This is one of three Ayat -- there is no fourth -- where Allah commands His Messenger to swear by His Almighty Lord that the resurrection will surely come, because the stubborn followers of disbelief denied that it would happen. One of these Ayat is in Surah Yunus, where Allah says:
(And they ask you to inform them (saying): "Is it true'' Say: "Yes! By my Lord! It is the very truth! and you cannot escape it!'') (10:53). The second of these Ayat is this one:
(Those who disbelieve say: "The Hour will not come to us.'' Say: "Yes, by my Lord, it will come to you...''). And the third of them appears in Surat At-Taghabun, where Allah says:
(The disbelievers pretend that they will never be resurrected (for reckoning). Say: "Yes! By my Lord, you will certainly be resurrected, then you will be informed of what you did; and that is easy for Allah'') (64:7). And Allah says here:
(Say: "Yes, by my Lord, it will come to you...'') Then Allah is described in a manner that affirms that:
(the All-Knower of the Unseen, not even the weight of a speck of dust or less than that or greater escapes His knowledge in the heavens or in the earth but it is in a Clear Book.) Mujahid and Qatadah said, "Nothing is hidden or concealed from Him.'' In other words, everything is encompassed by His knowledge, and nothing is hidden from Him. Even though bones may be scattered and disintegrate, He knows where they have gone and where they have dispersed, then He will bring them back just as He created them in the first place, because He has knowledge of all things. Then Allah tells us of His wisdom in re-creating bodies and bringing about the Hour, as He says:
(That He may recompense those who believe and do righteous good deeds. Those, theirs is forgiveness and generous provision. But those who strive against Our Ayat to frustrate them) meaning, those who try to turn others away from the path of Allah and who disbelieve His Messengers,
(those, for them will be a severe painful torment.) This means, He will bestow His favor upon the blessed, who are the believers, and will punish the doomed, who are the disbelievers. This is like the Ayah:
(Not equal are the dwellers of the Fire and the dwellers of the Paradise. It is the dwellers of Paradise that will be successful.) (59:20)
(Shall We treat those who believe and do righteous good deeds like those who cause mischief on the earth Or shall We treat those who have Taqwa as the evildoers) (38:28)
(And those who have been given knowledge see that what is revealed to you from your Lord is the truth,) This is another kind of wisdom, following on from the one before, which is that when those who believed in what was revealed to the Messengers see the onset of the Hour and how the righteous and the wicked will be rewarded and punished respectively, which they knew of beforehand in this world from the Books of Allah and which they are now seeing with their own eyes, they will say:
(Indeed, the Messengers of our Lord did come with the truth) (7:43). And it will be said:
(This is what the Most Gracious had promised, and the Messengers spoke truth!) (36:52)
(Indeed you have stayed according to the decree of Allah, until the Day of Resurrection; so this is the Day of Resurrection) (30:56),
(And those who have been given knowledge see that what is revealed to you from your Lord is the truth, and that it guides to the path of the Exalted in might, Owner of all praise.) The Exalted in might is the One Who is All-Powerful, Whom none can overwhelm or resist, but He subjugates and controls all things. The Owner of All praise is the One Who, in all His words, deeds, laws and decrees, is deserving of praise, may He be glorified and exalted.
(7. Those who disbelieve say: "Shall we direct you to a man who will tell you (that) when you have become fully disintegrated into dust with full dispersion, then you will be created (again) anew'') (8. Has he invented a lie against Allah, or is there a madness in him Nay, but those who disbelieve in the Hereafter are (themselves) in a torment, and in far error.) (9. See they not what is before them and what is behind them, of the heaven and the earth If We will, We shall sink the earth with them, or cause a piece of the heaven to fall upon them. Verily, in this is a sign for every servant who turns (to Allah) in repentance.)
Here Allah tells us how the disbelievers and heretics denied that the Hour will come, and mocked the Messenger for speaking of it.
