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The Command to pray Five Times Daily

Here Allah glorifies Himself and commands His servants to glorify and praise Him at these times which come one after the other and are indicative of His might and power in the heavens. This is when the night comes with its darkness, then in the morning the day comes with its light. This glorification is followed by befitting praise, as Allah says:

﴿ وَلَهُ ٱلۡحَمۡدُ فِى ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِ

(And His is all the praise in the heavens and the earth;) meaning, He is the One who is to be praised for what He has created in the heavens and on earth. Then Allah says:

﴿ وَعَشِيًّ۬ا وَحِينَ تُظۡهِرُونَ

(and in `Ashiyya and when Tuzhirun.) -- the `Ashiyy is the time when the darkness is most intense, and Izhar is the brightest point of the day. Glory be to the One Who created both of them, the Cleaver of the daybreak and the One Who makes night a time of rest. Allah says:

﴿ وَٱلنَّہَارِ إِذَا جَلَّٮٰهَا وَٱلَّيۡلِ إِذَا يَغۡشَٮٰهَا

(By the day as it shows up its brightness. By the night as it conceals it.) (91:3-4)

﴿ وَٱلَّيۡلِ إِذَا يَغۡشَىٰ وَٱلنَّہَارِ إِذَا تَجَلَّىٰ

(By the night as it envelops. By the day as it appears in brightness.) (92:1-2)

﴿ وَٱلضُّحَىٰ وَٱلَّيۡلِ إِذَا سَجَىٰ

(By the forenoon (after sunrise). By the night when it darkens.) (93:1-2) And there are many similar Ayat.

﴿ يُخۡرِجُ ٱلۡحَىَّ مِنَ ٱلۡمَيِّتِ وَيُخۡرِجُ ٱلۡمَيِّتَ مِنَ ٱلۡحَىِّ

(He brings out the living from the dead, and brings out the dead from the living.) This is what we see of His power to create things and their opposites. These Ayat which come one after the other are all of the same; in each of them Allah mentions the creation of things and their opposites, to indicate to His creation the perfection of His power. Thus He creates the plant from the seed and the seed from the plant; He creates the egg from the chicken and the chicken from the egg; He creates man from sperm and sperm from man; He creates the believer from the disbelievers and the disbeliever from the believers.

﴿ وَيُحۡىِ ٱلۡأَرۡضَ بَعۡدَ مَوۡتِہَا‌ۚ

(And He revives the earth after its death.) This is like the Ayat:

﴿ وَءَايَةٌ۬ لَّهُمُ ٱلۡأَرۡضُ ٱلۡمَيۡتَةُ أَحۡيَيۡنَـٰهَا وَأَخۡرَجۡنَا مِنۡہَا حَبًّ۬ا فَمِنۡهُ يَأۡڪُلُونَ

(And a sign for them is the dead land. We give it life, and We bring forth from it grains, so that they eat thereof.) until:

﴿ وَفَجَّرۡنَا فِيہَا مِنَ ٱلۡعُيُونِ

(and We have caused springs of water to gush forth therein. ) (36:33-34)

﴿ وَتَرَى ٱلۡأَرۡضَ هَامِدَةً۬ فَإِذَآ أَنزَلۡنَا عَلَيۡهَا ٱلۡمَآءَ ٱهۡتَزَّتۡ وَرَبَتۡ وَأَنۢبَتَتۡ مِن ڪُلِّ زَوۡجِۭ بَهِيجٍ۬

(And you see the earth barren, but when We send down water on it, it is stirred, and it swells and puts forth every lovely kind.) until:

﴿ وَأَنَّ ٱللَّهَ يَبۡعَثُ مَن فِى ٱلۡقُبُورِ

(and certainly, Allah will resurrect those who are in the graves.) (22:5-7)

﴿ وَهُوَ ٱلَّذِى يُرۡسِلُ ٱلرِّيَـٰحَ بُشۡرَۢا بَيۡنَ يَدَىۡ رَحۡمَتِهِۦ‌ۖ حَتَّىٰٓ إِذَآ أَقَلَّتۡ سَحَابً۬ا ثِقَالاً۬

(And it is He Who sends the winds as heralds of glad tidings, going before His mercy. Till when they have carried a heavy-laden cloud) until:

﴿ لَعَلَّكُمۡ تَذَڪَّرُونَ

(so that you may remember or take heed.) (7:57) Allah says here:

﴿ وَكَذَٲلِكَ تُخۡرَجُونَ

(And thus shall you be brought out.)

