Having mentioned Saba' and how they followed their desires, and the Shaytan, Allah tells us about their counterparts among those who follow Iblis and their own desires, and who go against wisdom and true guidance. Allah says:
(And indeed Iblis did prove true his thought about them,) Ibn `Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him), and others said that this Ayah is like the Ayah where Allah tells us about how Iblis refused to prostrate to Adam (peace be upon him) then said:
(See this one whom You have honored above me, if You give me respite to the Day of Resurrection, I will surely seize and mislead his offspring all but a few!) (17:62)
(Then I will come to them from before them and behind them, from their right and from their left, and You will not find most of them as thankful ones.) (7:17) And there are many Ayat which refer to this matter.
(And he (Iblis) had no authority over them,) Ibn `Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him) said, "This means, he had no proof.''
(except that We might test him who believes in the Hereafter, from him who is in doubt about it.) means, `We gave him power over them only to show who believes in the Hereafter and that it will come to pass.' The people will be brought to account and rewarded or punished accordingly, so that he will worship his Lord properly in this world -- and to distinguish these believers from those who are in doubt about the Hereafter.
(And your Lord is a Watchful over everything.) means, despite His watching, those who follow Iblis go astray, but by His watching and care, the believers who follow the Messengers are saved.
(22. Say: "Call upon those whom you assert besides Allah, they possess not even the weight of a speck of dust, either in the heavens or on the earth, nor have they any share in either, nor there is for Him any supporter from among them. '') (23. Intercession with Him profits not except for him whom He permits. So much so that when fear is banished from their hearts, they say: "What is it that your Lord has said'' They say the truth. And He is the Most High, the Most Great.)
Allah states clearly that He is the One and Only God, the Self-Sufficient Master, Who has no peer or partner; He is independent in His command and there is no one who can share or dispute with Him in that, or overturn His command. So, He says:
(Say: "Call upon those whom you assert besides Allah...'') meaning, the gods who are worshipped besides Allah.
(they possess not even the weight of a speck of dust, either in the heavens or on the earth,) This is like the Ayah:
(And those, whom you invoke or call upon instead of Him, own not even a Qitmir) (35:13).
nor have they any share in either, means, they do not possess anything, either independently or as partners.
(nor there is for Him any supporter from among them.) means, nor does Allah have among these rivals any whose support He seeks in any matter; on the contrary, all of creation is in need of Him and is enslaved by Him. Then Allah says:
(Intercession with Him profits not except for him whom He permits.) meaning, because of His might, majesty and pride, no one would dare to intercede with Him in any matter, except after being granted His permission to intercede. As Allah says:
(Who is he that can intercede with Him except with His permission) (2:255),
(And there are many angels in the heavens, whose intercession will avail nothing except after Allah has given leave for whom He wills and is pleased with.) (53:26)
(and they cannot intercede except for him with whom He is pleased. And they stand in awe for fear of Him) (21:28). It was reported in the Two Sahihs through more than one chain of narration that the Messenger of Allah, who is the leader of the sons of Adam and the greatest intercessor before Allah, will go to stand in Al-Maqam Al-Mahmud (the praised position) to intercede for all of mankind when their Lord comes to pass judgment upon them. He said:
(Then I will prostrate to Allah, may He be exalted, and He will leave me (in that position), as long as Allah wills, and He will inspire me to speak words of praise which I cannot mention now. Then it will be said, "O Muhammad, raise your head. Speak, you will be heard; ask, you will be given; intercede, your intercession will be accepted...'')
(So much so that when fear is banished from their hearts, they say: "What is it that your Lord has said'' They say the truth.) This also refers to the great degree of His might and power. When He speaks words of revelation, the inhabitants of the heavens hear what He says, and they tremble with fear (of Allah) so much that they swoon. This was the view of Ibn Mas`ud (may Allah be pleased with him), Masruq and others.
