Allah tells His Messenger to say to those who disbelieved in Allah, associated others in worship with Him and denied His Messenger: `I am a warner, I am not as you claim.'
(and there is no God (worthy of worship) except Allah, the One, the Irresistible,) means, He Alone has subjugated and controlled everything.
(The Lord of the heavens and the earth and all that is between them,) means, He is the Sovereign of all that and is in control of it.
(the Almighty, the Oft-Forgiving.) means, He is Oft-Forgiving as well as being Almighty and All-Powerful.
(Say: "That (this Qur'an) is a great news,'') means, `something very important, which is that Allah has sent me to you.
(From which you turn away!) means, `you neglect it.'
(I had no knowledge of the chiefs (angels) on high when they were disputing and discussing.) meaning, `were it not for the divine revelation, how could I have known about the dispute of the chiefs on high (the angels)' This refers to their dispute concerning Adam (peace be upon him) and how Iblis refused to prostrate to him and argued with his Lord because He preferred him (Adam) over him. This is what Allah says:
(71. (Remember) when your Lord said to the angels: "Truly, I am going to create man from clay.'') (72. "So, when I have fashioned him and breathed into him (his) soul created by Me, then you fall down prostrate to him.'') (73. So, the angels prostrated themselves, all of them,) (74. Except Iblis, he was proud and was one of the disbelievers.) (75. (Allah) said: "O Iblis! What prevents you from prostrating yourself to one whom I have created with Both My Hands. Are you too proud or are you one of the high exalted'') (76. (Iblis) said: "I am better than he. You created me from fire, and You created him from clay.'') (77. (Allah) said: "Then get out from here; for verily, you are outcast.'') (78. "And verily, My curse is on you till the Day of Recompense.'') (79. (Iblis) said: "My Lord! Give me then respite till the Day the (dead) are resurrected.'') (80. (Allah) said: "Verily, you are of those allowed respite,'') (81. "Till the Day of the time appointed.'') (82. (Iblis) said: "By Your might, then I will surely mislead them all,'') (83. "Except Your true servants amongst them.'') (84. (Allah) said: "The truth is -- the truth I say - '') (85. "That I will fill Hell with you and those of them (mankind) that follow you, together.'')
Allah mentions this story in Surat Al-Baqarah, at the beginning of Surat Al-A`raf, in Surat Al-Hijr, Al-Isra', Al-Kahf and here. Before creating Adam (peace be upon him) Allah told the angels that He was going to create a human being from sounding clay of altered smooth black mud. He told them that when He finished creating and forming him, they were to prostrate to him as a sign of honor and respect, and out of obedience to the command of Allah, may He be exalted. All of the angels obeyed this command except for Iblis, who was not one of them. He was one of the Jinn, and his nature betrayed him at his time of greatest need. He refused to prostrate to Adam, and he disputed with his Lord about him, claiming that he was better than Adam, because he was created from fire while Adam was created from clay, and fire was better than clay, or so he said. He made a mistake by doing this, and he went against the command of Allah, thus committing the sin of disbelief. So Allah exiled him, humiliated him, and cast him out of His mercy and His sacred Presence, and called him "Iblis'' symbolizing that he had Ablasa min Ar-Rahmah (despaired of mercy) -- that there was no hope for him of mercy. He cast him down from the heavens, disgraced and rejected, to the earth. Iblis asked Allah to give him a reprieve until the Day of Resurrection, so the Forbearing One, Who does not hasten to punish those who disobey Him, gave him a reprieve. When he knew that he was safe from destruction until the Day of Resurrection, he rebelled and transgressed.
((Iblis) said: "By Your might, then I will surely mislead them all, except Your true servants amongst them.'') This is like the Ayat:
((Iblis) said: "See this one whom You have honored above me, if You give me respite until the Day of Resurrection, I will surely seize and mislead his offspring all but a few!'') (17:62). These few are the ones who are excepted in another Ayah, which is:
(Verily, My servants -- you have no authority over them. And All-Sufficient is your Lord as a Guardian.) (17:65)
((Allah) said: "The truth is -- and the truth I say that I will fill Hell with you and those of them (mankind) that follow you, together.'') Some of them, including Mujahid, read this as meaning, "I am the Truth and the truth I say.'' According to another report narrated from Mujahid, it means, "The truth is from Me and I speak the truth.'' Others, such as As-Suddi, interpreted it as being an oath sworn by Allah. This Ayah is like the Ayat:
(but the Word from Me took effect, that I will fill Hell with Jinn and mankind together.) (32:13), and
((Allah) said: "Go, and whosoever of them follows you, surely, Hell will be the recompense of you (all) - an ample recompense.) (17:63).