﴿ وَمِنۡ ءَايَـٰتِهِۦۤ أَنۡ خَلَقَكُم مِّن تُرَابٍ۬ ثُمَّ إِذَآ أَنتُم بَشَرٌ۬ تَنتَشِرُونَ وَمِنۡ ءَايَـٰتِهِۦۤ أَنۡ خَلَقَ لَكُم مِّنۡ أَنفُسِكُمۡ أَزۡوَٲجً۬ا لِّتَسۡكُنُوٓاْ إِلَيۡهَا وَجَعَلَ بَيۡنَڪُم مَّوَدَّةً۬ وَرَحۡمَةً‌ۚ إِنَّ فِى ذَٲلِكَ لَأَيَـٰتٍ۬ لِّقَوۡمٍ۬ يَتَفَكَّرُونَ

(20. And among His signs is this that He created you from dust, and then -- behold you are human beings scattered!) (21. And among His signs is this that He created for you wives from among yourselves, that you may find repose in them, and He has put between you affection and mercy. Verily, in that are indeed signs for a people who reflect.)

Among the Signs of Allah

Allah says:

﴿ وَمِنۡ ءَايَـٰتِهِۦۤ

(And among His signs) -- which speak of His might and power, is the fact that He created your father Adam out of dust.

﴿ ثُمَّ إِذَآ أَنتُم بَشَرٌ۬ تَنتَشِرُونَ

(and then -- behold you are human beings scattered!) So man's origins lie in dust, then in a despised liquid, then he is formed and becomes a clot, then a lump of flesh, then bones in the form of a human being. Then Allah clothes the bones with flesh. Then the soul is breathed into him and he can hear and see. Then he comes forth from his mother's womb, small and weak, but the longer he lives, the stronger he becomes, until he reaches the age where he can build cities and strongholds, and he travels to different lands and across the seas, earning a living and amassing wealth, and he is smart and intelligent and crafty, with ideas and opinions of his own, and each one is able to achieve great things in this world and in the Hereafter according to his individual means. Glory be to the One Who has enabled them and made it easy for them to learn all kinds of skills for earning a living, and has caused them to vary in their levels of knowledge and intellectual ability, and in how handsome or ugly, rich or poor they are, and in whether they are blessed and doomed. Allah says:

﴿ وَمِنۡ ءَايَـٰتِهِۦۤ أَنۡ خَلَقَكُم مِّن تُرَابٍ۬ ثُمَّ إِذَآ أَنتُم بَشَرٌ۬ تَنتَشِرُونَ

(And among His signs is this that He created you from dust, and then -- behold you are human beings scattered!) Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Musa said, "The Messenger of Allah said:

« إِنَّ اللهَ خَلَقَ آدَمَ مِنْ قَبْضَةٍ قَبَضَهَا مِنْ جَمِيع الْأَرْضِ، فَجَاءَ بَنُو آدَمَ عَلَى قَدْرِ الْأَرْضِ، جَاءَ مِنْهُمُ الْأَبْيَضُ وَالْأَحْمَرُ وَالْأَسْوَدُ وَبَيْنَ ذَلِكَ، وَالْخَبِيثُ وَالطَّيِّبُ، وَالسَّهْلُ وَالْحَزْنُ وَبَيْنَ ذَلِك »

