(And We have not taught him poetry, nor is it suitable for him.) Allah tells us that He has not taught His Prophet Muhammad poetry.
(nor is it suitable for him.) means, he did not know how to compose it, he did not like it and he had no natural inclination towards it. It was narrated that he never memorized a stanza of poetry with the correct meter or rhyme -- he would transpose words or memorize it incompletely. In Ad-Dala'il, Al-Bayhaqi recorded that the Messenger of Allah said to Al-`Abbas bin Mirdas As-Sulami, may Allah be pleased with him:
(You are the one who said: "Do you distribute my booty and the booty of the servants between Al-Aqra` and `Uyainah.'') He said, "It is `Uyainah and Al-Aqra`.'' He said:
(It is all the same.) i.e., it means the same thing. And Allah knows best. This is because Allah taught him the Qur'an, which
(Falsehood cannot come to it from before it or behind it; sent down by the All-Wise, Worthy of all praise.) (41:42). This is not poetry, as some of the ignorant disbelievers of the Quraysh claimed; neither is it sorcery, a fabrication or a magic spell, as the misguided and ignorant people variously suggested. The Prophet was naturally disinclined to compose verse, and was forbidden to do so by Divine Law.
(This is only a Reminder and a plain Qur'an.) means, it is clear and self-explanatory to the one who ponders and comprehends its meanings, Allah says:
(That he or it may give warning to him who is living,) meaning, so that this plain Qur'an might warn every living person on the face of the earth. This is like the Ayat:
(that I may therewith warn you and whomsoever it may reach) (6:19).
(but those of the sects that reject it, the Fire will be their promised meeting place) (11:17). Those who will benefit from his warning will be those whose hearts are alive and who have enlightened insight, as Qatadah said, "Alive of heart and alive of insight.'' Ad-Dahhak said, "This means wise.''
(and that Word may be justified against the disbelievers.) means, it is a mercy to the believers and evidence against the disbelievers.
(71. Do they not see that We have created for them of what Our Hands have fashioned, the cattle, so that they are their owners.) (72. And We have subdued them unto them so that some of them they have for riding and some they eat.) (73. And they have (other) benefits from them, and (they get to) drink. Will they not then be grateful)
Allah mentions the blessing that He has bestowed upon His creation by subjugating these cattle for their use.
(so that they are their owners.) Qatadah said, "They are their masters.'' Meaning, He has made them subdue them. So they are submissive towards them and do not resist them; even if a young child comes to a camel he can make it kneel down, and if he wants to, he can make it stand up and can drive it, and it will meekly be led by him. Even if the train consists of a hundred or more camels, they could all be led by a young child.
(some of them they have for riding and some they eat.) means, some of them they ride on their journeys, and use them to carry their burdens to all regions.
(and some they eat.) means, if they want to, and they slaughter and sacrifice them.
(And they have (other) benefits from them,) means, from their wool, fur, and hair, furnishings and articles of convenience, comfort for a time.
(and (they get to) drink. ) means, their milk, and their urine for those who need it as medicine, and so on.
(Will they not then be grateful) means, `will they not worship the Creator and Subduer of that, without showing gratitude to others'
(74. And they have taken besides Allah, gods, hoping that they might be helped.) (75. They cannot help them, but they will be brought forward as a troop (against those who worshipped them).) (76. So, let not their speech then grieve you. Verily, We know what they conceal and what they reveal.)
Allah denounces the idolaters for taking the idols as gods alongside Allah, hoping that those gods will help them and provide for them and bring them closer to Allah. Allah says:
(They cannot help them,) meaning, those gods cannot help their worshippers; they are too weak, too insignificant and too powerless. Rather they cannot even help themselves or take revenge on those who want to harm them, because they are inanimate and can neither hear nor comprehend. Allah's saying:
(but they will be brought forward as a troop.) means, at the time of Reckoning according to the view of Mujahid. This means that those idols will be gathered together and will be present when their worshippers are brought to account, as this will add to their grief and will be more effective in establishing proof against them. Qatadah said:
(They cannot help them,) means the gods.
(but they will be brought forward as a troop.) "The idolaters used to get angry for the sake of their gods in this world, but they could not do them any benefit or protect them from any harm, for they were merely idols.'' This was also the view of Al-Hasan Al-Basri. This is a good opinion, and was the view favored by Ibn Jarir, may Allah have mercy on him.
(So, let not their speech then grieve you.) means, `their denying you and their disbelief in Allah.'
(Verily, We know what they conceal and what they reveal.) means, `We know everything about them, and We will punish them for their false claims and deal with them accordingly on the Day when none of their deeds, great or small, major or minor, will be overlooked, and every deed they did throughout their worldly lives will be laid open for examination.'