(86. Say: "No wage do I ask of you for this, nor am I one of the Mutakallifin.'') (87. "It is only a Reminder for all the creatures.'') (88. "And you shall certainly know the truth of it after a while.'') Allah says: `Say, O Muhammad, to these idolaters: I do not ask you to give me any reward from the goods of this world in return for the Message which I convey to you and the sincere advice I offer.'
(nor am I one of the Mutakallifin.) means, `and I do not add anything to that which Allah has told me. Whatever I am commanded to do, I do it, and I do not add anything or take anything away. By doing this I am seeking the Face of Allah and the Hereafter.' Sufyan Ath-Thawri, narrated from Al-A`mash and Mansur from Abu Ad-Duha that Masruq said, "We went to `Abdullah bin Mas`ud, may Allah be pleased with him. He said, `O people! Whoever knows a thing should say it, and whoever does not know should say, `Allah knows best.''' It is part of knowledge, when one does not know, to say "Allah knows best.'' For Allah said to your Prophet:
(Say: "No wage do I ask of you for this, nor am I one of the Mutakallifin.'') This was reported by Al-Bukhari and Muslim.
(It is only a Reminder for all the creatures.) means, the Qur'an is a reminder for all those who are held accountable, men and Jinn. This was the view of Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him. This Ayah is like the Ayat:
(that I may therewith warn you and whomsoever it may reach) (6:19), and
(but those of the sects that reject it, the Fire will be their promised meeting place) (11:17).
(And you shall certainly know the truth of it) means, `you will see confirmation that what he says is true.'
(after a while.) means, soon. Qatadah said, "After death. `Ikrimah said, "It means, on the Day of Resurrection.'' There is no contradiction between the two views, because whoever dies comes under the rulings of the Day of Resurrection. This is the end of the Tafsir of Surah Sad. All praise and gratitude is due to Allah, and Allah may He be glorified and exalted, knows best.
An-Nasa'i recorded that `A'ishah (may Allah be pleased with her) said, "The Messenger of Allah used to fast until we would say, `He does not want to break fast,' and he would not fast until we would say, `He does not want to fast.' And he used to recite Bani Isra'il (Al-Isra') and Az-Zumar every night.''
In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.
(1. The revelation of this Book is from Allah, the Almighty, the All-Wise.) (2. Verily, We have sent down the Book to you in truth. So, worship Allah by doing religious deeds sincerely for Him only.) (3. Surely, the religion is for Allah only. And those who take protectors besides Him (say): "We worship them only that they may bring us near to Allah.'' Verily, Allah will judge between them concerning that wherein they differ. Truly, Allah guides not him who is a liar, and a disbeliever.) (4. Had Allah willed to take a son, He could have chosen whom He willed out of those whom He created. But glory be to Him! He is Allah, the One, the Irresistible.)
Allah tells us that the revelation of this Book, which is the magnificent Qur'an, is from Him, and is truth in which there is no doubt whatsoever. This is like the Ayat:
(And truly, this is a revelation from the Lord of the creatures, which the trustworthy Ruh (Jibril) has brought down upon your heart that you may be (one) of the warners, in the plain Arabic language.) (26:192-195)
(And verily, it is a mighty Book. Falsehood cannot come to it from before it or behind it, (it is) sent down by the All-Wise, Worthy of all praise.) (40: 41, 42) And Allah says here:
(The revelation of this Book is from Allah, the Almighty,) meaning, the Almighty, All-Powerful.
(the All-Wise.) meaning, in all that He says, does, legislates and decrees.
