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Refutation of Their Accusation that the Prophet was Insane

Allah says: `Say, O Muhammad, to these disbelievers who claim that you are crazy,'

﴿ إِنَّمَآ أَعِظُكُم بِوَٲحِدَةٍۖ

I exhort you to one (thing) only, meaning, I am only telling you to one thing, and that is:

﴿ أَن تَقُومُواْ لِلَّهِ مَثۡنَىٰ وَفُرَٲدَىٰ ثُمَّ تَتَفَڪَّرُواْۚ مَا بِصَاحِبِكُم مِّن جِنَّةٍۚ

that you stand up for Allah s sake in pairs and singly, and reflect, there is no madness in your companion. meaning, `stand sincerely before Allah, without being influenced by your own desires or tribal feelings, and ask one another, is Muhammad crazy Advise one another,'

﴿ ثُمَّ تَتَفَڪَّرُواْۚ

and reflect means, let each person look within himself concerning the matter of Muhammad, and ask other people about him if he is still confused, then let him think about the matter. Allah says:

﴿ أَن تَقُومُواْ لِلَّهِ مَثۡنَىٰ وَفُرَٲدَىٰ ثُمَّ تَتَفَڪَّرُواْۚ مَا بِصَاحِبِكُم مِّن جِنَّةٍۚ

(that you stand up for Allah's sake in pairs and singly, and reflect, there is no madness in your companion.) This meaning was stated by Mujahid, Muhammad bin Ka`b, As-Suddi, Qatadah and others. This is what is meant by the Ayah.

﴿ إِنۡ هُوَ إِلَّا نَذِيرٌ۬ لَّكُم بَيۡنَ يَدَىۡ عَذَابٍ۬ شَدِيدٍ۬

(He is only a warner to you in face of a severe torment.) Al-Bukhari recorded that Ibn `Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him), commented on this Ayah: "One day, the Prophet climbed up As-Safa' and shouted,

« يَا صَبَاحَاه »

(O people!) The Quraysh gathered around him, and said, `What is the matter with you' He said,

« أَرَأَيْتُمْ لَوْ أَخْبَرْتُكُمْ أَنَّ الْعَدُوَّ يُصَبِّحُكُمْ أَوْ يُمَسِّيكُمْ أَمَا كُنْتُمْ تُصَدِّقُونِّي »

(What do you think If I told you that the enemy were approaching and will reach us in the morning or in the evening, would you believe me) They said, `Of course.' He said:

« فَإِنِّي نَذِيرٌ لَكُمْ بَيْنَ يَدَيْ عَذَابٍ شَدِيد »

(I am a warner to you in the face of a severe punishment.) Abu Lahab said, `May you perish! You have called us together only to tell us this' Then Allah revealed:

﴿ تَبَّتۡ يَدَآ أَبِى لَهَبٍ۬ وَتَبَّ

(Perish the two hands of Abu Lahab and perish he!) (111:1) We have already discussed this in our Tafsir of the Ayah:

﴿ وَأَنذِرۡ عَشِيرَتَكَ ٱلۡأَقۡرَبِينَ

(And warn your tribe of near kindred) (26:214).

﴿ قُلۡ مَا سَأَلۡتُكُم مِّنۡ أَجۡرٍ۬ فَهُوَ لَكُمۡۖ إِنۡ أَجۡرِىَ إِلَّا عَلَى ٱللَّهِۖ وَهُوَ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَىۡءٍ۬ شَہِيدٌ۬ قُلۡ إِنَّ رَبِّى يَقۡذِفُ بِٱلۡحَقِّ عَلَّـٰمُ ٱلۡغُيُوبِ قُلۡ جَآءَ ٱلۡحَقُّ وَمَا يُبۡدِئُ ٱلۡبَـٰطِلُ وَمَا يُعِيدُ قُلۡ إِن ضَلَلۡتُ فَإِنَّمَآ أَضِلُّ عَلَىٰ نَفۡسِىۖ وَإِنِ ٱهۡتَدَيۡتُ فَبِمَا يُوحِىٓ إِلَىَّ رَبِّىٓۚ إِنَّهُ ۥ سَمِيعٌ۬ قَرِيبٌ۬

