Jubayr bin Mut`im, may Allah be pleased with him, said that he heard the Messenger of Allah say:
(I have several names: I am Muhammad, and I am Ahmad; I am Al-Mahi (the eradicator) through whom Allah will erase disbelief; I am Al-Hashir (the gatherer) at whose feet mankind will gather; and I am Al-`Aqib (the final one) after whom there will be no Prophet.) It was also recorded in the Two Sahihs. And there are many other Hadiths on this topic. Allah has told us in His Book, and His Messenger has told us in the Mutawatir Sunnah, that there will be no Prophet after him, so that it may be known that everyone who claims this status after him is a liar and fabricator who is misguided and is misguiding others. Even if he twists meanings, comes up with false claims and uses tricks and vagaries, all of this is false and is misguidance as will be clear to those who have understanding. This is what Allah caused to happen in the case of Al-Aswad Al-`Ansi in the Yemen and Musaylimah the Liar in Al-Yamamah, whose false miracles and nonsensical words showed everyone who was possessed of understanding that they were liars who were leading people astray; may the curse of Allah be upon them both. This is the case with every false prophet until the Day of Resurrection, until they end with Al-Masih Ad-Dajjal (the Antichrist). Each of these liars is given by Allah signs which show the people of knowledge and the believers that his message is false -- which is part of the perfect kindness of Allah towards His creation. These liars do not enjoin what is good, nor forbid what is evil, unless they do so by coincidence or because it serves an ulterior purpose. They are the utmost in falsehood and immorality, in all that they say and do, as Allah says:
(Shall I inform you (O people!) upon whom the Shayatin descend They descend on every lying, sinful person.) (26:221-222) This is in contrast to the Prophets -- may blessings and peace be upon them -- for they are the utmost in righteousness, truthfulness, wisdom, uprightness and justice in all that they say and do, command and forbid. In addition to this they are supported with miracles and clear and obvious proof. May the blessings and peace of Allah be upon them always, as long as heaven and earth remain.
(41. O you who believe! Remember Allah with much remembrance.) (42. And glorify His praises morning and Asila.) (43. He it is Who sends Salah on you, and His angels too, that He may bring you out from darkness into light. And He is Ever Most Merciful to the believers.) (44. Their greeting on the Day they shall meet Him will be "Salam (Peace!)'' And He has prepared for them a generous reward.)
Allah commands His believing servants to remember their Lord much, Who has bestowed upon them all kinds of blessings and favors, because this will bring them a great reward and a wonderful destiny. Imam Ahmad recorded that `Abdullah bin Busr said: "Two bedouins came to the Messenger of Allah and one of them said: `O Messenger of Allah, which of the people is best' He said:
(The one whose life is long and whose deeds are good.) The other one said: `O Messenger of Allah, the laws of Islam are too much for us. Teach me something that I can adhere to.' He said,
(Keep your tongue moist with the remembrance of Allah, may He be exalted.) At-Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah recorded the second part of this report. At-Tirmidhi said, "This Hadith is Hasan Gharib''. Imam Ahmad recorded that `Abdullah bin `Amr, may Allah be pleased with him, said that the Messenger of Allah said,
(No people sit together without mentioning Allah, but they will see that as regret on the Day of Resurrection.) `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, commented on the Ayah:
(Remember Allah with much remembrance.) "Allah did not enjoin any duty upon His servants without setting known limits and accepting the excuses of those who have a valid excuse -- apart from Dhikr, for Allah has not set any limits for it, and no one has any excuse for not remembering Allah unless he is oppressed and forced to neglect it. Allah says:
(Remember Allah standing, sitting down, and (lying down) on your sides) (4:103). By night and by day, on land and on sea, when traveling and when staying home, in richness and in poverty, in sickness and in health, in secret and openly, in all situations and circumstances. And Allah says:
(And glorify His praises morning and Asila.) If you do this, He and His angels will send blessings upon you.'' There are very many Ayat, Hadiths and reports which encourage the remembrance of Allah, and this Ayah urges us to remember Him much. People such as An-Nasa'i and Al-Ma`mari and others have written books about the Adhkar to be recited at different times of the night and day.
(And glorify His praises morning and Asila) in the morning and in the evening. This is like the Ayah:
(So glorify Allah, when you come up to the evening, and when you enter the morning. And His are all the praises and thanks in the heavens and the earth; and in the afternoon and when you come up to the time, when the day begins to decline.) (30:17-18).