(Verily, We have sent down the Book to you in truth. So, worship Allah by doing religious deeds sincerely for Him only.) means, so worship Allah Alone with no partner or associate, and call mankind to that, and teach them that it is not right to worship anyone or anything except Him Alone, and He has no partner, equal or rival. Allah says:
(Surely, the religion is for Allah only.) meaning, He will not accept any deed unless it is done purely and sincerely for Him Alone, with no partner or associate. Then Allah tells us that the idolaters say:
(We worship them only that they may bring us near to Allah.) meaning what motivates them to worship them is the fact that they made their idols in the image of the angels -- or so they claim -- and when they worship those images it is like worshipping the angels, so that they will intercede with Allah for them to help and give them provision and other worldly needs. As far as the resurrection is concerned, they denied it and did not believe in it. Qatadah, As-Suddi and Malik said, narrating from Zayd bin Aslam and Ibn Zayd:
(only that they may bring us near to Allah. ) means, "So that they may intercede for us and bring us closer to Him.'' During Jahiliyyah, they used to recite the following for their Talbiyah when they performed Hajj; "At Your service, You have no partner except the partner You have; he and all that he owns belong to You.'' This pretentious argument which the idolaters of all times, ancient and modern, used as evidence is what the Messengers, may the blessings and peace of Allah be upon them all, came to refute and forbid, and to call people to worship Allah Alone with no partner or associate. This is something that the idolaters themselves invented; Allah did not give them permission for it, nor does He approve of it; indeed, He hates it and forbids it.
(And verily, We have sent among every Ummah a Messenger (proclaiming): "Worship Allah, and avoid Taghut.'') (16:36)
(And We did not send any Messenger before you but We revealed to him (saying): "None has the right to be worshipped but I (Allah), so worship Me.'') (21:25) And Allah tells us that the angels in the heavens, those who are close to Him and others, are all servants who submit humbly to Allah. They do not intercede with Him except by His leave for the one with whom He is pleased. They are not like the princes and ministers of their (the idolaters') kings who intercede with them without their permission for both those whom the kings like and those whom they hate.
(So put not forward similitudes for Allah) (16:74). Exalted be Allah far above that.
(Verily, Allah will judge between them) means, on the Day of Resurrection,
(concerning that wherein they differ.) means, He will judge between His creation on the Day of Resurrection and will reward or punish each person according to his deeds.
(And (remember) the Day when He will gather them all together, then He will say to the angels: "Was it you that these people used to worship'' They (the angels) will say: "Glorified be You! You are our Wali (Lord) instead of them. Nay, but they used to worship the Jinn; most of them were believers in them.'') (34:40-41)
(Truly, Allah guides not him who is a liar, and a disbeliever.) means, He will not show true guidance to one who deliberately tells lies about Allah and whose heart rejects the signs and proof of Allah. Then Allah states that He does not have any offspring, as the ignorant idolaters claim the angels to be, and as the stubborn Jews and Christians claim `Uzayr and `Isa to be. Allah, may He be blessed and exalted, says:
(Had Allah willed to take a son (or offspring), He could have chosen whom He willed out of those whom He created.) meaning, the matter would not have been as they claim. This is a conditional sentence which does not imply that this happened or that it is permitted; indeed, it is impossible. The aim is only to point out the ignorance of their claims. It is like the Ayat:
(Had We intended to take a pastime, We could surely have taken it from Us, if We were going to do (that).) (21:17)
(Say: "If the Most Gracious had a son, then I am the first of worshippers.'') (43:81) All of these Ayat are conditional, and it is permissible to form a conditional sentence referring to something that is impossible if it serves the purposes of the speaker.
(But glory be to Him! He is Allah, the One, the Irresistible.) means, exalted and sanctified be He above the idea that He could have any offspring, for He is the One, the Only, the Unique, the Self-Sufficient Master to Whom everything is enslaved and is in need of. He is the One Who is independent of all else, Who has subjugated all things and they submit humbly to Him. Blessed and exalted be He far above what the wrongdoers and deniers say.
(5. He has created the heavens and the earth with truth. He makes the night to go in the day and makes the day to go in the night. And He has subjected the sun and the moon. Each running for an appointed term. Verily, He is the Almighty, the Oft-Forgiving.) (6. He created you (all) from a single person; then made from him his wife. And He has sent down for you of An`am eight pairs. He creates you in the wombs of your mothers, creation after creation in three veils of darkness. Such is Allah your Lord. His is the kingdom. La ilaha illa Huwa. How then are you turned away)