;
Allah is the Creator and Knower of the Unseen
﴿ وَٱللَّهُ خَلَقَكُم مِّن تُرَابٍ۬ ثُمَّ مِن نُّطۡفَةٍ۬

(And Allah did create you from dust, then from Nutfah,) means, He initiated the creation of your father Adam from dust, then He created his offspring from semen of worthless water.

﴿ ثُمَّ جَعَلَكُمۡ أَزۡوَٲجً۬اۚ

then He made you pairs. means, male and female, as a kindness and a mercy from Him, He gave you partners from your own kind, that you may find repose in them.

﴿ وَمَا تَحۡمِلُ مِنۡ أُنثَىٰ وَلَا تَضَعُ إِلَّا بِعِلۡمِهِۚۦ

(And no female conceives or gives birth but with His knowledge.) means, He knows about that and nothing is hidden from Him at all, but,

﴿ وَمَا تَسۡقُطُ مِن وَرَقَةٍ إِلَّا يَعۡلَمُهَا وَلَا حَبَّةٍ۬ فِى ظُلُمَـٰتِ ٱلۡأَرۡضِ وَلَا رَطۡبٍ۬ وَلَا يَابِسٍ إِلَّا فِى كِتَـٰبٍ۬ مُّبِينٍ۬

(not a leaf falls, but He knows it. There is not a grain in the darkness of the earth nor anything fresh or dry, but is written in a Clear Record.) (6:59) We have already discussed in this respect in the Ayah:

﴿ ٱللَّهُ يَعۡلَمُ مَا تَحۡمِلُ ڪُلُّ أُنثَىٰ وَمَا تَغِيضُ ٱلۡأَرۡحَامُ وَمَا تَزۡدَادُ‌ۖ وَڪُلُّ شَىۡءٍ عِندَهُ ۥ بِمِقۡدَارٍ عَـٰلِمُ ٱلۡغَيۡبِ وَٱلشَّہَـٰدَةِ ٱلۡڪَبِيرُ ٱلۡمُتَعَالِ

(Allah knows what every female bears, and by how much the wombs fall short or exceed. Everything with Him is in (due) proportion. All-Knower of the unseen and the seen, the Most Great, the Most High.) (13:8-9).

﴿ وَمَا يُعَمَّرُ مِن مُّعَمَّرٍ۬ وَلَا يُنقَصُ مِنۡ عُمُرِهِۦۤ إِلَّا فِى كِتَـٰبٍۚ

(And no aged man is granted a length of life nor is a part cut off from his life, but is in a Book.) means, some of those sperm are granted a long life, which He knows and it is recorded with Him in the First Book.

﴿ وَلَا يُنقَصُ مِنۡ عُمُرِهِۦۤ

nor is a part cut off from his life, Here the pronoun (his) refers to mankind in general, not to a specific person, because the long life which is recorded in the Book and is known by Allah will not be cut off. It was reported via Al- Awfi that Ibn Abbas said concerning the Ayah,

﴿ وَمَا يُعَمَّرُ مِن مُّعَمَّرٍ۬ وَلَا يُنقَصُ مِنۡ عُمُرِهِۦۤ إِلَّا فِى كِتَـٰبٍۚ إِنَّ ذَٲلِكَ عَلَى ٱللَّهِ يَسِيرٌ۬

(And no aged man is granted a length of life nor is a part cut off from his life, but is in a Book. Surely, that is easy for Allah.) There is no one for whom Allah has decreed a long life but he will reach the age that has been decreed for him. When he reaches the time that has been decreed for him, he will not surpass it. And there is no one for whom Allah has decreed a short life but it will end when he reaches the age that has been decreed for him. Allah says:

﴿ وَلَا يُنقَصُ مِنۡ عُمُرِهِۦۤ إِلَّا فِى كِتَـٰبٍۚ إِنَّ ذَٲلِكَ عَلَى ٱللَّهِ يَسِيرٌ۬

(nor is a part cut off from his life, but is in a Book. Surely, that is easy for Allah.) He said, "That is recorded in a Book with Him.'' This was also the view of Ad-Dahhak bin Muzahim. On the other hand, some of them said, "The phrase

