Then Allah issues a warning to the hypocrites, those who make an outward display of faith while concealing their disbelief,
(those in whose hearts is a disease,) `Ikrimah and others said that this refers to adulterers in this instance.
(and those who spread false news among the people in Al-Madinah) means, those who say that the enemy has come and war has started, which is a lie and a fabrication. Unless they give up these actions and return to the truth,
(We shall certainly let you overpower them,) `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas said, "We will give you power over them.'' Qatadah said: "We will incite you against them.'' As-Suddi said: "We will inform you about them.''
(then they will not be able to stay in it) means, in Al-Madinah,
(but a little while. Accursed...) `this describes their state while they are in Al-Madinah for this short time before they are expelled and sent far away.'
(they shall be seized wherever found,) means, `they will be attacked, because they are so weak and so few,'
(and killed with a (terrible) slaughter.) Then Allah says:
(That was the way of Allah in the case of those who passed away of old,) meaning, this is how Allah dealt with the hypocrites when they persisted in hypocrisy and disbelief and did not give it up; He incited the believers against them and caused them to prevail over them.
(and you will not find any change in the way of Allah.) means, the way in which Allah deals with this does not alter or change.
(63. People ask you concerning the Hour, say: "The knowledge of it is with Allah only. What do you know It may be that the Hour is near!'') (64. Verily, Allah has cursed the disbelievers, and has prepared for them a flaming Fire.) (65. Wherein they will abide forever, and they will find neither a protector nor a helper.) (66. On the Day when their faces will be turned over in the Fire, they will say: "Oh, would that we had obeyed Allah and obeyed the Messenger.'') (67. And they will say: "Our Lord! Verily, we obeyed our chiefs and our great ones, and they misled us from the way.'') (68. "Our Lord! Give them double torment and curse them with a mighty curse!'')
Here Allah tells His Messenger that he cannot know when the Hour will come, and if people ask him about that, He instructs him to refer the matter to Allah, may He be exalted, as Allah says in Surat Al-A`raf, even though that was revealed in Makkah and this Surah was revealed in Al-Madinah. Allah continues to tell him to refer this matter to the One Who knows about it, but He tells him that it is at hand, as He says:
(What do you know It may be that the Hour is near!) This is like the Ayat:
(The Hour has drawn near, and the moon has been cleft asunder.) (54:1)
(Draws near for mankind their reckoning, while they turn away in heedlessness.) (21:1)
(The Event (the Hour) ordained by Allah will come to pass, so seek not to hasten it) (16:1).
Then Allah says:
(Verily, Allah has cursed the disbelievers,) means, He has distanced them from His mercy.
(and has prepared for them a flaming Fire (Hell).) means, in the Hereafter.
(Wherein they will abide forever,) means, they will stay there forever and ever, never leaving or finding relief from it.
(and they will find neither a protector nor a helper.) means, they will have no saviour to help them or rescue them from their predicament. Then Allah says:
(On the Day when their faces will be turned over in the Fire, they will say: "Oh, would that we had obeyed Allah and obeyed the Messenger.'') means, they will be dragged into the Fire on their faces and their faces will be contorted in Hell, and in that state they will wish that they had been among those who had obeyed Allah and His Messenger in this world. Allah describes how they will be in the Hereafter:
(And the Day when the wrongdoer will bite at his hands, he will say: "Oh! Would that I had taken a path with the Messenger. Ah! Woe to me! Would that I had never taken so-and-so as an intimate friend! He indeed led me astray from the Reminder after it had come to me. And Shaytan is to man ever a deserter in the hour of need.'') (25:27-29)
(How much would those who disbelieved wish that they had been Muslims.) (15:2) And here too, Allah tells us that when they are in this state, they will wish that they had obeyed Allah and His Messenger in this world:
(And they will say: "Our Lord! Verily, we obeyed our chiefs and our great ones, and they misled us from the way.'') Tawus said: " `Our chiefs' means their nobles and `our great ones' means their scholars.''