(Allah created Adam from a handful taken from throughout the earth. Hence the sons of Adam vary as the earth varies, so they are white and red and black and (colors) in between, evil and good, easy-going or difficult -- or something in between.)'' This was also recorded by Abu Dawud and At-Tirmidhi, who said, "This Hadith is Hasan Sahih.'' Allah said:

﴿ وَمِنۡ ءَايَـٰتِهِۦۤ أَنۡ خَلَقَ لَكُم مِّنۡ أَنفُسِكُمۡ أَزۡوَٲجً۬ا

(And among His signs is this that He created for you wives from among yourselves,) meaning, `He created females of your own kind, to be wives for you.'

﴿ لِّتَسۡكُنُوٓاْ إِلَيۡهَا

(that you may find repose in them,) This is like the Ayah,

﴿ هُوَ ٱلَّذِى خَلَقَكُم مِّن نَّفۡسٍ۬ وَٲحِدَةٍ۬ وَجَعَلَ مِنۡہَا زَوۡجَهَا لِيَسۡكُنَ إِلَيۡہَا‌ۖ

(It is He Who has created you from a single person, and He has created from him his wife, in order that he might enjoy the pleasure of living with her) (7:189). This refers to Hawwa'. Allah created her from Adam, from the short rib on his left. If Allah had made all of Adam's progeny male, and created the females from another kind, such as from Jinn or animals, there would never have been harmony between them and their spouses. There would have been revulsion if the spouses had been from a different kind. Out of Allah's perfect mercy He made their wives from their own kind, and created love and kindness between them. For a man stays with a woman because he loves her, or because he feels compassion towards her if they have a child together, or because she needs him to take care of her, etc.

﴿ إِنَّ فِى ذَٲلِكَ لَأَيَـٰتٍ۬ لِّقَوۡمٍ۬ يَتَفَكَّرُونَ

(Verily, in that are indeed signs for a people who reflect.)

﴿ وَمِنۡ ءَايَـٰتِهِۦ خَلۡقُ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِ وَٱخۡتِلَـٰفُ أَلۡسِنَتِڪُمۡ وَأَلۡوَٲنِكُمۡ‌ۚ إِنَّ فِى ذَٲلِكَ لَأَيَـٰتٍ۬ لِّلۡعَـٰلِمِينَ وَمِنۡ ءَايَـٰتِهِۦ مَنَامُكُم بِٱلَّيۡلِ وَٱلنَّہَارِ وَٱبۡتِغَآؤُكُم مِّن فَضۡلِهِۦۤ‌ۚ إِنَّ فِى ذَٲلِكَ لَأَيَـٰتٍ۬ لِّقَوۡمٍ۬ يَسۡمَعُونَ

(22. And among His signs is the creation of the heavens and the earth, and the difference of your languages and colors. Verily, in that are indeed signs for men of sound knowledge.) (23. And among His signs is your sleep by night and by day, and your seeking His bounty. Verily, in that are indeed signs for a people who listen.) Allah said:

﴿ وَمِنۡ ءَايَـٰتِهِۦ

(And among His signs) indicating His magnificent power.

﴿ خَلۡقُ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِ

(is the creation of the heavens and the earth,) The heavens with their vast height and brightness and beauty of the stars and planets, and the earth with its density and its mountains, valleys, seas, plains, animals and trees.

﴿ وَٱخۡتِلَـٰفُ أَلۡسِنَتِڪُمۡ

(and the difference of your languages) So, we see that some speak Arabic, and the Tatars have their own language, as do the Georgians, Romans, Franks, Berbers, Tou Couleurs (of Sudan), Ethiopians, Indians, Persians, Slavs, Khazars, Armenians, Kurds and others. Only Allah knows the variety of languages spoken among the sons of Adam. And the difference of their colors mentioned here refers to their appearance, for all the people of this world, from the time that Allah created Adam, and until the Hour begins, each of them has two eyes, two eyebrows, a nose, a forehead, a mouth and two cheeks, but none of them looks like another; there is bound to be some difference in posture, appearance and speech, whether it is apparent or is hidden and can only be noticed with careful observation. Each face has its own characteristics and does not look like another; even if there was a group of people who looked alike, having a beautiful or ugly characteristic in common, there would still be a difference between one person and the next.