﴿ وَمَا يُعَمَّرُ مِن مُّعَمَّرٍ۬

(And no aged man is granted a length of life) means, what He decrees for him of life, and

﴿ وَلَا يُنقَصُ مِنۡ عُمُرِهِۦۤ

nor is a part cut off from his life means, his time is constantly decreasing. All of this is known to Allah year after year, month after month, week after week, day after day, hour after hour. Everything is written with Allah in His Book. This was reported by Ibn Jarir from Abu Malik, and was also the view of As-Suddi and Ata' Al-Khurasani. In the Tafsir of this Ayah, An-Nasa'i recorded that Anas bin Malik (may Allah be pleased with him) said, "I heard the Messenger of Allah say:

« مَنْ سَرَّهُ أَنْ يُبْسَطَ لَهُ فِي رِزْقِهِ وَيُنْسَأَ لَهُ فِي أَثَرِهِ فَلْيَصِلْ رَحِمَه »

(Whoever would like to have ample provision and a long life, let him uphold the ties of kinship.)'' It was also recorded by Al-Bukhari, Muslim and Abu Dawud.

﴿ إِنَّ ذَٲلِكَ عَلَى ٱللَّهِ يَسِيرٌ۬

Surely, that is easy for Allah. means, that is very easy for Him, and He has detailed knowledge of all His creation, for His knowledge encompasses all things, and nothing at all is hidden from Him.

﴿ وَمَا يَسۡتَوِى ٱلۡبَحۡرَانِ هَـٰذَا عَذۡبٌ۬ فُرَاتٌ۬ سَآٮِٕغٌ۬ شَرَابُهُ ۥ وَهَـٰذَا مِلۡحٌ أُجَاجٌ۬ۖ وَمِن كُلٍّ۬ تَأۡڪُلُونَ لَحۡمً۬ا طَرِيًّ۬ا وَتَسۡتَخۡرِجُونَ حِلۡيَةً۬ تَلۡبَسُونَهَاۖ وَتَرَى ٱلۡفُلۡكَ فِيهِ مَوَاخِرَ لِتَبۡتَغُواْ مِن فَضۡلِهِۦ وَلَعَلَّكُمۡ تَشۡڪُرُونَ

(12. And the two seas (kinds of water) are not alike: this is palatable, sweet and pleasant to drink, and that is salty and bitter. And from them both you eat fresh tender meat (fish), and derive the ornaments that you wear. And you see the ships cleaving, that you may seek of His bounty, and that you may give thanks.)

The Blessings and Signs of Allah

Allah says, pointing out His mighty power in creating different things, how He has created the two seas (kinds of water). The fresh, palatable sea (kind of water) refers to the rivers which flow among people, rivers great and small according to people's needs in all regions and areas and lands. This water is sweet and palatable for whoever wants to drink it.

﴿ وَهَـٰذَا مِلۡحٌ أُجَاجٌ۬ۖ

and that is salty and bitter. means, unpalatable. This is the ocean in which the big ships sail, and is salty and undrinkable. Allah says:

﴿ وَهَـٰذَا مِلۡحٌ أُجَاجٌ۬ۖ

(and that is salty and bittery.) Then Allah says:

﴿ وَمِن كُلٍّ۬ تَأۡڪُلُونَ لَحۡمً۬ا طَرِيًّ۬ا

(And from them both you eat fresh tender meat,) meaning, fish.

﴿ وَتَسۡتَخۡرِجُونَ حِلۡيَةً۬ تَلۡبَسُونَهَاۖ

(and derive the ornaments that you wear.) This is like the Ayah:

﴿ يَخۡرُجُ مِنۡہُمَا ٱللُّؤۡلُؤُ وَٱلۡمَرۡجَانُ فَبِأَىِّ ءَالَآءِ رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ

(Out of them both come out pearl and coral. Then which of the blessings of your Lord will you both (Jinn and men) deny) (55:22-23).

﴿ وَتَرَى ٱلۡفُلۡكَ فِيهِ مَوَاخِرَ

And you see the ships cleaving, means, they travel through it, plowing through the water with their beak-shaped bows. Mujahid said, The wind drives the ships, and the wind cannot drive any ships except the big ones.

