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The fact that the Messenger of Allah and Quraysh will die, and how They will dispute before Allah

Allah's saying;

﴿ إِنَّكَ مَيِّتٌ۬ وَإِنَّہُم مَّيِّتُونَ

(Verily, you will die, and verily, they (too) will die.) This is one of the Ayat which Abu Bakr As-Siddiq (may Allah be pleased with him) quoted when the Messenger of Allah died, so that the people would realize that he had really died. Another Ayah which he quoted was:

﴿ وَمَا مُحَمَّدٌ إِلَّا رَسُولٌ۬ قَدۡ خَلَتۡ مِن قَبۡلِهِ ٱلرُّسُلُ‌ۚ أَفَإِيْن مَّاتَ أَوۡ قُتِلَ ٱنقَلَبۡتُمۡ عَلَىٰٓ أَعۡقَـٰبِكُمۡ‌ۚ وَمَن يَنقَلِبۡ عَلَىٰ عَقِبَيۡهِ فَلَن يَضُرَّ ٱللَّهَ شَيۡـًٔ۬ا‌ۗ وَسَيَجۡزِى ٱللَّهُ ٱلشَّـٰڪِرِينَ

(Muhammad is no more than a Messenger, and indeed (many) Messengers have passed away before him. If he dies or is killed, will you then turn back on your heels And he who turns back on his heels, not the least harm will do to Allah; and Allah will give reward to those who are grateful.)(3:144). The meaning of this Ayah is that you will certainly depart this world and be gathered before Allah in the Hereafter. You will dispute the issues of Tawhid and Shirk before Allah, things over which you disputed in this world, and He will judge between you with truth, and He is the Judge, the All-Knowing. So, He will save the sincere believers who worship Him alone, and He will punish the disbelievers who deny His Oneness and associate others in worship with Him. Although this Ayah speaks about the believers and disbelievers, and how they will dispute in the Hereafter, it also includes all disputants in this world, for their disputes will come back to them in the Hereafter. Ibn Abi Hatim, may Allah have mercy on him, recorded that Ibn Az-Zubayr (may Allah be pleased with him) said, "When the Ayah

﴿ ثُمَّ إِنَّكُمۡ يَوۡمَ ٱلۡقِيَـٰمَةِ عِندَ رَبِّكُمۡ تَخۡتَصِمُونَ

(Then, on the Day of Resurrection, you will be disputing before your Lord.) was revealed, Az-Zubayr (may Allah be pleased with him) said, `O Messenger of Allah, will we repeat our disputes' He said,

« نَعَم »

(Yes.) He (Az-Zubayr) said, `This is a very serious matter.''' Ahmad recorded from Az-Zubayr bin Al-`Awwam (may Allah be pleased with him) that when this Surah was revealed to the Messenger of Allah:

﴿ إِنَّكَ مَيِّتٌ۬ وَإِنَّہُم مَّيِّتُونَ ثُمَّ إِنَّكُمۡ يَوۡمَ ٱلۡقِيَـٰمَةِ عِندَ رَبِّكُمۡ تَخۡتَصِمُونَ

(Verily, you will die, and verily, they (too) will die. Then, on the Day of Resurrection, you will be disputing before your Lord.) Az-Zubayr (may Allah be pleased with him) said, "O Messenger of Allah, will the sins that we committed against others in this world be repeated for us'' He said,

« نَعَمْ، لَيُكَرَّرَنَّ عَلَيْكُمْ حَتْى يُؤَدَّى إِلَى كُلِّ ذِي حَقَ حَقُّه »

(Yes, they will be repeated until everyone who is entitled will have his rights restored to him.) Az-Zubayr (may Allah be pleased with him) said, "By Allah, it is a very serious matter.'' It was also recorded by At-Tirmidhi, who said "Hasan Sahih.'' `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him) said:

﴿ ثُمَّ إِنَّكُمۡ يَوۡمَ ٱلۡقِيَـٰمَةِ عِندَ رَبِّكُمۡ تَخۡتَصِمُونَ

(Then, on the Day of Resurrection, you will be disputing before your Lord.) means, the truthful one will dispute with the liar, the oppressed will dispute with the oppressor, the one who is guided will dispute with the one who is misguided and the weak will dispute with the arrogant. Ibn Mandah recorded in Kitab Ar-Ruh that Ibn `Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him) said, "The people will dispute on the Day of Resurrection, to the extent that the soul will dispute with the body. The soul will say to the body, `You did such and such,' and the body will say to the soul, `You told me to do it and you tempted me.' Then Allah will send an angel to judge between them, and he will say, `You two are like a man who cannot walk but can see, and a man who cannot see but can walk.' They went into a garden and the one who could not walk said to the one who was blind, `I see fruit there, but I cannot reach it.' The blind man said, `Climb on me and get it.' So he climbed on him and got it. So which of them is the wrongdoer They will say, `Both of them.' The angel will say to them, `You have passed judgment against yourselves.' The body was a means of transportation for the soul.'' Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Sa`id bin Jubayr said that Ibn `Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) said, "This Ayah was revealed and we did not know what it was revealed about:

