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Among the Signs of Allah

Allah says:

﴿ وَمِنۡ ءَايَـٰتِهِۦۤ

(And among His signs) -- which speak of His might and power, is the fact that He created your father Adam out of dust.

﴿ ثُمَّ إِذَآ أَنتُم بَشَرٌ۬ تَنتَشِرُونَ

(and then -- behold you are human beings scattered!) So man's origins lie in dust, then in a despised liquid, then he is formed and becomes a clot, then a lump of flesh, then bones in the form of a human being. Then Allah clothes the bones with flesh. Then the soul is breathed into him and he can hear and see. Then he comes forth from his mother's womb, small and weak, but the longer he lives, the stronger he becomes, until he reaches the age where he can build cities and strongholds, and he travels to different lands and across the seas, earning a living and amassing wealth, and he is smart and intelligent and crafty, with ideas and opinions of his own, and each one is able to achieve great things in this world and in the Hereafter according to his individual means. Glory be to the One Who has enabled them and made it easy for them to learn all kinds of skills for earning a living, and has caused them to vary in their levels of knowledge and intellectual ability, and in how handsome or ugly, rich or poor they are, and in whether they are blessed and doomed. Allah says:

﴿ وَمِنۡ ءَايَـٰتِهِۦۤ أَنۡ خَلَقَكُم مِّن تُرَابٍ۬ ثُمَّ إِذَآ أَنتُم بَشَرٌ۬ تَنتَشِرُونَ

(And among His signs is this that He created you from dust, and then -- behold you are human beings scattered!) Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Musa said, "The Messenger of Allah said:

« إِنَّ اللهَ خَلَقَ آدَمَ مِنْ قَبْضَةٍ قَبَضَهَا مِنْ جَمِيع الْأَرْضِ، فَجَاءَ بَنُو آدَمَ عَلَى قَدْرِ الْأَرْضِ، جَاءَ مِنْهُمُ الْأَبْيَضُ وَالْأَحْمَرُ وَالْأَسْوَدُ وَبَيْنَ ذَلِكَ، وَالْخَبِيثُ وَالطَّيِّبُ، وَالسَّهْلُ وَالْحَزْنُ وَبَيْنَ ذَلِك »

(Allah created Adam from a handful taken from throughout the earth. Hence the sons of Adam vary as the earth varies, so they are white and red and black and (colors) in between, evil and good, easy-going or difficult -- or something in between.)'' This was also recorded by Abu Dawud and At-Tirmidhi, who said, "This Hadith is Hasan Sahih.'' Allah said:

﴿ وَمِنۡ ءَايَـٰتِهِۦۤ أَنۡ خَلَقَ لَكُم مِّنۡ أَنفُسِكُمۡ أَزۡوَٲجً۬ا

(And among His signs is this that He created for you wives from among yourselves,) meaning, `He created females of your own kind, to be wives for you.'

﴿ لِّتَسۡكُنُوٓاْ إِلَيۡهَا

(that you may find repose in them,) This is like the Ayah,

﴿ هُوَ ٱلَّذِى خَلَقَكُم مِّن نَّفۡسٍ۬ وَٲحِدَةٍ۬ وَجَعَلَ مِنۡہَا زَوۡجَهَا لِيَسۡكُنَ إِلَيۡہَا‌ۖ

(It is He Who has created you from a single person, and He has created from him his wife, in order that he might enjoy the pleasure of living with her) (7:189). This refers to Hawwa'. Allah created her from Adam, from the short rib on his left. If Allah had made all of Adam's progeny male, and created the females from another kind, such as from Jinn or animals, there would never have been harmony between them and their spouses. There would have been revulsion if the spouses had been from a different kind. Out of Allah's perfect mercy He made their wives from their own kind, and created love and kindness between them. For a man stays with a woman because he loves her, or because he feels compassion towards her if they have a child together, or because she needs him to take care of her, etc.

﴿ إِنَّ فِى ذَٲلِكَ لَأَيَـٰتٍ۬ لِّقَوۡمٍ۬ يَتَفَكَّرُونَ

(Verily, in that are indeed signs for a people who reflect.)

