Allah tells us how Quraysh and the Arabs swore by Allah their most binding oath before the Messenger came to them,
(that if a warner came to them, they would be more guided than any of the nations;) i.e., than any of the nations to whom Messengers had been sent. This was the view of Ad-Dahhak and others. This is like the Ayat:
(Lest you (pagan Arabs) should say: "The Book was sent down only to two sects before us, and for our part, we were in fact unaware of what they studied.'' Or lest you should say: "If only the Book had been sent down to us, we would surely have been better guided than they.'' So, now has come unto you a clear proof from your Lord, and a guidance and a mercy. Who then does more wrong than one who rejects the Ayat of Allah and turns away therefrom) (6:156-157)
(And indeed they (Arab pagans) used to say: "If we had a reminder as had the men of old, We would have indeed been the chosen servants of Allah!'' But they disbelieve therein, so they will come to know!) (37:167-170) Allah says:
(yet when a warner came to them,) -- meaning, Muhammad with the Book revealed to him, i.e., the Clear Qur'an,
(it increased in them nothing but flight (from the truth).) means, they only increased in their disbelief. Then Allah explains this further:
((They took to flight because of their) arrogance in the land) means, they were too arrogant to follow the signs of Allah.
(and their plotting of evil.) means, they plotted to prevent people from following the path of Allah.
(But the evil plot encompasses only him who makes it.) means, the evil consequences of that will come back upon them and not on others.
(Then, can they expect anything (else) but the Sunnah (way of dealing) of the peoples of old) meaning, the punishment of Allah for disbelieving in His Messengers and going against His command.
(and no turning off will you find in Allah's Sunnah.) means, it does not change or alter, and this is what happens to every disbeliever.
(and no turning off will you find in Allah's Sunnah.) means,
(But when Allah wills a people's punishment, there can be no turning back of it) (13:11). This means, no one can remove that from them or ward it off from them. And Allah knows best.
(44. Have they not traveled in the land, and seen what was the end of those before them -- though they were superior to them in power Allah is not such that anything in the heavens or in the earth escapes Him. Verily, He is All-Knowing, All-Able.) (45. And if Allah were to punish men for that which they earned, He would not leave a moving creature on the surface of the earth; but He gives them respite to an appointed term, and when their term comes, then verily, Allah is Ever All-Seer of His servants.)
Allah says: `say, O Muhammad, to these people who disbelieve the Message you have brought: travel in the land and see what was the punishment of those who disbelieved the Messengers, how Allah destroyed them completely, and a similar (end awaits) the disbelievers. See how their homes were emptied of them and how they lost everything after living in luxury and being so numerous and so well equipped, and having so much wealth and so many children. All of that was of no avail to them and could not protect them in the slightest from the punishment of Allah when the command of the Lord came. Nothing is impossible for Him when He wants it to happen in the heavens or on earth.'
(Verily, He is All-Knowing, All-Able.) means, He knows all that exists and is able to do all things.
(And if Allah were to punish men for that which they earned, He would not leave a moving creature on the surface of the earth;) meaning, if He were to punish them for all of their sins, He would destroy all the people of the earth and all that they own of livestock and crops. Sa`id bin Jubayr and As-Suddi commented on the Ayah:
(He would not leave a moving creature on the surface of the earth;) "This means, He would have stopped sending rain to them, and all the animals would have died as a result.''
(but He gives them respite to an appointed term,) means, but He is delaying until the Day of Resurrection, when He will bring them to account and will reward or punish each one according to his deeds: He will reward those who obeyed Him and will punish those who disobeyed Him. He says:
(and when their term comes, then verily, Allah is Ever All-Seer of His servants.) This is the end of the Tafsir of Surah Fatir. All praise and gratitude is due to Allah.
(Whoever recites Ya Sin in the night, will wake up forgiven, and whoever recites Ha Mim in which Ad-Dukhan (the Smoke) is mentioned, will wake up forgiven.) Its chain of narration is good (Jayyid). Ibn Hibban recorded in his Sahih that Jundub bin `Abdullah (may Allah be pleased with him) said, "The Messenger of Allah said:
(Whoever recites Ya Sin in the night, seeking the Face of Allah, will be forgiven.)
In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.
(1. Ya Sin.) (2. By the Qur'an, full of wisdom,) (3. Truly, you are one of the Messengers,) (4. On the straight path.) (5. Sent down by the Almighty, the Most Merciful,) (6. In order that you may warn a people whose forefathers were not warned, so they are heedless.) (7. Indeed the Word has proved true against most of them, so they will not believe.)
We have already discussed the individual letters at the beginning of Surat Al-Baqarah.
(By the Qur'an, full of wisdom) means, Al-Muhkam (perfect) which falsehood cannot come to from before it or behind it.
(Truly, you) means, O Muhammad,
(are one of the Messengers, on the straight path.) means, following a straight methodology and religion, and an upright Law.
(Sent down by the Almighty, the Most Merciful.) means, this path which you have brought is a revelation from the Lord of might Who is Most Merciful to His believing servants. This is like the Ayah:
(And verily, you are indeed guiding (mankind) to the straight path. The path of Allah to Whom belongs all that is in the heavens and all that is on the earth. Verily, to Allah all matters return.) (42:52-53).
(In order that you may warn a people whose forefathers were not warned, so they are heedless.) This refers to the Arabs, for no warner had come to them before him. The fact that they alone are mentioned does not mean that others are excluded, just as mentioning some individuals does not mean that all others are excluded. We have already mentioned the Ayat and Mutawatir Hadiths which state that the mission of the Prophet is universal, when we discussed the meaning of the Ayah:
(Say: "O mankind! Verily, I am sent to you all as the Messenger of Allah.'') (7:158).
(Indeed the Word has proved true against most of them,) Ibn Jarir said, "The punishment has become inevitable for most of them, because Allah has decreed in the Mother of the Book (Al-Lawh Al-Mahfuz) that they will not believe.
(so they will not believe. ) in Allah, or in His Messengers.
(8. Verily, We have put on their necks iron collars reaching to the chins, so that their heads are raised up.) (9. And We have put a barrier before them, and a barrier behind them, and We have covered them up, so that they cannot see.) (10. It is the same to them whether you warn them or you warn them not, they will not believe.) (11. You can only warn him who follows the Reminder, and fears the Most Gracious unseen. Bear you to such one the glad tidings of forgiveness, and a generous reward.) (12. Verily, We give life to the dead, and We record that which they send before (them), and their traces and all things We have recorded with numbers in Imam Mubin (a Clear Book).)