(Our Lord! Give them double torment) means, `for their disbelief and because they mislead us.' Abu Al-Qasim At-Tabarani recorded from Abu Rafi` that among the names of those who fought with `Ali, may Allah be pleased with him, was Al-Hajjaj bin `Amr bin Ghaziyah, and he was the one who, when they met, said; "O people of the Ansar! Do you want to say when we meet our Lord:
(Our Lord! Verily, we obeyed our chiefs and our great ones, and they misled us from the way. Our Lord! Give them double torment and curse them with a mighty curse!)''
(69. O you who believe! Be not like those who annoyed Musa, but Allah cleared him of that which they alleged, and he was honorable before Allah.)
Al-Bukhari recorded in the Book of Hadiths about the Prophets, that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said:
(Musa (peace be upon him) was a shy and modest man who would never show anything of his skin because of his shyness. Some of the Children of Israel annoyed him by saying: "He only keeps himself covered because of some defect in his skin, either leprosy or scrotal hernia or some other defect.'' Allah, may He be glorified, wanted to clear Musa (peace be upon him) of what they were saying. One day Musa was alone, so he took off his garment and put it on a rock, then he took a bath. When he had finished, he turned back to pick up his garment, but the rock moved away, taking his garment with it. Musa picked up his stick and chased the rock, saying, "My garment, O rock! My garment, O rock!'' Until he reached a group of the Children of Israel, who saw him naked and found that he was the best of those whom Allah had created. Thus he was cleared of what they had said about him. Then the rock stood still, so he took his garment and put it on. He started hitting the rock with his stick, and by Allah, the marks of that beating were left on the rock, three or four or five. This is what is referred to in the Ayah: (O you who believe! Be not like those who annoyed Musa, but Allah cleared him of that which they alleged, and he was honorable before Allah.)) This Hadith is one of those which were recorded by Al-Bukhari but not Muslim. Imam Ahmad recorded that `Abdullah (bin Mas`ud) said: "One day, the Messenger of Allah distributed some booty and a man among the Ansar said, `This division was not done for the sake of Allah.' I said, `O enemy of Allah! I am going to tell the Messenger of Allah what you have said.' So, I told the Prophet about it. His face reddened and he said,
(May Allah have mercy on Musa. He was annoyed with worse than this, yet he remained patient.)'' This was recorded in the Two Sahihs.
(and he was honorable before Allah. ) means, he had a position of status and honor before his Lord, may He be exalted and glorified. Al-Hasan Al-Basri said: "His supplications would be answered by Allah.'' Some of them said that part of his great standing before Allah was that he interceded for his brother Harun, asking Allah to send him with him as a Messenger, and Allah granted his request and said:
(And We granted him his brother Harun, (also) a Prophet, out of Our mercy.) (19:53)
(70. O you who believe! Have Taqwa of Allah and speak (always) the truth.) (71. He will direct you to do righteous good deeds and will forgive you your sins. And whosoever obeys Allah and His Messenger, he has indeed achieved a great victory.)
Here Allah commands His servants to have Taqwa of Him, worshipping Him as if they can see Him, and to
(speak (always) the truth.) meaning, to speak in a straightforward manner, with no crookedness or distortion. He promises them that if they do that, He will reward them by making their deeds righteous, i.e., enabling them to do righteous deeds, and He will forgive them their past sins. With regard to whatever sins they may commit in the future, He will inspire them to repent from them. Then He says:
(And whosoever obeys Allah and His Messenger, he has indeed achieved a great victory.) meaning, he will be saved from the fire of Hell and will enjoy everlasting delights (in Paradise).
(72. Truly, We did offer the Amanah to the heavens and the earth, and the mountains, but they declined to bear it and were afraid of it. But man bore it. Verily, he was unjust and ignorant.) (73. So that Allah will punish the hypocrites, men and women, and the men and women who are idolaters. And Allah will pardon the believers, men and women. And Allah is Ever Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.)