(He it is Who sends Salah on you, and His angels too,) This is encouragement to remember Allah, i.e., He will remember you, so remember Him. This is like the Ayah:
(Similarly, We have sent among you a Messenger of your own, reciting to you Our Ayat and purifying you, and teaching you the Book and the Hikmah, and teaching you that which you used not to know. Therefore remember Me. I will remember you, and be grateful to Me and never be ungrateful to Me) (2:151-152) The Prophet said:
(Allah says: "Whoever remembers Me to himself, I will remember him to Myself, and whoever remembers Me in a gathering, I will remember him in a better gathering.'')
Allah's Salah means that He praises His servant before the angels, as Al-Bukhari recorded from Abu Al-`Aliyah. This was recorded by Abu Ja`far Ar-Razi from Ar-Rabi` bin Anas from Anas. Others said: "Allah's Salah means mercy.'' It may be said that there is no contradiction between these two views. And Allah knows best. Salah from the angels means their supplication and seeking forgiveness for people, as Allah says:
(Those who bear the Throne and those around it glorify the praises of their Lord, and believe in Him, and ask forgiveness for those who believe (saying): "Our Lord! You comprehend all things in mercy and knowledge, so forgive those who repent and follow Your way, and save them from the torment of the blazing Fire! Our Lord! And make them enter the `Adn Garden which you have promised them -- and to the righteous among their fathers, their wives, and their offspring! Verily, You are the All-Mighty, the All-Wise. And save them from the sins.'') (40:7-9)
(that He may bring you out from darkness into light. ) means, by means of His mercy towards you, His praise of you and the supplication of His angels for you, He brings you forth from the darkness of ignorance and misguidance into the light of guidance and certain faith.
(And He is Ever Most Merciful to the believers.) means, in this world and in the Hereafter: in this world He guides them to the truth of which others are ignorant, and He shows them the path from which others have gone astray, those who call for disbelief and innovation, and their followers among the wrongdoers. His mercy towards them in the Hereafter means that He will save them from the greater terror (of the Day of Resurrection) and will command His angels to greet them with the glad tidings of Paradise and salvation from the Fire, which will only be because of His love for them and His kindness towards them. Imam Ahmad recorded that Anas, may Allah be pleased with him, said: "The Messenger of Allah and a group of his Companions (may Allah be pleased with them) passed by a young child in the road. When his mother saw the people, she feared that her child may be crushed by the crowd, so she rushed forward, crying, `My son, my son!' She ran and picked him up, and the people said, `O Messenger of Allah, she would never throw her child in the Fire.' The Messenger of Allah convincingly said:
(No, and Allah will not throw His beloved in the Fire.) Its chain of narrators meets the conditions of the Two Sahihs, although none of the authors of the Six Books recorded it. But in Sahih Al-Bukhari it is recorded from the Commander of the faithful `Umar bin Al-Khattab, may Allah be pleased with him, that the Messenger of Allah saw a woman among the prisoners of war picking up her child, clasping the child to her breast and nursing him. The Messenger of Allah said:
(Do you think that this woman would throw her child into the Fire even though she is (physically) able to do so) They said, "No.'' The Messenger of Allah said:
(By Allah, Allah is more merciful towards His servants than this woman is to her child.)
(Their greeting on the Day they shall meet Him will be "Salam!'') The apparent meaning -- and Allah knows best -- is that their greeting, from Allah on the Day that they meet Him, will be Salam, i.e., He will greet them with Salam, as He says elsewhere:
((It will be said to them): Salam -- a Word from the Lord, Most Merciful.) (36:58) Qatadah claimed that the meaning was that they would greet one another with Salam on the Day when they meet Allah in the Hereafter. This is like the Ayah:
(Their way of request therein will be `Glory to You, O Allah,' and `Salam' will be their greetings therein! and the close of their request will be `All praise is due to Allah, the Lord of all that exits.') (10:10)
(And He has prepared for them a generous reward.) means Paradise and everything in it of food, drink, clothing, dwellings, physical pleasure, luxuries and delightful scenes, such as no eye has seen, no ear has heard and has never entered the mind of man.