(So much so that when fear is banished from their hearts,) means, when the fear leaves their hearts. Ibn `Abbas, Ibn `Umar, Abu `Abdur-Rahman As-Sulami, Ash-Sha`bi, Ibrahim An-Nakha`i, Ad-Dhahhak, Al-Hasan and Qatadah said concerning the Ayah,
(So much so that when fear is banished from their hearts, they say: "What is it that your Lord has said'' They say the truth.) "When the fear is lifted from their hearts.'' When this happens, some of them say to others, "What did your Lord say'' Those (angels) who are carrying the Throne tell those who are next to them, then they in turn pass it on to those who are next to them, and so on, until the news reaches the inhabitants of the lowest heaven. Allah says,
They say the truth. meaning, they report what He said, without adding or taking away anything.
(And He is the Most High, the Most Great.) In his Tafsir of this Ayah in his Sahih, Al-Bukhari recorded that Abu Hurayrah (may Allah be pleased with him) said, "The Prophet of Allah said:
(When Allah decrees a matter in heaven, the angels beat their wings in submission to His Words, making a sound like a chain striking a smooth rock. When the fear is banished from their hearts, they say, "What is it that your Lord has said'' They say the truth, and He is the Most High, the Most Great. Then the one who is listening out hears that, and those who are listening out are standing one above the other) -- Sufyan (one of the narrators) demonstrated with his hand, holding it vertically with the fingers outspread. (So he hears what is said and passes it on to the one below him, and that one passes it to the one who is below him, and so on until it reaches the lips of the soothsayer or fortune-teller. Maybe a meteor will hit him before he can pass anything on, or maybe he will pass it on before he is hit. He tells a hundred lies alongside it, but it will be said, "Did he not tell us that on such and such a day, such and such would happen'' So they believe him because of the one thing which was heard from heaven.)'' This was recorded by Al-Bukhari, not by Muslim. Abu Dawud, At-Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah also recorded it. And Allah knows best.
(24. Say: "Who gives you provision from the heavens and the earth'' Say: "Allah. And verily, (either) we or you are rightly guided or in plain error.'') (25. Say: "You will not be asked about our sins, nor shall we be asked of what you do.'') (26. Say: "Our Lord will assemble us all together, then He will judge between us with truth. And He is the Just Judge, the All-Knower of the true state of affairs.'') (27. Say: "Show me those whom you have joined with Him as partners. Nay! But He is Allah, the Almighty, the All-Wise.'')
Allah tells us that He is unique in His power of creation and His giving of provision, and that He is unique in His divinity also. As they used to admit that no one in heaven or on earth except Allah gave them provision, i.e., by sending down water and causing crops to grow, so they should also realize that there is no god worthy of worship besides Him.
(And verily, (either) we or you are rightly guided or in plain error.) `One of the two sides must be speaking falsehood, and one must be telling the truth. There is no way that you and we could both be following true guidance, or could both be misguided. Only one of us can be correct, and we have produced the proof of Tawhid which indicates that your Shirk must be false.' Allah says:
(And verily, (either) we or you are rightly guided or in plain error.) Qatadah said, "The Companions of Muhammad said this to the idolaters: `By Allah, we and you cannot be following the same thing, only one of us can be truly guided.''' `Ikrimah and Ziyad bin Abi Maryam said, "It means: we are rightly guided and you are in plain error.''
(Say: "You will not be asked about our sins, nor shall we be asked of what you do.'') This indicates disowning them, saying, `you do not belong to us and we do not belong to you, because we call people to Allah, to believe that He is the Only God and to worship Him alone. If you respond, then you will belong to us and we to you, but if you reject our call, then we have nothing to do with you and you have nothing to do with us.' This is like the Ayat:
(And if they deny you, say: "For me are my deeds and for you are your deeds! You are innocent of what I do, and I am innocent of what you do!'') (10:41)
(Say: "O disbelievers! I worship not that which you worship, Nor will you worship that which I worship. And I shall not worship that which you are worshipping. Nor will you worship that which I worship. To you be your religion, and to me my religion.'') (104:1-6).
(Say: "Our Lord will assemble us all together...'') means, `on the Day of Resurrection, He will bring all of creation together in one arena, then He will judge between us with truth, i.e., with justice.' Each person will be rewarded or punished according to his deeds; if they are good, then his end will be good, and if they are bad, then his end will be bad. On that Day they will know who has attained victory, glory and eternal happiness, as Allah says: U
(And on the Day when the Hour will be established -- that Day shall (all men) be separated. Then as for those who believed and did righteous good deeds, such shall be honored and made to enjoy luxurious life (forever) in a Garden of Delight. And as for those who disbelieved and denied Our Ayat, and the meeting of the Hereafter, such shall be brought forth to the torment.) (30:14-16). Allah says:
(And He is the Just Judge, the All-Knower of the true state of affairs.)