(47. Say: "Whatever wage I might have asked of you is yours. My wage is from Allah only, and He is a Witness over all things.'') (48. Say: "Verily, my Lord sends down the truth, the All-Knower of the Unseen.'') (49. Say: "The truth has come, and the falsehood can neither create anything nor resurrect.'') (50. Say: "If (even) I go astray, I shall stray only to my own loss. But if I remain guided, it is because of the Revelation of my Lord to me. Truly, He is All-Hearer, Ever Near.'')

I do not ask for any Reward for conveying the Message

Allah commands His Messenger to say to the idolaters:

﴿ مَا سَأَلۡتُكُم مِّنۡ أَجۡرٍ۬ فَهُوَ لَكُمۡۖ

(Whatever wage I might have asked of you is yours.) meaning, `I do not want anything for conveying the Message of Allah to you, advising you and telling you to worship Allah.'

﴿ إِنۡ أَجۡرِىَ إِلَّا عَلَى ٱللَّهِۖ

My wage is from Allah only, means, rather I will seek the reward for that with Allah.

﴿ وَهُوَ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَىۡءٍ۬ شَہِيدٌ۬

and He is a Witness over all things. means, He knows all things, and He knows everything about me and the manner in which I am conveying the Message to you, and He knows all about you.

﴿ قُلۡ إِنَّ رَبِّى يَقۡذِفُ بِٱلۡحَقِّ عَلَّـٰمُ ٱلۡغُيُوبِ

(Say: "Verily, my Lord sends down the truth, the All-Knower of the Unseen.'') This is like the Ayah:

﴿ يُلۡقِى ٱلرُّوحَ مِنۡ أَمۡرِهِۦ عَلَىٰ مَن يَشَآءُ مِنۡ عِبَادِهِۦ

(He sends the Revelation by His command to any of His servants He wills) (40:15). meaning, He sends the angel to whomsoever He wills of His servants among the people on earth, and He is the All-Knower of the Unseen; nothing whatsoever is hidden from Him in the heavens or on earth.

﴿ قُلۡ جَآءَ ٱلۡحَقُّ وَمَا يُبۡدِئُ ٱلۡبَـٰطِلُ وَمَا يُعِيدُ

(Say: "The truth has come, and the falsehood can neither create anything nor resurrect.'') means, truth and the great Law have come from Allah, and falsehood has gone and has perished and vanished. This is like the Ayah:

﴿ بَلۡ نَقۡذِفُ بِٱلۡحَقِّ عَلَى ٱلۡبَـٰطِلِ فَيَدۡمَغُهُ ۥ فَإِذَا هُوَ زَاهِقٌ۬‌ۚ

(Nay, We fling the truth against the falsehood, so it destroys it, and behold, it is vanished) (21:18). When the Messenger of Allah entered Al-Masjid Al-Haram on the day of the conquest of Makkah, and found those idols standing around the Ka`bah, he started to hit the idols with his bow, reciting,

﴿ وَقُلۡ جَآءَ ٱلۡحَقُّ وَزَهَقَ ٱلۡبَـٰطِلُ‌ۚ إِنَّ ٱلۡبَـٰطِلَ كَانَ زَهُوقً۬ا

(And say: "The truth has come and the falsehood has vanished. Surely, the falsehood is ever bound to vanish.'') (17:81), and:

﴿ قُلۡ جَآءَ ٱلۡحَقُّ وَمَا يُبۡدِئُ ٱلۡبَـٰطِلُ وَمَا يُعِيدُ

(Say: "The truth has come, and the falsehood can neither create anything nor resurrect.'') This was recorded by Al-Bukhari, Muslim, At-Tirmidhi and An-Nasa'i.