(Those who disbelieve say: "Shall we direct you to a man who will tell you (that) when you have become fully disintegrated into dust with full dispersion...'') means, when your bodies have disintegrated into the earth and dispersed without a trace,
(then you) means, after this has happened,
(will be created (again) anew) means, you will be restored to life and will receive provision anew. `By telling us this, he is doing one of two things: either he is deliberately fabricating something and saying that Allah has revealed it to him, or he is not doing it deliberately, but he is deluded as crazy and insane people are.' They said:
(Has he invented a lie against Allah, or is there a madness in him) Allah said, refuting their words:
(Nay, but those who disbelieve in the Hereafter are (themselves) in a torment, and in far error.) meaning, the matter is not as they claim or as they think; on the contrary, Muhammad is the one who is telling the truth, and is righteous and wise; he is the one who has brought the truth, and they are the foolish and ignorant liars.
are themselves (in a torment, means, their disbelief, which will lead them to the torment of Allah.
(and in far error.) far from the truth in this world. Then Allah warns them of His power in the creation of heavens and earth, as He says:
(See they not what is before them and what is behind them, of the heaven and the earth) meaning, wherever they go, in whatever direction, the heavens are above them and the earth is beneath them. This is like the Ayah:
(With Hands did We construct the heaven. Verily, We are Able to extend the vastness of space thereof. And We have spread out the earth; how Excellent Spreader (thereof) are We!) (51:47-48)
(If We will, We shall sink the earth with them, or cause a piece of the heaven to fall upon them.) means, `if We wished, We could do that to them because of their wrongdoing and Our power over them, but We delay it because We are Patient and Forgiving.' Then Allah says:
(Verily, in this is a sign for every Munib servant.) Ma`mar narrating from Qatadah, said that Al-Munib means every one who repents. Sufyan narrated from Qatadah, that Al-Munib is the one who turns to Allah. This means that in looking at the creation of the heavens and the earth, there is a sign for every servant who is intelligent and wise and who turns towards Allah. There is a sign of the Allah's ability to recreate bodies and bring about the Resurrection, because the One Who was able to create these heavens -- with their vast reaches of space, and this earth, as deep and vast as it is -- is able to recreate bodies and revive decayed bones. This is like the Ayat:
(Is not He Who created the heavens and the earth, Able to create the like of them Yes, indeed!) (36:81)
(The creation of the heavens and the earth is indeed greater than the creation of mankind; yet, most of mankind know not.) (40:57)
(10. And indeed We bestowed grace on Dawud from Us (saying): "O you mountains! Glorify with him! And you birds (also)! And We made the iron soft for him.'') (11. Saying: "Make you perfect coats of mail, and balance well the rings of chain armor (Sard), and work you (men) righteousness. Truly, I am All-Seer of what you do.'')
Here Allah tells us how He blessed His servant and Messenger Dawud (David) (peace be upon him) and what He gave him of His great bounty, giving him both prophethood and kingship, and huge numbers of troops. And He blessed him with a mighty voice. Such that when he glorified Allah, the firm, solid, high mountains joined him in glorifying Allah, and the free-roaming birds, who go out in the morning and come back in the evening, stopped for him, and he was able to speak all languages. In the Sahih it is recorded that the Messenger of Allah heard the voice of Abu Musa Al-Ash`ari (may Allah be pleased with him), reciting at night, and he stopped and listened to his recitation, then he said:
(This man has been given one of the sweet melodious voices of the Prophet Dawud.) Abu `Uthman An-Nahdi said, "I never heard any cymbal, stringed instrument or chord that was more beautiful than the voice of Abu Musa Al-Ash`ari (may Allah be pleased with him). ''
(Glorify) means, glorify Allah. This was the view of Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid and others. The root of this word (Ta'wib) means to repeat or respond, so the mountains and birds were commanded to repeat after him.
And We made the iron soft for him. Al-Hasan Al-Basri, Qatadah, Al-A mash and others said, He did not need to heat it in the fire or beat it with a hammer؛ he could simply twist it in his hands, like a thread. Allah said:
Saying: Make you perfect coats of mail…, which means chain mail. Qatadah said, He was the first person ever to make chain mail; before that, they used to wear plated armor.
(and balance well the rings of chain armor (Sard),) This is how Allah taught His Prophet Dawud (peace be upon him) to make coats of mail. Mujahid said concerning the Ayah:
(and balance well the rings of chain armor (Sard),) "Do not make the rivets too loose that the rings (of chain mail) will shake, or make them too tight that they will not be able to move at all, but make it just right.'' `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that `Ibn `Abbas said, "Sard refers to a ring of iron.'' Some of them said, "Chain mail is called Masrud if it is held together with rivets.''
and work you (men) righteousness. means, with regard to what Allah has given you of blessings.