﴿ وَمِنۡ ءَايَـٰتِهِۦ خَلۡقُ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِ وَٱخۡتِلَـٰفُ أَلۡسِنَتِڪُمۡ وَأَلۡوَٲنِكُمۡ‌ۚ إِنَّ فِى ذَٲلِكَ لَأَيَـٰتٍ۬ لِّلۡعَـٰلِمِينَ وَمِنۡ ءَايَـٰتِهِۦ مَنَامُكُم بِٱلَّيۡلِ وَٱلنَّہَارِ وَٱبۡتِغَآؤُكُم مِّن فَضۡلِهِۦۤ‌ۚ إِنَّ فِى ذَٲلِكَ لَأَيَـٰتٍ۬ لِّقَوۡمٍ۬ يَسۡمَعُونَ

(22. And among His signs is the creation of the heavens and the earth, and the difference of your languages and colors. Verily, in that are indeed signs for men of sound knowledge.) (23. And among His signs is your sleep by night and by day, and your seeking His bounty. Verily, in that are indeed signs for a people who listen.) Allah said:

﴿ وَمِنۡ ءَايَـٰتِهِۦ

(And among His signs) indicating His magnificent power.

﴿ خَلۡقُ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِ

(is the creation of the heavens and the earth,) The heavens with their vast height and brightness and beauty of the stars and planets, and the earth with its density and its mountains, valleys, seas, plains, animals and trees.

﴿ وَٱخۡتِلَـٰفُ أَلۡسِنَتِڪُمۡ

(and the difference of your languages) So, we see that some speak Arabic, and the Tatars have their own language, as do the Georgians, Romans, Franks, Berbers, Tou Couleurs (of Sudan), Ethiopians, Indians, Persians, Slavs, Khazars, Armenians, Kurds and others. Only Allah knows the variety of languages spoken among the sons of Adam. And the difference of their colors mentioned here refers to their appearance, for all the people of this world, from the time that Allah created Adam, and until the Hour begins, each of them has two eyes, two eyebrows, a nose, a forehead, a mouth and two cheeks, but none of them looks like another; there is bound to be some difference in posture, appearance and speech, whether it is apparent or is hidden and can only be noticed with careful observation. Each face has its own characteristics and does not look like another; even if there was a group of people who looked alike, having a beautiful or ugly characteristic in common, there would still be a difference between one person and the next.

﴿ إِنَّ فِى ذَٲلِكَ لَأَيَـٰتٍ۬ لِّلۡعَـٰلِمِينَ

(Verily, in that are indeed signs for men of sound knowledge.)

﴿ وَمِنۡ ءَايَـٰتِهِۦ مَنَامُكُم بِٱلَّيۡلِ وَٱلنَّہَارِ وَٱبۡتِغَآؤُكُم مِّن فَضۡلِهِۦۤ‌ۚ

(And among His signs is your sleep by night and by day, and your seeking of His bounty.) Among His signs is the cycle of sleep that He has created during the night and the day, when people are able to cease moving and rest, so that their tiredness and exhaustion will go away. And He has enabled you to seek to earn a living and to travel about during the day, this is the opposite of sleep.

﴿ إِنَّ فِى ذَٲلِكَ لَأَيَـٰتٍ۬ لِّقَوۡمٍ۬ يَسۡمَعُونَ

(Verily, in that are indeed signs for a people who listen.) meaning, understand.

﴿ وَمِنۡ ءَايَـٰتِهِۦ يُرِيڪُمُ ٱلۡبَرۡقَ خَوۡفً۬ا وَطَمَعً۬ا وَيُنَزِّلُ مِنَ ٱلسَّمَآءِ مَآءً۬ فَيُحۡىِۦ بِهِ ٱلۡأَرۡضَ بَعۡدَ مَوۡتِهَآ‌ۚ إِنَّ فِى ذَٲلِكَ لَأَيَـٰتٍ۬ لِّقَوۡمٍ۬ يَعۡقِلُونَ وَمِنۡ ءَايَـٰتِهِۦۤ أَن تَقُومَ ٱلسَّمَآءُ وَٱلۡأَرۡضُ بِأَمۡرِهِۦ‌ۚ ثُمَّ إِذَا دَعَاكُمۡ دَعۡوَةً۬ مِّنَ ٱلۡأَرۡضِ إِذَآ أَنتُمۡ تَخۡرُجُونَ

(24. And among His signs is that He shows you the lightning, for fear and for hope, and He sends down water from the sky, and therewith revives the earth after its death. Verily, in that are indeed signs for a people who understand.) (25. And among His signs is that the heaven and the earth stand by His command. Then afterwards when He will call you by a single call, behold, you will come out from the earth.) Allah says,

﴿ وَمِنۡ ءَايَـٰتِهِۦ

(And among His signs) which speak of His greatness,

﴿ يُرِيڪُمُ ٱلۡبَرۡقَ خَوۡفً۬ا وَطَمَعً۬ا

(He shows you the lightning, for fear and for hope,) Sometimes you fear the heavy rain and destructive thunderbolts that follow it, and sometimes you feel hope, when you see a flash of lightning, that much-needed rain will come. Allah says:

﴿ وَيُنَزِّلُ مِنَ ٱلسَّمَآءِ مَآءً۬ فَيُحۡىِۦ بِهِ ٱلۡأَرۡضَ بَعۡدَ مَوۡتِهَآ‌ۚ

(and He sends down water from the sky, and therewith revives the earth after its death.) After it was barren, with nothing growing there, then the water comes to it and

﴿ ٱهۡتَزَّتۡ وَرَبَتۡ وَأَنۢبَتَتۡ مِن ڪُلِّ زَوۡجِۭ بَهِيجٍ۬

(it is stirred, and it swells and puts forth every lovely kind (of growth).) (22:5). In this is a clear sign and proof of the resurrection and the coming of the Hour. Allah says:

﴿ إِنَّ فِى ذَٲلِكَ لَأَيَـٰتٍ۬ لِّقَوۡمٍ۬ يَعۡقِلُونَ

(Verily, in that are indeed signs for a people who understand.) Then Allah says:

﴿ وَمِنۡ ءَايَـٰتِهِۦۤ أَن تَقُومَ ٱلسَّمَآءُ وَٱلۡأَرۡضُ بِأَمۡرِهِۦ‌ۚ

(And among His signs is that the heaven and the earth stand by His command.) This is like the Ayat:

﴿ وَيُمۡسِكُ ٱلسَّمَآءَ أَن تَقَعَ عَلَى ٱلۡأَرۡضِ إِلَّا بِإِذۡنِهِۦۤ‌ۗ

(He withholds the heaven from falling on the earth except by His leave) (22: 65).

﴿ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ يُمۡسِكُ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضَ أَن تَزُولَاۚ

(Verily, Allah grasps the heavens and the earth lest they should move away from their places) (35:41). Whenever `Umar bin Al-Khattab (may Allah be pleased with him) swore an emphatic oath, he would say, "No, by the One by Whose command the heaven and the earth stand,'' i.e., they stand firm by His command to them and His subjugation of them. Then, when the Day of Resurrection comes, the Day when the earth will be exchanged with another earth and the dead will come forth from their graves, brought back to life by His command and His call to them,

﴿ ثُمَّ إِذَا دَعَاكُمۡ دَعۡوَةً۬ مِّنَ ٱلۡأَرۡضِ إِذَآ أَنتُمۡ تَخۡرُجُونَ

(Then afterwards when He will call you by a single call, behold, you will come out from the earth.) This is like the Ayat:

﴿ يَوۡمَ يَدۡعُوكُمۡ فَتَسۡتَجِيبُونَ بِحَمۡدِهِۦ وَتَظُنُّونَ إِن لَّبِثۡتُمۡ إِلَّا قَلِيلاً۬

(On the Day when He will call you, and you will answer with His praise and obedience, and you will think that you have stayed but a little while!) (17:52)

﴿ فَإِنَّمَا هِىَ زَجۡرَةٌ۬ وَٲحِدَةٌ۬ فَإِذَا هُم بِٱلسَّاهِرَةِ

(But it will be only a single Zajrah. When behold, they find themselves on the surface of the earth alive after their death. ) (79:13-14), and

﴿ إِن ڪَانَتۡ إِلَّا صَيۡحَةً۬ وَٲحِدَةً۬ فَإِذَا هُمۡ جَمِيعٌ۬ لَّدَيۡنَا مُحۡضَرُونَ

(It will be but a single Sayhah, so behold they will all be brought up before Us!) (36:53).

﴿ وَلَهُ ۥ مَن فِى ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِ‌ۖ ڪُلٌّ۬ لَّهُ ۥ قَـٰنِتُونَ وَهُوَ ٱلَّذِى يَبۡدَؤُاْ ٱلۡخَلۡقَ ثُمَّ يُعِيدُهُ ۥ وَهُوَ أَهۡوَنُ عَلَيۡهِ‌ۚ وَلَهُ ٱلۡمَثَلُ ٱلۡأَعۡلَىٰ فِى ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِ‌ۚ وَهُوَ ٱلۡعَزِيزُ ٱلۡحَكِيمُ

(26. To Him belongs whatever is in the heavens and the earth. All are obedient to Him.) (27. And He it is Who originates the creation, then He will repeat it; and this is easier for Him. His is the highest description in the heavens and in the earth. And He is the All-Mighty, the All-Wise.) Allah says:

﴿ وَلَهُ ۥ مَن فِى ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِ‌ۖ

(To Him belongs whatever is in the heavens and the earth.) means, He owns it and it is enslaved to Him.