﴿ قُلۡ إِن ضَلَلۡتُ فَإِنَّمَآ أَضِلُّ عَلَىٰ نَفۡسِىۖ وَإِنِ ٱهۡتَدَيۡتُ فَبِمَا يُوحِىٓ إِلَىَّ رَبِّىٓۚ

(Say: "If (even) I go astray, I shall stray only to my own loss. But if I remain guided, it is because of the Revelation of my Lord to me...'') means, all good comes from Allah, and in what Allah sends down of revelation and clear truth there is guidance and wisdom. So whoever goes astray, does so by himself, as `Abdullah bin Mas`ud (may Allah be pleased with him), said when he was asked about some issue. He said, "I will say what I think, and if it is correct, then it is from Allah, and if it is wrong, then it is from me and from the Shaytan, and Allah and His Messenger have nothing to do with it.''

﴿ إِنَّهُ ۥ سَمِيعٌ۬ قَرِيبٌ۬

Truly, He is All-Hearer, Ever Near. means, He hears all the words of His servants, and He is always near to respond to them when they call on Him. An-Nasa’i recorded the Hadith of Abu Musa which also appears in the Two Sahihs:

« إِنَّكُمْ لَاتَدْعُونَ أَصَمَّ وَلَا غَائِبًا، إِنَّمَا تَدْعُونَ سَمِيعًا قَرِيبًا مُجِيبًا »

(You are not calling upon one who is deaf or absent; you are calling upon One Who is All-Hearer, Ever Near and Responsive.)

﴿ وَلَوۡ تَرَىٰٓ إِذۡ فَزِعُواْ فَلَا فَوۡتَ وَأُخِذُواْ مِن مَّكَانٍ۬ قَرِيبٍ۬ وَقَالُوٓاْ ءَامَنَّا بِهِۦ وَأَنَّىٰ لَهُمُ ٱلتَّنَاوُشُ مِن مَّكَانِۭ بَعِيدٍ۬ وَقَدۡ ڪَفَرُواْ بِهِۦ مِن قَبۡلُۖ وَيَقۡذِفُونَ بِٱلۡغَيۡبِ مِن مَّكَانِۭ بَعِيدٍ۬ وَحِيلَ بَيۡنَہُمۡ وَبَيۡنَ مَا يَشۡتَہُونَ كَمَا فُعِلَ بِأَشۡيَاعِهِم مِّن قَبۡلُۚ إِنَّہُمۡ كَانُواْ فِى شَكٍّ۬ مُّرِيبِۭ

(51. And if you could but see, when they will be terrified with no escape, and they will be seized from a near place.) (52. And they will say: "We do believe (now);'' but how could they receive (Tanawush) from a place so far off.) (53. Indeed they did disbelieve before (in this world), and they (used to) conjecture about the Unseen, from a far place.) (54. And a barrier will be set between them and that which they desire, as was done in the past with the people of their kind. Verily, they have been in grave doubt.) Here Allah says: `if only you could see, O Muhammad, when these deniers are terrified on the Day of Resurrection, and they have no way of escape and nowhere to run to and no refuge.'

﴿ وَأُخِذُواْ مِن مَّكَانٍ۬ قَرِيبٍ۬

(and they will be seized from a near place.) means, they will not even be given the slightest chance of escape, but they will be seized from the first instant. Al-Hasan Al-Basri said: "When they come forth from their graves.''

﴿ وَقَالُوٓاْ ءَامَنَّا بِهِۦ

(And they will say: "We do believe (now);'') means, on the Day of Resurrection, they will say, `we believe in Allah and His angels, Books and Messengers.' This is like the Ayah:

﴿ وَلَوۡ تَرَىٰٓ إِذِ ٱلۡمُجۡرِمُونَ نَاكِسُواْ رُءُوسِہِمۡ عِندَ رَبِّهِمۡ رَبَّنَآ أَبۡصَرۡنَا وَسَمِعۡنَا فَٱرۡجِعۡنَا نَعۡمَلۡ صَـٰلِحًا إِنَّا مُوقِنُونَ

(And if you only could see when the criminals shall hang their heads before their Lord (saying): "Our Lord! We have now seen and heard, so send us back that we will do righteous good deeds. Verily, we now believe with certainty.'') (32:12) Allah says:

﴿ وَأَنَّىٰ لَهُمُ ٱلتَّنَاوُشُ مِن مَّكَانِۭ بَعِيدٍ۬

(but how could they receive from a place so far off) meaning, how could they attain faith now that they are so far removed from the place where it could be accepted from them, and they have entered the realm of the Hereafter which is the realm of reward and punishment, not the realm of trial and testing If they had believed in this world, that would have been good for them, but now they have entered the Hereafter, there is no way that their faith can be accepted, just as there is no way a person can get a thing if he is far away from it. Mujahid said:

﴿ وَأَنَّىٰ لَهُمُ ٱلتَّنَاوُشُ

but how could they At-Tanawush means, How could they attain that? Az-Zuhri said, They will wish to attain faith when they have reached the Hereafter and are cut off from this world. Al-Hasan Al-Basri said, They will seek something when they have no way of attaining it, they will seek faith from a distant place.

﴿ وَقَدۡ ڪَفَرُواْ بِهِۦ مِن قَبۡلُۖ

Indeed they did disbelieve before, means, how can they attain faith in the Hereafter when in this world they disbelieved in the truth and denied the Messengers.

﴿ وَيَقۡذِفُونَ بِٱلۡغَيۡبِ مِن مَّكَانِۭ بَعِيدٍ۬

(and they (used to) conjecture about the Unseen from a far place.) Malik narrated from Zayd bin Aslam that he said:

﴿ وَيَقۡذِفُونَ بِٱلۡغَيۡبِ

(and they (used to) conjecture about the Unseen,) means, "By guessing.'' as Allah says,

﴿ رَجۡمَۢا بِٱلۡغَيۡبِ‌ۖ

guessing at the Unseen (18:22). Sometimes they said he was a poet, sometimes they said he was a soothsayer, or a sorcerer, or a mad man, or other baseless comments. They denied the idea of resurrection and said:

﴿ إِن نَّظُنُّ إِلَّا ظَنًّ۬ا وَمَا نَحۡنُ بِمُسۡتَيۡقِنِينَ

(we do not think it but as a conjecture, and we have no firm convincing belief.) (45:32). Qatadah and Mujahid said, "Their belief that there would be no resurrection, no Paradise and no Hell was based on mere conjecture.''

﴿ وَحِيلَ بَيۡنَہُمۡ وَبَيۡنَ مَا يَشۡتَہُونَ

(And a barrier will be set between them and that which they desire,) Al-Hasan Al-Basri, Ad-Dahhak and others, `This means faith.'' As-Suddi said:

﴿ وَحِيلَ بَيۡنَہُمۡ وَبَيۡنَ مَا يَشۡتَہُونَ

(And a barrier will be set between them and that which they desire,) means "Repentance.'' This was also the view of Ibn Jarir, may Allah have mercy on him. Mujahid said:

﴿ وَحِيلَ بَيۡنَہُمۡ وَبَيۡنَ مَا يَشۡتَہُونَ

(And a barrier will be set between them and that which they desire,) means, "This world and its wealth, luxuries and people.'' Something similar was narrated from Ibn `Umar, Ibn `Abbas and Ar-Rabi` bin Anas (may Allah be pleased with him). It is also the opinion of Al-Bukhari and the Group. The correct view is that there is no contradiction between the two views, for a barrier will be set between them and what they desire in this world, and what they seek in the Hereafter will be denied from them.

﴿ كَمَا فُعِلَ بِأَشۡيَاعِهِم مِّن قَبۡلُۚ

(as was done in the past with the people of their kind.) means, as happened to the nations of the past who disbelieved in the Messengers; when the punishment of Allah came upon them, they wished that they had believed, but this was not accepted from them.