﴿ ثُمَّ إِنَّكُمۡ يَوۡمَ ٱلۡقِيَـٰمَةِ عِندَ رَبِّكُمۡ تَخۡتَصِمُونَ

(Then, on the Day of Resurrection, you will be disputing before your Lord.)'' He said, "We said, what will we dispute about There is no dispute between us and the People of the Book, so what will we dispute about Until the Fitnah occurred.'' Then Ibn `Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) said, "This is what our Lord promised us we would dispute about.'' This was recorded by An-Nasa'i.

﴿ فَمَنۡ أَظۡلَمُ مِمَّن ڪَذَبَ عَلَى ٱللَّهِ وَكَذَّبَ بِٱلصِّدۡقِ إِذۡ جَآءَهُ ۥۤ‌ۚ أَلَيۡسَ فِى جَهَنَّمَ مَثۡوً۬ى لِّلۡكَـٰفِرِينَ وَٱلَّذِى جَآءَ بِٱلصِّدۡقِ وَصَدَّقَ بِهِۦۤ‌ۙ أُوْلَـٰٓٮِٕكَ هُمُ ٱلۡمُتَّقُونَ لَهُم مَّا يَشَآءُونَ عِندَ رَبِّہِمۡ‌ۚ ذَٲلِكَ جَزَآءُ ٱلۡمُحۡسِنِينَ لِيُڪَفِّرَ ٱللَّهُ عَنۡہُمۡ أَسۡوَأَ ٱلَّذِى عَمِلُواْ وَيَجۡزِيَہُمۡ أَجۡرَهُم بِأَحۡسَنِ ٱلَّذِى ڪَانُواْ يَعۡمَلُونَ

(32. Then, who does more wrong than one who utters a lie against Allah, and denies the truth when it comes to him! Is there not in Hell an abode for the disbelievers) (33. And he who has brought the truth and (those who) believed therein, they are those who have Taqwa.) (34. They shall have all that they will desire with their Lord. That is the reward of the doers of good.) (35. So that Allah may expiate from them the evil of what they did and give them the reward, according to the best of what they used to do.)

The Punishment of the Disbelievers and Liars, and the Reward of the Sincere Believers

The idolaters uttered lies against Allah and said that there were other gods besides Him and claimed that the angels were the daughters of Allah and that Allah had a son -- glorified be He far above all that they say. Moreover, they rejected the truth when it came to them on the lips of the Messengers (peace and blessings be upon them all). Allah says:

﴿ فَمَنۡ أَظۡلَمُ مِمَّن ڪَذَبَ عَلَى ٱللَّهِ وَكَذَّبَ بِٱلصِّدۡقِ إِذۡ جَآءَهُ ۥۤ‌ۚ

(Then, who does more wrong than one who utters a lie against Allah, and denies the truth when it comes to him!) meaning, there is no one who does more wrong than such a person, because he combines the two aspects of falsehood, disbelief in Allah and disbelief in the Messenger of Allah. They made false claims and rejected the truth, Allah threatened them:

﴿ أَلَيۡسَ فِى جَهَنَّمَ مَثۡوً۬ى لِّلۡكَـٰفِرِينَ

(Is there not in Hell an abode for the disbelievers) who are the deniers and rejecters. Then Allah says:

﴿ وَٱلَّذِى جَآءَ بِٱلصِّدۡقِ وَصَدَّقَ بِهِۦۤ‌ۙ

(And he who has brought the truth and (those who) believed therein,) Mujahid, Qatadah, Ar-Rabi` bin Anas and Ibn Zayd said, "The one who brought the truth was the Messenger.'' `Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam said:

﴿ وَٱلَّذِى جَآءَ بِٱلصِّدۡقِ

("And he who has brought the truth) means the Messenger of Allah .

﴿ وَصَدَّقَ بِهِۦۤ‌ۙ

(and (those who) believed therein) means the Muslims.''