﴿ كُلٌّ۬ لَّهُ ۥ قَـٰنِتُونَ

(All are obedient to Him.) they are humble before Him and submit to Him, whether willingly or unwillingly.

Repeating the Creation is easier for Allah

Allah's saying:

﴿ وَهُوَ ٱلَّذِى يَبۡدَؤُاْ ٱلۡخَلۡقَ ثُمَّ يُعِيدُهُ ۥ وَهُوَ أَهۡوَنُ عَلَيۡهِ‌ۚ

(And He it is Who originates the creation, then He will repeat it; and this is easier for Him.) Ibn Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas said, "This means it is easier for Him.'' Mujahid said: "Repeating it is easier for Him than originating it, and originating it is easy for Him.'' This was also the view of `Ikrimah and others. Al-Bukhari recorded that Abu Hurayrah (may Allah be pleased with him) said that the Prophet said:

« قَالَ اللهُ: كَذَّبَنِي ابْنُ آدَمَ وَلَمْ يَكُنْ لَهُ ذَلِكَ، وَشَتَمَنِي وَلَمْ يَكُنْ لَهُ ذَلِكَ، فَأَمَّا تَكْذِيبُهُ إِيَّايَ فَقَوْلُهُ: لَنْ يُعِيدَنِي كَمَا بَدَأَنِي وَلَيْسَ أَوَّلُ الْخَلْقِ بِأَهْوَنَ عَلَيَّ مِنْ إِعَادَتِهِ، وَأَمَّا شَتْمُهُ إِيَّايَ فَقَوْلُهُ: اتَّخَذَ اللهُ وَلَدًا، وَأَنَا الْأَحَدُ الصَّمَدُ الَّذِي لَمْ يَلِدْ وَلَمْ يُولَدْ وَلَمْ يَكُنْ لَهُ كُفُوًا أَحَد »

(Allah says; "The son of Adam denied Me, and he had no right to do so. And he reviled Me, and he had no right to do so. As for his denying Me, it is his saying: `He will not remake me as He originated me' -- while originating the creation is not easier for Me than re-creating him. As for his reviling Me, it is his saying: `Allah has taken to Himself a son,' while I am the One, the Self-Sufficient Master; I beget not, nor was I begotten, and there is none comparable to Me.'') This was recorded only by Al-Bukhari.

﴿ وَلَهُ ٱلۡمَثَلُ ٱلۡأَعۡلَىٰ فِى ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِ‌ۚ

(His is the highest description in the heavens and in the earth.) `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported Ibn `Abbas said, "This is like the Ayah:

﴿ لَيۡسَ كَمِثۡلِهِۦ شَىۡءٌ۬‌ۖ

(There is nothing like Him) (42:11).'' Qatadah said: "His description is La ilaha illallah, and there is no Lord but He.''

﴿ ضَرَبَ لَكُم مَّثَلاً۬ مِّنۡ أَنفُسِكُمۡ‌ۖ هَل لَّكُم مِّن مَّا مَلَكَتۡ أَيۡمَـٰنُكُم مِّن شُرَڪَآءَ فِى مَا رَزَقۡنَـٰڪُمۡ فَأَنتُمۡ فِيهِ سَوَآءٌ۬ تَخَافُونَهُمۡ كَخِيفَتِڪُمۡ أَنفُسَكُمۡ‌ۚ ڪَذَٲلِكَ نُفَصِّلُ ٱلۡأَيَـٰتِ لِقَوۡمٍ۬ يَعۡقِلُونَ بَلِ ٱتَّبَعَ ٱلَّذِينَ ظَلَمُوٓاْ أَهۡوَآءَهُم بِغَيۡرِ عِلۡمٍ۬‌ۖ فَمَن يَہۡدِى مَنۡ أَضَلَّ ٱللَّهُ‌ۖ وَمَا لَهُم مِّن نَّـٰصِرِينَ

(28. He sets forth for you a parable from yourselves: Do you have partners among those whom your right hands possess to share as equals in the wealth We have bestowed on you, whom you fear as you fear each other Thus do We explain the signs in detail to a people who have sense.) (29. Nay, but those who do wrong follow their own lusts without knowledge. Then who will guide him whom Allah has sent astray And for such there will be no helpers.)

A Parable of Tawhid

This is the parable Allah makes of the idolaters, those who worship others besides Him and attribute partners to Him, while at the same time admitting that these so-called partners -- idols and false gods -- are enslaved to and belong to Him. In their Talbiyah (during Hajj and `Umrah they used to say, "At Your service, You have no partner except the partner that You have, You own Him and whatever he owns.''