﴿ فَلَمَّا رَأَوۡاْ بَأۡسَنَا قَالُوٓاْ ءَامَنَّا بِٱللَّهِ وَحۡدَهُ ۥ وَڪَفَرۡنَا بِمَا كُنَّا بِهِۦ مُشۡرِكِينَ فَلَمۡ يَكُ يَنفَعُهُمۡ إِيمَـٰنُہُمۡ لَمَّا رَأَوۡاْ بَأۡسَنَاۖ سُنَّتَ ٱللَّهِ ٱلَّتِى قَدۡ خَلَتۡ فِى عِبَادِهِۖۦ وَخَسِرَ هُنَالِكَ ٱلۡكَـٰفِرُونَ

(So, when they saw Our punishment, they said: "We believe in Allah Alone and reject (all) that we used to associate with Him as (His) partners. "Then their faith could not avail them when they saw Our punishment. (Like) this has been the way of Allah in dealing with His servants. And there the disbelievers lost utterly.) (40:84-85).

﴿ إِنَّہُمۡ كَانُواْ فِى شَكٍّ۬ مُّرِيبِۭ

Verily, they have been in grave doubt. means, in this world they had doubts, so their faith will not be accepted from them when they behold the punishment with their own eyes. Qatadah said, Beware of doubt. For whoever dies doubting, will be raised doubting, and whoever dies believing, with certainty will be raised believing with certainty. This is the end of the Tafsir of Surah Saba'. Allah, may He be glorified and exalted, is the Guide to the right way.

Which was revealed in Makkah
﴿ بِسۡمِ ٱللَّهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

﴿ ٱلۡحَمۡدُ لِلَّهِ فَاطِرِ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِ جَاعِلِ ٱلۡمَلَـٰٓٮِٕكَةِ رُسُلاً أُوْلِىٓ أَجۡنِحَةٍ۬ مَّثۡنَىٰ وَثُلَـٰثَ وَرُبَـٰعَۚ يَزِيدُ فِى ٱلۡخَلۡقِ مَا يَشَآءُۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَىۡءٍ۬ قَدِيرٌ۬

(1. All praise is due to Allah, Fatir of the heavens and the earth, Who made the angels messengers with wings, two or three or four. He increases in creation what He wills. Verily, Allah is Able to do all things.)

The Power of Allah

Ibn `Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him) said, "I did not know what Fatir As-Samawati wal-Ard meant until two bedouins came to me disputing over a well. One of them said to his companion, `Ana Fatartuha,' meaning, `I started it.''' Ibn `Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him) also said,

﴿ فَاطِرِ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِ

(Fatir of the heavens and the earth,) means, "The Originator of the heavens and the earth.'' Ad-Dahhak said, "Every time the phrase Fatir As-Samawati wal-Ard is used in the Qur'an, it means the Creator of the heavens and the earth.''

﴿ جَاعِلِ ٱلۡمَلَـٰٓٮِٕكَةِ رُسُلاً

(Who made the angels messengers) means, between Him and His Prophets.

﴿ أُوْلِىٓ أَجۡنِحَةٍ۬

with wings means, with which they fly to convey quickly that which they have been commanded to convey.

﴿ مَّثۡنَىٰ وَثُلَـٰثَ وَرُبَـٰعَۚ

two or three or four. means, among them are some who have two wings, some have three and some who have four. Some have more than that, as stated in the Hadith mentioning that the Messenger of Allah saw Jibril (peace be upon him) on the Night of the Isra’ with six hundred wings. Between each pair of wings was a distance like that between the east and the west. Allah says:

﴿ يَزِيدُ فِى ٱلۡخَلۡقِ مَا يَشَآءُۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَىۡءٍ۬ قَدِيرٌ۬

(He increases in creation what He wills. Verily, Allah is Able to do all things.) As-Suddi said, "He increases their wings and creates them as He wills.''

﴿ مَّا يَفۡتَحِ ٱللَّهُ لِلنَّاسِ مِن رَّحۡمَةٍ۬ فَلَا مُمۡسِكَ لَهَاۖ وَمَا يُمۡسِكۡ فَلَا مُرۡسِلَ لَهُ ۥ مِنۢ بَعۡدِهِۚۦ وَهُوَ ٱلۡعَزِيزُ ٱلۡحَكِيمُ

(2. Whatever of mercy, Allah may grant to mankind, none can withhold it; and whatever He may withhold, none can grant it thereafter. And He is the Almighty, the All-Wise.)