Truly, I am All-Seer of what you do. means, watching you and seeing all that you do and say؛ nothing of that is hidden at all.
(12. And to Sulayman (We subjected) the wind, its morning was a month's (journey), and its afternoon was a month's (journey). And We caused a fount of Qitr to flow for him, and there were Jinn that worked in front of him, by the leave of his Lord. And whosoever of them turned aside from Our command, We shall cause him to taste of the torment of the blazing Fire.) (13. They worked for him as he desired on Maharib, Tamathil, large basins like Jawab and Qudur Rasiyat. "Work you, O family of Dawud, with thanks!'' But few of My servants are grateful.)
Having mentioned the blessings with which He favored Dawud, Allah follows this by mentioning what He gave to Dawud's son Sulayman (Solomon), may peace be upon them both. He subjugated the wind to him, so that it would carry his carpet one way for a month, then back again the next month. Al-Hasan Al-Basri said, "He set out from Damascus in the morning, landed in Istakhar where he ate a meal, then flew on from Istakhar and spent the night in Kabil.'' Between Damascus and Istakhar is an entire month's travel for a swift rider, and between Istakhar and Kabul is an entire month's travel for a swift rider.
(And We caused a fount Qitr to flow for him,) Ibn `Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him) Mujahid, `Ikrimah, `Ata' Al-Khurasani, Qatadah, As-Suddi, Malik from Zayd bin Aslam, `Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam and others said, "Qitr means copper.'' Qatadah said, "It was in Yemen.'' Allah brought forth all the things that people make for Sulayman, peace be upon him.
(and there were Jinn that worked in front of him, by the leave of his Lord.) means, `We subjugated the Jinn to work in front of him,' by the permission of his Lord, i.e., by Allah's decree and subjugation, they built whatever constructions he wanted, and did other work as well.
(And whosoever of them turned aside from Our command,) means, whoever among them tried to rebel and disobey,
(We shall cause him to taste of the torment of the blazing Fire.) which means, burning.
(They worked for him as he desired on Maharib, Tamathil,) Maharib refers to beautiful structures, the best and innermost part of a dwelling. Ibn Zayd said, "This means dwellings.'' With regard to "Tamathil,'' `Atiyah Al-`Awfi, Ad-Dahhak and As-Suddi said that Tamathil means pictures.
(large basins like Jawab and Qudur Rasiyat.) Jawab, the plural form of Jabiyah, refers to cisterns or tanks in which water is held, and Qudur Rasiyat are cauldrons that stay in one place and are not moved around because of their great size. This was the view of Mujahid, Ad-Dahhak and others.
(Work you, O family of Dawud, with thanks!) means, `We said to them: Work with thanks for the blessings that We have bestowed upon you in this world and the Hereafter.' This indicates that thanks may be expressed by actions as much as by words and intentions. Abu `Abdur-Rahman Al-Hubuli said, "Prayer is thanks, fasting is thanks, every good deed that you do for the sake of Allah is thanks, and the best of thanks is praise.'' This was recorded by Ibn Jarir. In the Two Sahihs, it is reported that the Messenger of Allah said:
(The most beloved of prayer to Allah is the prayer of Dawud. He used to sleep for half the night, stand in prayer for a third of it and sleep for a sixth of it. The most beloved of fasting to Allah is the fasting of Dawud. He used to fast for a day then not fast for a day, and he never fled the battlefield.) Ibn Abi Hatim narrated that Fudayl said concerning the Ayah:
(Work you, O family of Dawud, with thanks!) Dawud said, "O Lord! How can I thank you when thanks itself is a blessing from You'' He said: "Now you have truly given thanks to Me, for you have realized that it is a blessing from Me.''
But few of My servants are grateful. This is a reflection of reality.
(14. Then when We decreed death for him, nothing informed them (Jinn) of his death except a little worm of the earth which kept (slowly) gnawing away at his stick. So when he fell down, the Jinn saw clearly that if they had known the Unseen, they would not have stayed in the humiliating torment.)