﴿ ضَرَبَ لَكُم مَّثَلاً۬ مِّنۡ أَنفُسِكُمۡ‌ۖ

(He sets forth for you a parable from yourselves) `something which you yourselves can see witness, and understand.'

﴿ هَل لَّكُم مِّن مَّا مَلَكَتۡ أَيۡمَـٰنُكُم مِّن شُرَڪَآءَ فِى مَا رَزَقۡنَـٰڪُمۡ فَأَنتُمۡ فِيهِ سَوَآءٌ۬

(Do you have partners among those whom your right hands possess to share as equals in the wealth We have bestowed on you...) `None of you would like to have his servant as a partner in his wealth, each of them having an equal share.'

﴿ تَخَافُونَهُمۡ كَخِيفَتِڪُمۡ أَنفُسَكُمۡ‌ۚ

(whom you fear as you fear each other.) `You fear that they will have a share in your wealth with you.' Abu Mijlaz said, "You do not fear that your servant will have a share in your wealth, because he has no such right; similarly, Allah has no partner.'' The point is, that since any one of you would abhor such a thing, how can you attribute rivals to Allah from among His creation At-Tabarani recorded that Ibn `Abbas said, "The people of Shirk used to say in their Talbiyah, `At Your service, You have no partner except the partner that You have, You own Him and whatever he owns.' Then Allah revealed the words:

﴿ هَل لَّكُم مِّن مَّا مَلَكَتۡ أَيۡمَـٰنُكُم مِّن شُرَڪَآءَ فِى مَا رَزَقۡنَـٰڪُمۡ فَأَنتُمۡ فِيهِ سَوَآءٌ۬ تَخَافُونَهُمۡ كَخِيفَتِڪُمۡ أَنفُسَكُمۡ‌ۚ

(Do you have partners among those whom your right hands possess to share as equals in the wealth We have bestowed on you, whom you fear as you fear each other)'' If humans have this characteristic, this parable shows that it is even less befitting for Allah to have a partner.

﴿ ڪَذَٲلِكَ نُفَصِّلُ ٱلۡأَيَـٰتِ لِقَوۡمٍ۬ يَعۡقِلُونَ

(Thus do We explain the signs in detail to a people who have sense.) Then Allah points out that when the idolaters worship others instead of Him, doing so out of their own folly and ignorance:

﴿ بَلِ ٱتَّبَعَ ٱلَّذِينَ ظَلَمُوٓاْ

(Nay, but those who do wrong follow...), meaning, the idolaters,

﴿ أَهۡوَآءَهُم

(...their own lusts) means, in their worship of false gods without knowledge.

﴿ فَمَن يَہۡدِى مَنۡ أَضَلَّ ٱللَّهُ‌ۖ

(Then who will guide him whom Allah has sent astray) means, no one can guide them if Allah has decreed that they will be misguided.

﴿ وَمَا لَهُم مِّن نَّـٰصِرِينَ

(And for such there will be no helpers.) means, there is no one who can save them from the power of Allah or grant them a way out, for what He wills, happens and what He does not will, does not happen.

﴿ فَأَقِمۡ وَجۡهَكَ لِلدِّينِ حَنِيفً۬ا‌ۚ فِطۡرَتَ ٱللَّهِ ٱلَّتِى فَطَرَ ٱلنَّاسَ عَلَيۡہَا‌ۚ لَا تَبۡدِيلَ لِخَلۡقِ ٱللَّهِ‌ۚ ذَٲلِكَ ٱلدِّينُ ٱلۡقَيِّمُ وَلَـٰكِنَّ أَڪۡثَرَ ٱلنَّاسِ لَا يَعۡلَمُونَ مُنِيبِينَ إِلَيۡهِ وَٱتَّقُوهُ وَأَقِيمُواْ ٱلصَّلَوٰةَ وَلَا تَكُونُواْ مِنَ ٱلۡمُشۡرِڪِينَ مِنَ ٱلَّذِينَ فَرَّقُواْ دِينَهُمۡ وَڪَانُواْ شِيَعً۬ا‌ۖ كُلُّ حِزۡبِۭ بِمَا لَدَيۡہِمۡ فَرِحُونَ

(30. So, set you your face towards the religion as a Hanif. Allah's Fitrah with which He has created mankind. No change let there be in Allah's Khalq, that is the straight religion, but most men know not.) (31. (And remain always) turning in repentance to Him and have Taqwa of Him; and perform the Salah and be not of idolaters.) (32. Of those who split up their religion, and became sects, each sect rejoicing in that which is with it.)