(77. Does not man see that We have created him from Nutfah. Yet behold he (stands forth) as an open opponent.) (78. And he puts forth for Us a parable, and forgets his own creation. He says: "Who will give life to these bones after they are rotten and have become dust'') (79. Say: "He will give life to them Who created them for the first time! And He is the All-Knower of every creation!'') (80. He Who produces for you fire out of the green tree, when behold you kindle therewith.)
Mujahid, `Ikrimah, `Urwah bin Az-Zubayr, As-Suddi and Qatadah said, "Ubayy bin Khalaf, may Allah curse him, came to the Messenger of Allah with a dry bone in his hand, which he was crumbling and scattering in the air, saying, `O Muhammad! Are you claiming that Allah will resurrect this' He said:
(Yes, Allah, may He be exalted, will cause you to die, then He will resurrect you and will gather you into the Fire.)'' Then these Ayat at the end of Surah Ya Sin were revealed:
(Does not man see that We have created him from Nutfah.) -- until the end of the Surah. Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Ibn `Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him) said, "Al-`As bin Wa'il took a bone from the bed of a valley and crumbled it in his hand, then he said to the Messenger of Allah: `Will Allah bring this back to life after it has disintegrated' The Messenger of Allah said:
(Yes, Allah will cause you to die, then He will bring you back to life, then He will make you enter Hell.) Then the Ayat at the end of Surah Ya Sin were revealed.'' This was recorded by Ibn Jarir from Sa`id bin Jubayr. Whether these Ayat were revealed about Ubayy bin Khalaf or Al-`As bin Wa'il, or both of them, they apply to all those who deny the resurrection after death. The definite article "Al'' in
(Does not man (Al-Insan) see...) is generic, applying to all those who deny the Resurrection.
(that We have created him from Nutfah. Yet behold he (stands forth) as an open opponent.) means, the one who is denying the resurrection, cannot see that the One Who initiated creation can re-create it. For Allah initiated the creation of man from semen of despised fluid, creating him from something insignificant, weak and despised, as Allah says:
(Did We not create you from a despised water Then We placed it in a place of safety, for a known period) (77:20-22)
(Verily, We have created man from Nutfah) (76:2). which means, from a mixture of different fluids. The One Who created man from this weak Nutfah is not unable to re-create him after his death. Imam Ahmad recorded in his Musnad that Bishr bin Jahhash said, "One day the Messenger of Allah spat in his hand and put his finger on it, then the Messenger of Allah said:
(Allah, may He be exalted, says: "Son of Adam, how can you outrun Me when I have created you from something like this, and when I have fashioned you and formed you, you walk in your cloak on the earth and it groans beneath your tread. You accumulate and do not spend until the death rattle reaches your throat, then you say, `I want to give in charity,' but it is too late for charity.'')'' It was also recorded by Ibn Majah. Allah says:
(And he puts forth for Us a parable, and forgets his own creation. He says: "Who will give life to these bones after they are rotten and have become dust'') meaning, he thinks it unlikely that Allah, the Almighty Who created the heavens and the earth, will re-create these bodies and dry bones. Man forgets about himself, that Allah created him from nothing and brought him into existence, and he knows by looking at himself that there is something greater than that which he denies and thinks impossible. Allah says:
(Say: "He will give life to them Who created them for the first time! And He is the All-Knower of every creation!'') meaning, He knows about the bones in all areas and regions of the earth, where they have gone when they disintegrated and dispersed. Imam Ahmad recorded that Rib`i said: ""Uqbah bin `Amr said to Hudhayfah (may Allah be pleased with him) `Will you not tell us what you heard from the Messenger of Allah ' He said, `I heard him say:
(Death approached a man and when there was no longer any hope for him, he said to his family, "When I die, gather a lot of firewood, then set it ablaze until my flesh is consumed and it reaches my bones and they become brittle. Then take them and grind them, and scatter them in the sea.'' So they did that, but Allah gathered him together and said to him: "Why did you do that'' He said, "Because I feared You.'' So Allah forgave him.)' `Uqbah bin `Amr said, `I heard him say that, and the man was a gravedigger.''' Many versions of this Hadith were recorded in the Two Sahihs. One of these versions mentions that he commanded his sons to burn him and then grind his remains into small pieces, and then scatter half of them on land and half of them on the sea on a windy day. So they did that, then Allah commanded the sea to gather together whatever remains were in it, and He commanded the land to do likewise, then he said to him, "Be!'', and he was a man, standing. Allah said to him. "What made you do what you did'' He said, "The fear of You, and You know best.'' Straight away He forgave him.