﴿ أُوْلَـٰٓٮِٕكَ هُمُ ٱلۡمُتَّقُونَ

(they are those who have Taqwa). Ibn `Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him) said, "They fear and shun Shirk.''

﴿ لَهُم مَّا يَشَآءُونَ عِندَ رَبِّهِمۡ‌ۚ

(They shall have all that they will desire with their Lord.) means, in Paradise; whatever they ask for they will have.

﴿ لَهُم مَّا يَشَآءُونَ عِندَ رَبِّہِمۡ‌ۚ ذَٲلِكَ جَزَآءُ ٱلۡمُحۡسِنِينَ لِيُڪَفِّرَ ٱللَّهُ عَنۡہُمۡ أَسۡوَأَ ٱلَّذِى عَمِلُواْ وَيَجۡزِيَہُمۡ أَجۡرَهُم بِأَحۡسَنِ ٱلَّذِى ڪَانُواْ يَعۡمَلُونَ

(That is the reward of doers of good. So that Allah may expiate from them the evil of what they did and give them the reward, according to the best of what they used to do.) This is like the Ayah:

﴿ أُوْلَـٰٓٮِٕكَ ٱلَّذِينَ نَتَقَبَّلُ عَنۡہُمۡ أَحۡسَنَ مَا عَمِلُواْ وَنَتَجَاوَزُ عَن سَيِّـَٔاتِہِمۡ فِىٓ أَصۡحَـٰبِ ٱلۡجَنَّةِ‌ۖ وَعۡدَ ٱلصِّدۡقِ ٱلَّذِى كَانُواْ يُوعَدُونَ

(They are those from whom We shall accept the best of their deeds and overlook their evil deeds. (They shall be) among the dwellers of Paradise, a promise of truth, which they have been promised.) (46:16).

﴿ أَلَيۡسَ ٱللَّهُ بِكَافٍ عَبۡدَهُ ۥ‌ۖ وَيُخَوِّفُونَكَ بِٱلَّذِينَ مِن دُونِهِۦ‌ۚ وَمَن يُضۡلِلِ ٱللَّهُ فَمَا لَهُ ۥ مِنۡ هَادٍ۬ وَمَن يَهۡدِ ٱللَّهُ فَمَا لَهُ ۥ مِن مُّضِلٍّ‌ۗ أَلَيۡسَ ٱللَّهُ بِعَزِيزٍ۬ ذِى ٱنتِقَامٍ۬ وَلَٮِٕن سَأَلۡتَهُم مَّنۡ خَلَقَ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضَ لَيَقُولُنَّ ٱللَّهُ‌ۚ قُلۡ أَفَرَءَيۡتُم مَّا تَدۡعُونَ مِن دُونِ ٱللَّهِ إِنۡ أَرَادَنِىَ ٱللَّهُ بِضُرٍّ هَلۡ هُنَّ كَـٰشِفَـٰتُ ضُرِّهِۦۤ أَوۡ أَرَادَنِى بِرَحۡمَةٍ هَلۡ هُنَّ مُمۡسِكَـٰتُ رَحۡمَتِهِۦ‌ۚ قُلۡ حَسۡبِىَ ٱللَّهُ‌ۖ عَلَيۡهِ يَتَوَڪَّلُ ٱلۡمُتَوَكِّلُونَ
﴿ قُلۡ يَـٰقَوۡمِ ٱعۡمَلُواْ عَلَىٰ مَكَانَتِڪُمۡ إِنِّى عَـٰمِلٌ۬‌ۖ فَسَوۡفَ تَعۡلَمُونَ مَن يَأۡتِيهِ عَذَابٌ۬ يُخۡزِيهِ وَيَحِلُّ عَلَيۡهِ عَذَابٌ۬ مُّقِيمٌ

(36. Is not Allah Sufficient for His servant Yet they try to frighten you with those besides Him! And whom Allah sends astray, for him there will be no guide.) (37. And whomsoever Allah guides, for him there will be no misleader. Is not Allah Almighty, Possessor of Retribution) (38. And verily, if you ask them: "Who created the heavens and the earth'' Surely, they will say: "Allah.'' Say: "Tell me then, the things that you invoke besides Allah -- if Allah intended some harm for me, could they remove His harm Or if He intended some mercy for me, could they withhold His mercy'' Say: "Sufficient for me is Allah; in Him those who trust must put their trust.'') (39. Say: "O My people! Work according to your way, I am working. Then you will come to know'') (40. "To whom comes a disgracing torment, and on whom descends an everlasting torment.'')