﴿ لِتَبۡتَغُواْ مِن فَضۡلِهِۦ

that you may seek of His bounty, means, through your journeys to engage in trade from one land to another.

﴿ وَلَعَلَّكُمۡ تَشۡڪُرُونَ

and that you may give thanks. means, that you may give thanks to your Lord for subjugating this mighty creation -- the sea -- to you, so that you can travel through it as you wish and go wherever you want, and nothing stops you؛ His power has subjugated for you whatever is in the heavens and on earth, and all of this is by His grace and mercy.

﴿ يُولِجُ ٱلَّيۡلَ فِى ٱلنَّهَارِ وَيُولِجُ ٱلنَّهَارَ فِى ٱلَّيۡلِ وَسَخَّرَ ٱلشَّمۡسَ وَٱلۡقَمَرَ ڪُلٌّ۬ يَجۡرِى لِأَجَلٍ۬ مُّسَمًّ۬ىۚ ذَٲلِڪُمُ ٱللَّهُ رَبُّكُمۡ لَهُ ٱلۡمُلۡكُۚ وَٱلَّذِينَ تَدۡعُونَ مِن دُونِهِۦ مَا يَمۡلِكُونَ مِن قِطۡمِيرٍ إِن تَدۡعُوهُمۡ لَا يَسۡمَعُواْ دُعَآءَكُمۡ وَلَوۡ سَمِعُواْ مَا ٱسۡتَجَابُواْ لَكُمۡۖ وَيَوۡمَ ٱلۡقِيَـٰمَةِ يَكۡفُرُونَ بِشِرۡڪِكُمۡۚ وَلَا يُنَبِّئُكَ مِثۡلُ خَبِيرٍ۬

(13. He merges the night into the day, and He merges the day into the night. And He has subjected the sun and the moon, each runs its course for a term appointed. Such is Allah, your Lord; His is the kingdom. And those, whom you invoke or call upon instead of Him, own not even a Qitmir.) (14. If you invoke them, they hear your call; and if (in case) they were to hear, they could not grant it to you. And on the Day of Resurrection, they will disown your worshipping them. And none can inform you like Him Who is the All-Knower.)

The gods of the Idolators do not even own a Qitmir

Another aspect of His perfect power and might is that He has subjugated the night with its darkness and the day with its light. He takes from the length of the one and adds it to the shortness of the other, until they become equal. Then He takes from the latter and adds to the former, so one becomes long and the other becomes short, so they take from one another in summer and in winter.

﴿ وَسَخَّرَ ٱلشَّمۡسَ وَٱلۡقَمَرَ

(And He has subjected the sun and the moon,) and the stars and planets, with their light. All of them run in their appointed courses and in the manner prescribed for them, as decreed by the Almighty, All-Knowing.

﴿ كُلٌّ۬ يَجۡرِى لِأَجَلٍ۬ مُّسَمًّ۬ى‌ۚ

each runs its course for a term appointed. means, until the Day of Resurrection.

﴿ ذَٲلِڪُمُ ٱللَّهُ رَبُّكُمۡ

Such is Allah, your Lord? means, the One Who has done all this is the Almighty Lord besides Whom there is no other true God.

﴿ وَٱلَّذِينَ تَدۡعُونَ مِن دُونِهِۦ

(And those, whom you invoke or call upon instead of Him,) means, `the idols and false gods whom you claim to be in the form of angels who are close to Allah,'

﴿ مَا يَمۡلِكُونَ مِن قِطۡمِيرٍ

own not even a Qitmir. Ibn Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him), Mujahid, Ikrimah, Ata' , 'Atiyah Al- Awfi, Al-Hasan, Qatadah and others said, This is the thread that is attached to the pit of a date. In other words, they do not possess anything in the heavens or on earth, not even anything equivalent to this Qitmir. Then Allah says:

﴿ إِن تَدۡعُوهُمۡ لَا يَسۡمَعُواْ دُعَآءَكُمۡ

(If you invoke them, they hear not your call;) means, `the gods upon whom you call instead of Allah, do not hear your supplication, because they are inanimate and have no soul in them.'