(45. O Prophet! Verily, We have sent you as witness, and a bearer of glad tidings, and a warner,) (46. And as one who invites to Allah by His leave, and as a lamp spreading light.) (47. And announce to the believers the glad tidings, that they will have from Allah a great bounty.) (48. And obey not the disbelievers and the hypocrites, and harm them not. And put your trust in Allah, and sufficient is Allah as a Trustee.)
Imam Ahmad recorded that `Ata' bin Yasar said that he met `Abdullah bin `Amr bin Al-`As, may Allah be pleased with him, and said to him:
"Tell me about the description of the Messenger of Allah in the Tawrah.'' He said, "Yes, by Allah, he was described in the Tawrah with some of the qualities with which he was described in the Qur'an: `O Prophet! Verily, We have sent you as witness, and a bearer of glad tidings, and a warner, a saviour to the illiterate. You are My servant and My Messenger and I have called you Al-Mutawakkil (reliant). You are not harsh or severe, or noisy in the marketplaces. You do not repay evil with evil, but you overlook and forgive. Allah will not take your soul until you make straight those who have deviated and they say La ilaha illallah, words with which blind eyes, deaf ears and sealed hearts will be opened'.'' It was also recorded by Al-Bukhari in the Books of Business and At-Tafsir. Wahb bin Munabbih said: "Allah revealed to one of the Prophets of the Children of Israel whose name was Sha`ya' (Isaiah); `Stand up among your people the Children of Israel and I shall cause your tongue to utter (words of) revelation. I shall send an unlettered (Prophet) from among the illiterate (people). He will not be harsh or severe, or noisy in the marketplaces. If he were to pass by a lamp, it would not be extinguished, because of his tranquility. If he were to walk on reeds no sound would be heard from under his feet. I will send him as a bearer of glad tidings and as a warner, who will never utter immoral speech. Through him I will open blind eyes, deaf ears and sealed hearts. I will guide him to do every good deed and I will bestow upon him every noble characteristic. I will make tranquility his garment, righteousness his banner, piety his conscience, wisdom his speech, truthfulness and loyalty his nature, tolerance and goodness his character, truth his way, justice his conduct, guidance his leader, Islam his nation. Ahmad is his name and through him I will guide people after they have gone astray, teach them after they have been ignorant, raise their status after they were nothing, make them known after they were unknown, increase the number (of followers of the truth) after they have been few, make them rich after they have been poor, and bring them together after they have been divided. Through him I will bring together different nations and hearts, and reconcile opposing desires. Through him I will save great numbers of people from their doom. I will make his Ummah the best of peoples ever raised up for mankind; they will enjoin good and forbid evil, sincerely believing in Me Alone and accepting as truth all that My Messengers have brought. I shall inspire them to glorify, praise and magnify Me Alone in their places of worship and in their gatherings, when they lie down and when they return home. They will pray to Me standing and sitting. They will fight for the sake of Allah in ranks and armies. They will go forth from their homes by the thousand, seeking My pleasure, washing their faces and limbs, girding their loins. Their sacrifice will be their blood and their holy Book will be in their hearts. They will be like monks by night and like lions by day. Among the members of his family and his offspring I will make those who are foremost (in faith) and believers in the truth and martyrs and righteous people. His Ummah after him will lead people with truth and establish justice therewith. I will give strength to those who support them and help those who pray for them, and I will inflict defeat upon those who oppose them or transgress against them or seek to take something from their hands. I will make them the heirs of their Prophet, calling people to their Lord, enjoining what is good, forbidding what is evil, establishing regular prayer, paying the Zakah and fulfilling their promises. Through them I will complete the goodness which I started with the first of them. This is My bounty which I bestow upon whomsoever I will, and I am the Possessor of great bounty.'''
(as witness) means, a witness to Allah's Oneness, for there is no God except He, and a witness against mankind for their deeds on the Day of Resurrection.
(and We bring you as a witness against these people) (4:41). This is like the Ayah:
(that you be witnesses over mankind and the Messenger be a witness over you) (2:143).
(and a bearer of glad tidings, and a warner.) means, a bearer of glad tidings to the believers of a great reward, and a warner to the disbelievers of a great punishment.
(And as one who invites to Allah by His leave,) means, `you call mankind to worship their Lord because He has commanded you to do so. '
(and as a lamp spreading light.) means, `the Message that you bring is as clear as the sun shining brightly, and no one can deny it except those who are stubborn.'
