah'' Yes! Certainly, the help of Allah is near!) (2:214) Allah says here:

﴿ وَلَقَدۡ فَتَنَّا ٱلَّذِينَ مِن قَبۡلِهِمۡ‌ۖ فَلَيَعۡلَمَنَّ ٱللَّهُ ٱلَّذِينَ صَدَقُواْ وَلَيَعۡلَمَنَّ ٱلۡكَـٰذِبِينَ

(And We indeed tested those who were before them so that Allah will know those who are true, and will know those who are liars.) meaning, He will make know which are sincere in their claim to be believers from those who are lying. Allah, may He be glorified and exalted, knows what has happened in the past and what is yet to come, and He knows how that which will not happen would have happened if it were to happen. All the Imams of Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jama`ah are agreed on this. This is the view of Ibn `Abbas and others concerning phrases such as the Ayah,

﴿ إِلَّا لِنَعۡلَمَ

(only that We know) (2:143). Meaning, only to see -- because seeing has to do with what is there, but knowledge is broader than seeing, since it includes what is not present as well as what is.

The Evildoers cannot escape from Allah Allah said:
﴿ أَمۡ حَسِبَ ٱلَّذِينَ يَعۡمَلُونَ ٱلسَّيِّـَٔاتِ أَن يَسۡبِقُونَا‌ۚ سَآءَ مَا يَحۡكُمُونَ

(Or think those who do evil deeds that they can outstrip Us Evil is that which they judge!) means, those who are not believers should not think that they will escape such trials and tests, for ahead of them lies a greater and more severe punishment. Allah says:

﴿ أَمۡ حَسِبَ ٱلَّذِينَ يَعۡمَلُونَ ٱلسَّيِّـَٔاتِ أَن يَسۡبِقُونَا‌ۚ

(Or think those who do evil deeds that they can outstrip Us) meaning, "escape'' from Us.

﴿ سَآءَ مَا يَحۡكُمُونَ

(Evil is that which they judge!) what they think is evil.

﴿ مَن كَانَ يَرۡجُواْ لِقَآءَ ٱللَّهِ فَإِنَّ أَجَلَ ٱللَّهِ لَأَتٍ۬‌ۚ وَهُوَ ٱلسَّمِيعُ ٱلۡعَلِيمُ وَمَن جَـٰهَدَ فَإِنَّمَا يُجَـٰهِدُ لِنَفۡسِهِۦۤ‌ۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ لَغَنِىٌّ عَنِ ٱلۡعَـٰلَمِينَ وَٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ وَعَمِلُواْ ٱلصَّـٰلِحَـٰتِ لَنُكَفِّرَنَّ عَنۡهُمۡ سَيِّـَٔاتِهِمۡ وَلَنَجۡزِيَنَّهُمۡ أَحۡسَنَ ٱلَّذِى كَانُواْ يَعۡمَلُونَ

(5. Whoever hopes in meeting with Allah, then Allah's term is surely coming, and He is the All-Hearer, the All-Knower.) (6. And whosoever strives, he strives only for himself. Verily, Allah stands not in need of any of the creatures.) (7. Those who believe, and do righteous good deeds, surely, We shall expiate from them their evil deeds and We shall indeed reward them according to the best of that which they used to do.)