(Say: "Show me those whom you have joined with Him as partners...'') means, `show me those gods whom you made as rivals and equals to Allah.'
Nay means, He has no peer, rival, partner or equal. Allah says:
But He is Allah, meaning, the One and Only God Who has no partner.
the Almighty, the All-Wise. means, the Owner of might with which He subjugates and controls all things, the One Who is Wise in all His Words and deeds, Laws and decrees. Blessed and exalted and sanctified be He far above all that they say. And Allah knows best.
(28. And We have not sent you except as a giver of glad tidings and a warner to all mankind, and most of men know not.) (29. And they say: "When is this promise if you are truthful'') (30. Say: "The appointment to you is for a Day, which you cannot put back for an hour nor put forward.'')
(And We have not sent you except as a giver of glad tidings and a warner to all mankind,) i.e., to all of creation among those who are accountable for their deeds. This is like the Ayah:
(Say: "O mankind! Verily, I am sent to you all as the Messenger of Allah.'') (7:158)
(Blessed be He Who sent down the Criterion to His servant that he may be a warner to the all creatures.) (25:1)
a giver of glad tidings and a warner means, to bring the glad tidings of Paradise to those who obey you and to warn of the fire of Hell to those who disobey you. This is like the Ayat:
(and most of men know not.)
(And most of mankind will not believe even if you desire it eagerly.) (12:103)
(And if you obey most of those on the earth, they will mislead you far away from Allah's path) (6:116). Muhammad bin Ka`b said concerning the Ayah:
(And We have not sent you except to all mankind) meaning, to all the people. Qatadah said concerning this Ayah, "Allah, may He be exalted, sent Muhammad to both the Arabs and the non-Arabs, so the most honored of them with Allah is the one who is most obedient to Allah.'' In the Two Sahihs it was reported that Jabir (may Allah be pleased with him) said, "The Messenger of Allah said:
(I have been given five things which were not given to any of the Prophets before me. I have been aided by fear (the distance of) a month's journey. The entire earth has been made a Masjid and a means of purification for me, so that when the time for prayer comes, any man of my Ummah should pray. The spoils of war have been made permissible for me, whereas they were not permitted for any before me. I have been given the power of intercession; and the Prophets before me were sent to their own people, but I have been sent to all of mankind.)'' It was also recorded in the Sahih that the Messenger of Allah said:
(I have been sent to the black and the red.) Mujahid said, "This means to the Jinn and to mankind.'' Others said that it meant the Arabs and the non-Arabs. Both meanings are correct.
(And they say: "When is this promise if you are truthful'') This is like the Ayah:
(Those who believe not therein seek to hasten it, while those who believe are fearful of it, and know that it is the very truth...) (42:18) Then Allah says:
(Say: "The appointment to you is for a Day, which you cannot for an hour move back nor forward.'') meaning, `you have an appointed time which is fixed and cannot be changed or altered. When it comes, you will not be able to put it back or bring it forward,' as Allah says:
(Verily, the term of Allah when it comes, cannot be delayed) (71:4).
(And We delay it only for a term (already) fixed. On the Day when it comes, no person shall speak except by His leave. Some among them will be wretched and (others) blessed.) (11:104-105).
(31. And those who disbelieve say: "We believe not in this Qur'an nor in that which was before it.'' But if you could see when the wrongdoers are made to stand before their Lord, how they will cast the (blaming) word one to another! Those who were deemed weak will say to those who were arrogant: "Had it not been for you, we should certainly have been believers!'') (32. And those who were arrogant will say to those who were deemed weak: "Did we keep you back from guidance after it had come to you Nay, but you were criminals.'') (33. Those who were deemed weak will say to those who were arrogant: "Nay, but it was your plotting by night and day, when you ordered us to disbelieve in Allah and set up rivals to Him!'' And each of them (parties) will conceal their own regrets, when they behold the torment. And We shall put iron collars round the necks of those who disbelieved. Are they requited aught except what they used to do)