(And obey not the disbelievers and the hypocrites, and harm them not.) means, `do not obey them and do not pay attention to what they say.'
(and harm them not.) means, `overlook and ignore them, for their matter rests entirely with Allah and He is sufficient for them (to deal with them).' Allah says:
(And put your trust in Allah, and sufficient is Allah as a Trustee.)
(49. O you who believe! When you marry believing women, and then divorce them before you have sexual intercourse with them, no `Iddah have you to count in respect of them. So, give them a present, and set them free in a handsome manner.)
This Ayah contains many rulings, including the use of the word Nikah for the marriage contract alone. There is no other Ayah in the Qur'an that is clearer than this on this point. It also indicates that it is permissible to divorce a woman before consummating the marriage with her.
(believing women) this refers to what is usually the case, although there is no difference between a believing (Muslim) woman and a woman of the People of the Book in this regard, according to scholarly consensus. Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, Sa`id bin Al-Musayyib, Al-Hasan Al-Basri, `Ali bin Al-Husayn Zayn-ul-`Abidin and a group of the Salaf took this Ayah as evidence that divorce cannot occur unless it has been preceded by marriage, because Allah says,
(When you marry believing women, and then divorce them) The marriage contract here is followed by divorce, which indicates that the divorce cannot be valid if it comes first. Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, said, "If someone were to say, `every woman I marry will ipso facto be divorced,' this does not mean anything, because Allah says:
(O you who believe! When you marry believing women, and then divorce them...).'' It was also reported that Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, said: "Allah said,
(When you marry believing women, and then divorce them.) Do you not see that divorce comes after marriage'' A Hadith to the same effect was recorded from `Amr bin Shu`ayb from his father from his grandfather, who said: "The Messenger of Allah said:
(There is no divorce for the son of Adam with regard to that which he does not possess.) This was recorded by Ahmad, Abu Dawud, At-Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah. At-Tirmidhi said, "This is a Hasan Hadith, and it is the best thing that has been narrated on this matter.'' It was also recorded by Ibn Majah from `Ali and Al-Miswar bin Makhramah (may Allah be pleased with them) that the Messenger of Allah said:
(There is no divorce before marriage.)
(no `Iddah have you to count in respect of them.) This is a command on which the scholars are agreed, that if a woman is divorced before the marriage is consummated, she does not have to observe the `Iddah (prescribed period for divorce) and she may go and get married immediately to whomever she wishes. The only exception in this regard is a woman whose husband died, in which case she has to observe an `Iddah of four months and ten days even if the marriage was not consummated. This is also according to the consensus of the scholars.
(So, give them a present, and set them free in a handsome manner.) The present here refers to something more general than half of the named dowery or a special gift that has not been named. Allah says:
(And if you divorce them before you have touched (had a sexual relation with) them, and you have fixed unto them their due (dowery) then pay half of that) (2:237). And Allah says:
(There is no sin on you, if you divorce women while yet you have not touched them, nor fixed unto them their due (dowery). But bestow on them gift, the rich according to his means, and the poor according to his means, a gift of reasonable amount is a duty on the doers of good.) (2:236) In Sahih Al-Bukhari, it was recorded that Sahl bin Sa`d and Abu Usayd, may Allah be pleased with them both, said, "The Messenger of Allah married Umaymah bint Sharahil, and when she entered upon him he reached out his hand towards her, and it was as if she did not like that, so he told Abu Usayd to give her two garments.'' `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, said "If the dowery had been named, she would not be entitled to more than half, but if the dowery is not been named, he should give her a gift according to his means, and this is the "handsome manner.''
(50. O Prophet! Verily, We have made lawful to you your wives, to whom you have paid their due (dowery), and those (slaves) whom your right hand possesses -- whom Allah has given to you, and the daughters of your paternal uncles and the daughters of your paternal aunts and the daughters of your maternal uncles and the daughters of your maternal aunts who migrated with you, and a believing woman if she offers herself to the Prophet, and the Prophet wishes to marry her -- a privilege for you only, not for the (rest of) the believers. Indeed We know what We have enjoined upon them about their wives and those (slaves) whom their right hands possess, in order that there should be no difficulty on you. And Allah is Ever Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.)