None can withhold the Mercy of

Allah tells us that what He wills, happens, and what He does not will, does not happen. None can give what He withholds, and none can withhold what He gives. Imam Ahmad recorded that Warrad, the freed slave of Al-Mughirah bin Shu`bah, said, "Mu`awiyah wrote to Al-Mughirah bin Shu`bah, saying, `Write for me what you heard from the Messenger of Allah.' So Al-Mughirah called me and I wrote for him: `I heard the Messenger of Allah say when he finished praying,

« لَا إِلهَ إِلَّا اللهُ وَحْدَهُ لَا شَرِيكَ لَهُ، لَهُ الْمُلْكُ وَلَهُ الْحَمْدُ، وَهُوَ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ، اللْهُمَّ لَا مَانِعَ لِمَا أَعْطَيْتَ وَلَا مُعْطِيَ لِمَا مَنَعْتَ، وَلَا يَنْفَعُ ذَا الْجَدِّ مِنْكَ الْجَد »

(There is no god (worthy of worship) except Allah alone, with no partner or associate. To Him be praise and dominion, and He is able to do all things. O Allah, there is none who can withhold what You give, and none can give what You withhold, and good fortune and richness in anything cannot benefit one against Your will.) `And I heard him forbid gossiping, asking too many questions and wasting money, burying girls alive, disobeying one's mother, and withholding from others while asking from them.''' This was also recorded by Al-Bukhari and Muslim, with several chain of narration. It was recorded in Sahih Muslim that Abu Sa`id Al-Khudri (may Allah be pleased with him) said, "When the Messenger of Allah raised his head from bowing, he would say:

« سَمِعَ اللهُ لِمَنْ حَمِدَهُ، اللْهُمَّ رَبَّنَا لَكَ الْحَمْدُ مِلْءُ السَّمَاءِ وَالْأَرْضِ، وَمِلْءُ مَا شِئْتَ مِنْ شَيْءٍ بَعْدُ، اللْهُمَّ أَهْلَ الثَّنَاءِ وَالْمَجْدِ، أَحَقُّ مَا قَالَ الْعَبْدُ وَكُلُّنَا لَكَ عَبْدٌ، اللْهُمَّ لَا مَانِعَ لِمَا أَعْطَيْتَ وَلَا مُعْطِيَ لِمَا مَنَعْتَ، وَلَا يَنْفَعُ ذَا الْجَدِّ مِنْكَ الْجَد »

(Allah hears those who praise Him. O Allah, our Lord, to You be praise, filling the heavens and the earth, and filling whatever You wish besides. O Allah, the One deserving praise and glory. The truest words that any servant says -- and all of us are Your servants -- are: O Allah, there is none who can withhold what You give, and none can give what You withhold, and no wealth or majesty can benefit anyone against Your will.)'' This Ayah is like the Ayah:

﴿ وَإِن يَمۡسَسۡكَ ٱللَّهُ بِضُرٍّ۬ فَلَا ڪَاشِفَ لَهُ ۥۤ إِلَّا هُوَ‌ۖ وَإِن يُرِدۡكَ بِخَيۡرٍ۬ فَلَا رَآدَّ لِفَضۡلِهِۦ‌ۚ

(And if Allah touches you with harm, there is none who can remove it but He; and if He intends any good for you, there is none who can repel His favor) (10:107). And there are many similar Ayat.

﴿ يَـٰٓأَيُّہَا ٱلنَّاسُ ٱذۡكُرُواْ نِعۡمَتَ ٱللَّهِ عَلَيۡكُمۡۚ هَلۡ مِنۡ خَـٰلِقٍ غَيۡرُ ٱللَّهِ يَرۡزُقُكُم مِّنَ ٱلسَّمَآءِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِۚ لَآ إِلَـٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَۖ فَأَنَّىٰ تُؤۡفَكُونَ

(3. O mankind! Remember the grace of Allah upon you! Is there any creator other than Allah who provides for you from the sky (rain) and the earth La ilaha illa Huwa. How then are you turning away (from Him))