Al-`Awfi reported that Ibn `Abbas said, "Al-Amanah means obedience. This was offered to them before it was offered to Adam, and they could not bear it. Then Allah said to Adam: `I have offered the Amanah to the heavens and the earth and the mountains, and they could not bear it. Will you take it on' He said, `O Lord, what does it involve' He said, `If you do good, you will be rewarded, and if you do evil, you will be punished.' So Adam took the Amanah and bore it, and this is what is referred to in the Ayah:
(But man bore it. Verily, he was unjust and ignorant.)'' `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas said, "Al-Amanah means Al-Fara'id (the obligatory duties). Allah offered them to the heavens and the earth and the mountains, (on the grounds that) if they fulfilled them, He would reward them; and if they failed, He would punish them. But they did not want to do that, and they were afraid of it, not because their intention was sinful, but because of their respect for the religion of Allah, in case they could not fulfill the obligations involved. Then Allah offered it to Adam, and he accepted it with all that it entailed. This is what is referred to in the Ayah:
(But man bore it. Verily, he was unjust and ignorant. ) meaning, he underestimated the command of Allah.'' This was also the view of Mujahid, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Ad-Dahhak, Al-Hasan Al-Basri and others that Al-Amanah means Al-Fara'id. Others said that it meant obedience. Al-A`mash narrated from Abu Ad-Duha from Masruq that Ubayy bin Ka`b said: "Part of Al-Amanah means that woman was entrusted with her own chastity.'' Qatadah said: "Al-Amanah means religion, obligatory duties and prescribed punishments.'' Malik narrated that Zayd bin Aslam said: "Al-Amanah means three things: prayer, fasting and performing Ghusl to cleanse oneself from sexual impurity.'' There is no contradiction between all of these views; they are all in agreement and all refer to responsibility and the acceptance of commands and prohibitions with their attendant conditions, which is that the one who fulfills this responsibility, will be rewarded; while the one who neglects it, will be punished. Man accepted this despite the fact that he is weak, ignorant and unjust -- except for those whom Allah helps, and Allah is the One Whose help we seek. One of the reports which deal with Al-Amanah is the Hadith recorded by Imam Ahmad from Hudhayfah, may Allah be pleased with him, who said: "The Messenger of Allah told us two Hadiths, one of which I have seen and the other I am still waiting to see. He told us that Al-Amanah is deeply rooted in the heart of man, then the Qur'an was revealed and they know it from the Qur'an and from the Sunnah. Then he told us that Al-Amanah will be taken away. He said,
(A man may sleep and Al-Amanah will be taken from his heart, leaving nothing but a trace like a blister left by a coal if you were to roll it over your leg -- you will see it protruding but there is nothing inside.) Then he took a pebble and rolled it over his leg, then he said:
(Then the people will start buying and selling, and hardly anyone will be paying attention to Al-Amanah, until it will be said that among the tribe of so-and-so there is a trustworthy man, and it will said of a man, `how strong he is, how nice and how wise,' and there is not even a mustard seed of faith in his heart.) No doubt, there came upon me a time when I did not mind dealing (bargaining) with anyone of you, for if he was a Muslim, his Islam would compel him to pay me what is due to me, and if he was a Christian, or Jew, the Muslim official would compel him to pay me what is due to me, but today, I do not deal except with such and such person among you.'' It was also recorded in the Two Sahihs from the Hadith of Al-A`mash. Imam Ahmad recorded that `Abdullah bin `Amr, may Allah be pleased with him, said that the Messenger of Allah said:
(There are four things, if you attain them, then whatever you miss in this world will not matter: preserving trust, speaking the truth, being of good character and moderation in eating.)
(So that Allah will punish the hypocrites, men and women, and the men and women who are idolaters.) means, because the sons of Adam have undertaken to fulfill the Amanah, which means duties, Allah will punish the men and women among them who are hypocrites, who are those who make an outward display of faith because they fear the believers, but in their hearts they conceal disbelief and in fact are followers of the disbelievers.
(and the men and women who are idolaters.) these are the ones who both outwardly and inwardly associate others in worship with Allah and go against His Messengers.
(And Allah will pardon the believers, men and women.) means, He will show mercy to the believers among mankind, who believe in Allah and in His angels, Books and Messengers, and who obey Him.
(And Allah is Ever Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.) This is end of the Tafsir of Surat Al-Ahzab. Allah's is the praise and thanks.