﴿ وَلَوۡ سَمِعُواْ مَا ٱسۡتَجَابُواْ لَكُمۡۖ

(and if (in case) they were to hear, they could not grant it to you.) means, `they are not able to do any of the things that you ask them for.'

﴿ وَيَوۡمَ ٱلۡقِيَـٰمَةِ يَكۡفُرُونَ بِشِرۡڪِكُمۡۚ

And on the Day of Resurrection, they will disown your worshipping them means, `they will disown you.' This is like the Ayat:

﴿ وَمَنۡ أَضَلُّ مِمَّن يَدۡعُواْ مِن دُونِ ٱللَّهِ مَن لَّا يَسۡتَجِيبُ لَهُ ۥۤ إِلَىٰ يَوۡمِ ٱلۡقِيَـٰمَةِ وَهُمۡ عَن دُعَآٮِٕهِمۡ غَـٰفِلُونَ وَإِذَا حُشِرَ ٱلنَّاسُ كَانُواْ لَهُمۡ أَعۡدَآءً۬ وَكَانُواْ بِعِبَادَتِہِمۡ كَـٰفِرِينَ

(And who is more astray than one who calls on besides Allah, such as will not answer him till the Day of Resurrection, and who are (even) unaware of their calls to them And when mankind are gathered, they (false deities) will become their enemies and will deny their worshipping.) (46:5-6), and

﴿ وَٱتَّخَذُواْ مِن دُونِ ٱللَّهِ ءَالِهَةً۬ لِّيَكُونُواْ لَهُمۡ عِزًّ۬ا
﴿ كَلَّا‌ۚ سَيَكۡفُرُونَ بِعِبَادَتِہِمۡ وَيَكُونُونَ عَلَيۡہِمۡ ضِدًّا

(And they have taken gods besides Allah, that they might give them honor, power and glory. Nay, but they will deny their worship of them, and become opponents to them.) (19:81-82)

﴿ وَلَا يُنَبِّئُكَ مِثۡلُ خَبِيرٍ۬

(And none can inform you like Him Who is the All-Knower.) means, no one can tell you about the consequences of things and how they will end like the One Who is the All-Knower of them. Qatadah said, "He is referring to Himself, may He be blessed and exalted, for He undoubtedly tells the truth.''

﴿ يَـٰٓأَيُّہَا ٱلنَّاسُ أَنتُمُ ٱلۡفُقَرَآءُ إِلَى ٱللَّهِۖ وَٱللَّهُ هُوَ ٱلۡغَنِىُّ ٱلۡحَمِيدُ إِن يَشَأۡ يُذۡهِبۡڪُمۡ وَيَأۡتِ بِخَلۡقٍ۬ جَدِيدٍ۬ وَمَا ذَٲلِكَ عَلَى ٱللَّهِ بِعَزِيزٍ۬ وَلَا تَزِرُ وَازِرَةٌ۬ وِزۡرَ أُخۡرَىٰۚ وَإِن تَدۡعُ مُثۡقَلَةٌ إِلَىٰ حِمۡلِهَا لَا يُحۡمَلۡ مِنۡهُ شَىۡءٌ۬ وَلَوۡ كَانَ ذَا قُرۡبَىٰٓۗ إِنَّمَا تُنذِرُ ٱلَّذِينَ يَخۡشَوۡنَ رَبَّہُم بِٱلۡغَيۡبِ وَأَقَامُواْ ٱلصَّلَوٰةَۚ وَمَن تَزَكَّىٰ فَإِنَّمَا يَتَزَكَّىٰ لِنَفۡسِهِۚۦ وَإِلَى ٱللَّهِ ٱلۡمَصِيرُ

(15. O mankind! it is you who stand in need of Allah. But Allah is the Rich, Worthy of all praise.) (16. If He willed, He could destroy you and bring about a new creation.) (17. And that is not hard for Allah.) (18. And no bearer of burdens shall bear another's burden; and if one heavily laden calls another to (bear) his load, nothing of it will be lifted even though he be near of kin. You can warn only those who fear their Lord unseen and perform the Salah. And he who purifies himself (from all kinds of sins), then he purifies only for the benefit of himself. And to Allah is the Return (of all).)