(He Who produces for you fire out of the green tree, when behold you kindle therewith.) means, the One Who initiated the creation of this tree from water, when it has become green and beautiful, bearing fruit, then He changes it until it becomes dry wood with which fires are lit. For He does whatever He wills and He is able to do whatever He wills, and none can stop Him. Qatadah said concerning the Ayah:
(He Who produces for you fire out of the green tree, when behold you kindle therewith.) this means, the One Who brought forth this fire from this tree is able to resurrect him. It was said that this refers to the Markh tree and the `Afar tree, which grow in the Hijaz. If one wants to light a fire but has no kindling with him, then he takes two green branches from these trees and rubs one against the other, and fire is produced from them. So they are just like kindling. This was reported from Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him.
(81. Is not He Who created the heavens and the earth, able to create the like of them Yes, indeed! He is the All-Knowing Supreme Creator.) (82. Verily, His command, when He intends a thing, is only that He says to it, "Be!'' -- and it is!) (83. So glorified be He and exalted (above all that they associate with Him), and in Whose Hand is the dominion of all things, and to Him you shall be returned.)
He tells us to find the proof that He will re-create our bodies in His creation of these mighty things. This is like the Ayah:
(The creation of the heavens and the earth is indeed greater than the creation of mankind) (40:57). And Allah says here:
(Is not He Who created the heavens and the earth, able to create the like of them) meaning, the like of mankind. So, He will re-create them as He created them in the first place. Ibn Jarir said, "This Ayah is like the Ayah:
(Do they not see that Allah, Who created the heavens and the earth, and was not wearied by their creation, is able to give life to the dead Yes, He surely is able to do all things.) (46:33)'' And Allah says here:
(Yes, indeed! He is the All-Knowing Supreme Creator. Verily, His command, when He intends a thing, is only that He says to it, "Be!''-- and it is!) meaning, He only needs to command a thing once; it does not need to be repeated or confirmed. When Allah wants a thing to happen, He only says to it: "Be!'' once, and it is. Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Dharr (may Allah be pleased with him) said that the Messenger of Allah said:
(Allah, may He be exalted, says: "O My servants, all of you are sinners apart from those whom I protect from sin. Seek My forgiveness and I will forgive you. All of you are in need except for those whom I make independent. I am Most Generous, Majestic, and I do whatever I will. My giving is a word and My punishment is a word. When I want a thing to happen I merely say to it `Be!' and it is.'')
(So glorified be He and exalted (above all that they associate with Him), and in Whose Hand is the dominion of all things, and to Him you shall be returned.) means, glorified and exalted and sanctified above any evil be the Ever Living, the Self-Sufficient, in Whose hand is the control of the heavens and the earth, to Whom all matters return. His is the power to create and command, and to Him all mankind will return on the Day of Resurrection. Then He will reward or punish each one according to his deeds, and He is the Just, the Generous Bestower, the Graciously Disposed. The meaning of this Ayah,
(So glorified be He and exalted (above all that they associate with Him), and in Whose Hand is the sovereignty (Malakut) of all things) is like the Ayat:
(Say: "In Whose Hand is the sovereignty (Malakut) of everything'') (23:88)
(Blessed be He in Whose Hand is the dominion (Al-Mulk)) (67:1) Al-Mulk and Al-Malakut mean the same thing, although some people claim that Al-Mulk has to do with the physical realm and Al-Malakut has to do with the spiritual realm. But the former view is the one which is correct, and this is the opinion of the majority of the scholars of Tafsir and others. Imam Ahmad recorded that Hudhayfah bin Al-Yaman (may Allah be pleased with him) said, "I stood in prayer with the Messenger of Allah one night and he recited the seven long Surahs in seven Rak`ahs. When he raised his head from bowing, he said,
(Allah hears the one who praises Him.) Then he said;
(Praise be to Allah, the Owner of Malakut, might, pride and greatness.) His bowing was as long as his standing position, and his prostration was as long as his bowing. Then he finished and my legs were nearly broken.'' Abu Dawud recorded that `Awf bin Malik Al-Ashja`i (may Allah be pleased with him) said, "I stood in prayer with the Messenger of Allah one night and he recited Al-Baqarah. He did not reach any Ayah that mentioned mercy but he paused and asked for it, and he did not reach any Ayah that mentioned punishment but he paused and sought refuge from it. Then he bowed for as long as he had stood, and while bowing he said,
(Glory be to Allah, the Owner of might, Malakut, pride and greatness.) Then he prostrated for as long as he had bowed, and said something similar while prostrating. Then he stood and recited Al `Imran, then he recited one Surah after another.'' This was recorded by At-Tirmidhi in Ash-Shama'il and An-Nasa'i. This is the end of the Tafsir of Surah Ya Sin. All praise and thanks are due to Allah.