﴿ إِنَّ فِى ذَٲلِكَ لَأَيَـٰتٍ۬ لِّلۡعَـٰلِمِينَ

(Verily, in that are indeed signs for men of sound knowledge.)

﴿ وَمِنۡ ءَايَـٰتِهِۦ مَنَامُكُم بِٱلَّيۡلِ وَٱلنَّہَارِ وَٱبۡتِغَآؤُكُم مِّن فَضۡلِهِۦۤ‌ۚ

(And among His signs is your sleep by night and by day, and your seeking of His bounty.) Among His signs is the cycle of sleep that He has created during the night and the day, when people are able to cease moving and rest, so that their tiredness and exhaustion will go away. And He has enabled you to seek to earn a living and to travel about during the day, this is the opposite of sleep.

﴿ إِنَّ فِى ذَٲلِكَ لَأَيَـٰتٍ۬ لِّقَوۡمٍ۬ يَسۡمَعُونَ

(Verily, in that are indeed signs for a people who listen.) meaning, understand.

﴿ وَمِنۡ ءَايَـٰتِهِۦ يُرِيڪُمُ ٱلۡبَرۡقَ خَوۡفً۬ا وَطَمَعً۬ا وَيُنَزِّلُ مِنَ ٱلسَّمَآءِ مَآءً۬ فَيُحۡىِۦ بِهِ ٱلۡأَرۡضَ بَعۡدَ مَوۡتِهَآ‌ۚ إِنَّ فِى ذَٲلِكَ لَأَيَـٰتٍ۬ لِّقَوۡمٍ۬ يَعۡقِلُونَ وَمِنۡ ءَايَـٰتِهِۦۤ أَن تَقُومَ ٱلسَّمَآءُ وَٱلۡأَرۡضُ بِأَمۡرِهِۦ‌ۚ ثُمَّ إِذَا دَعَاكُمۡ دَعۡوَةً۬ مِّنَ ٱلۡأَرۡضِ إِذَآ أَنتُمۡ تَخۡرُجُونَ

(24. And among His signs is that He shows you the lightning, for fear and for hope, and He sends down water from the sky, and therewith revives the earth after its death. Verily, in that are indeed signs for a people who understand.) (25. And among His signs is that the heaven and the earth stand by His command. Then afterwards when He will call you by a single call, behold, you will come out from the earth.) Allah says,

﴿ وَمِنۡ ءَايَـٰتِهِۦ

(And among His signs) which speak of His greatness,

﴿ يُرِيڪُمُ ٱلۡبَرۡقَ خَوۡفً۬ا وَطَمَعً۬ا

(He shows you the lightning, for fear and for hope,) Sometimes you fear the heavy rain and destructive thunderbolts that follow it, and sometimes you feel hope, when you see a flash of lightning, that much-needed rain will come. Allah says:

﴿ وَيُنَزِّلُ مِنَ ٱلسَّمَآءِ مَآءً۬ فَيُحۡىِۦ بِهِ ٱلۡأَرۡضَ بَعۡدَ مَوۡتِهَآ‌ۚ

(and He sends down water from the sky, and therewith revives the earth after its death.) After it was barren, with nothing growing there, then the water comes to it and

﴿ ٱهۡتَزَّتۡ وَرَبَتۡ وَأَنۢبَتَتۡ مِن ڪُلِّ زَوۡجِۭ بَهِيجٍ۬

(it is stirred, and it swells and puts forth every lovely kind (of growth).) (22:5). In this is a clear sign and proof of the resurrection and the coming of the Hour. Allah says:

﴿ إِنَّ فِى ذَٲلِكَ لَأَيَـٰتٍ۬ لِّقَوۡمٍ۬ يَعۡقِلُونَ

(Verily, in that are indeed signs for a people who understand.) Then Allah says:

﴿ وَمِنۡ ءَايَـٰتِهِۦۤ أَن تَقُومَ ٱلسَّمَآءُ وَٱلۡأَرۡضُ بِأَمۡرِهِۦ‌ۚ

(And among His signs is that the heaven and the earth stand by His command.) This is like the Ayat:

﴿ وَيُمۡسِكُ ٱلسَّمَآءَ أَن تَقَعَ عَلَى ٱلۡأَرۡضِ إِلَّا بِإِذۡنِهِۦۤ‌ۗ

(He withholds the heaven from falling on the earth except by His leave) (22: 65).

﴿ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ يُمۡسِكُ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضَ أَن تَزُولَاۚ

(Verily, Allah grasps the heavens and the earth lest they should move away from their places) (35:41). Whenever `Umar bin Al-Khattab (may Allah be pleased with him) swore an emphatic oath, he would say, "No, by the One by Whose command the heaven and the earth stand,'' i.e., they stand firm by His command to them and His subjugation of them. Then, when the Day of Resurrection comes, the Day when the earth will be exchanged with another earth and the dead will come forth from their graves, brought back to life by His command and His call to them,

﴿ ثُمَّ إِذَا دَعَاكُمۡ دَعۡوَةً۬ مِّنَ ٱلۡأَرۡضِ إِذَآ أَنتُمۡ تَخۡرُجُونَ

(Then afterwards when He will call you by a single call, behold, you will come out from the earth.) This is like the Ayat:

﴿ يَوۡمَ يَدۡعُوكُمۡ فَتَسۡتَجِيبُونَ بِحَمۡدِهِۦ وَتَظُنُّونَ إِن لَّبِثۡتُمۡ إِلَّا قَلِيلاً۬

(On the Day when He will call you, and you will answer with His praise and obedience, and you will think that you have stayed but a little while!) (17:52)

﴿ فَإِنَّمَا هِىَ زَجۡرَةٌ۬ وَٲحِدَةٌ۬ فَإِذَا هُم بِٱلسَّاهِرَةِ

(But it will be only a single Zajrah. When behold, they find themselves on the surface of the earth alive after their death. ) (79:13-14), and

﴿ إِن ڪَانَتۡ إِلَّا صَيۡحَةً۬ وَٲحِدَةً۬ فَإِذَا هُمۡ جَمِيعٌ۬ لَّدَيۡنَا مُحۡضَرُونَ

(It will be but a single Sayhah, so behold they will all be brought up before Us!) (36:53).

﴿ وَلَهُ ۥ مَن فِى ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِ‌ۖ ڪُلٌّ۬ لَّهُ ۥ قَـٰنِتُونَ وَهُوَ ٱلَّذِى يَبۡدَؤُاْ ٱلۡخَلۡقَ ثُمَّ يُعِيدُهُ ۥ وَهُوَ أَهۡوَنُ عَلَيۡهِ‌ۚ وَلَهُ ٱلۡمَثَلُ ٱلۡأَعۡلَىٰ فِى ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِ‌ۚ وَهُوَ ٱلۡعَزِيزُ ٱلۡحَكِيمُ

(26. To Him belongs whatever is in the heavens and the earth. All are obedient to Him.) (27. And He it is Who originates the creation, then He will repeat it; and this is easier for Him. His is the highest description in the heavens and in the earth. And He is the All-Mighty, the All-Wise.) Allah says:

﴿ وَلَهُ ۥ مَن فِى ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِ‌ۖ

(To Him belongs whatever is in the heavens and the earth.) means, He owns it and it is enslaved to Him.

﴿ كُلٌّ۬ لَّهُ ۥ قَـٰنِتُونَ

(All are obedient to Him.) they are humble before Him and submit to Him, whether willingly or unwillingly.