(The good deed and the evil deed cannot be equal.) means, there is a huge difference between them.
(Repel (the evil) with one which is better,) means, `when someone does you wrong, repel him by treating him well,' as `Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) said, "There is no better punishment for one who has disobeyed Allah with regard to you, than your obeying Allah with regard to him.''
(then verily he, between whom and you there was enmity, (will become) as though he was a close friend.) means, `if you treat well those who treat you badly, this good deed will lead to reconciliation, love and empathy, and it will be as if he is a close friend to you and he will feel pity for you and be kind to you.' Then Allah says:
(But none is granted it except those who are patient) meaning, no one accepts this advice and works according to it, except for those who can be patient in doing so, for it is difficult for people to do.
(and none is granted it except the owner of the great portion) means, the one who has a great portion of happiness in this world and in the Hereafter. `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas explained this Ayah: "Allah commands the believers to be patient when they feel angry, to be forbearing when confronted with ignorance, and to forgive when they are mistreated. If they do this, Allah will save them from the Shaytan and subdue their enemies to them until they become like close friends.''
(And if an evil whisper from Shaytan tries to turn you away, then seek refuge in Allah.) means, the devils among men may be deceived by your kind treatment of him, but the devils among the Jinn, when they insinuate their evil whispers, cannot be dealt with except by seeking refuge with the Creator Who gave him power over you. If you seek refuge with Allah and turn to Him, He will stop him from harming you and bring his efforts to naught. When the Messenger of Allah stood up to pray, he would say:
(I seek refuge in Allah the All-Hearing, All-Knowing, from the accursed Shaytan and his evil insinuations, breath and impurity.)'' We have already stated that there is nothing like this in the Qur'an, apart from the passage in Surat Al-A`raf, where Allah says:
(Show forgiveness, enjoin what is good, and turn away from the foolish. And if an evil whisper comes to you from Shaytan, then seek refuge with Allah. Verily, He is All-Hearer, All-Knower.) (7:199-200) and the passage in Surat Al-Mu'minun where Allah says:
(Repel evil with that which is better. We are Best-Acquainted with the things they utter. And say: "My Lord! I seek refuge with You from the whisperings of the Shayatin. And I seek refuge with You, My Lord! lest they should come near me.'') (23:96-98)
(37. And from among His signs are the night and the day, and the sun and the moon. Do not prostrate yourselves to the sun nor to the moon, but prostrate yourselves to Allah Who created them, if you worship Him.) (38. But if they are too proud, then there are those who are with your Lord glorify Him night and day, and never are they tired.) (39. And among His signs; that you see the earth barren, but when We send down water to it, it is stirred to life and growth. Verily, He Who gives it life, surely is able to give life to the dead. Indeed He is Able to do all things.)
Here Allah reminds His Creation of His power, and that He is the One Who has no equal, and He is Able to do all things. Allah's saying;
(And from among His signs are the night and the day, and the sun and the moon.) means, He created the night with its darkness and the day with its light, and they alternate without ceasing. And He created the sun with its shining light, and the moon with its reflected light. and He allotted their stages and gave them separate orbits in the heavens, so that by the variations in their movements man may know the stages of night and day, of weeks, months and years, and time periods related to people's rights, acts of worship and various transactions. Moreover, because the sun and moon are the most beautiful of the heavenly bodies that can be seen in both the upper and lower realms, Allah points out that they are created entities which are in a state of enthrallment to Him, subject to His dominion and control. So He says:
(Do not prostrate yourselves to the sun nor to the moon, but prostrate yourselves to Allah Who created them, if you (really) worship Him.) meaning, `do not associate anything in worship with Him, for your worship of Him will be of no benefit to you if you worship others alongside Him, because He does not forgive the association of others in worship with Him.' He says:
(But if they are too proud, ) i.e., to worship Him Alone, and they insist on associating others with Him,
(then there are those who are with your Lord) i.e., the angels,
(glorify Him night and day, and never are they tired.) This is like the Ayah:
(But if these disbelieve therein, then, indeed We have entrusted it to a people who are not disbelievers therein.) (6:89).
(And among His signs) means, signs of His ability to bring the dead back to life.
(that you see the earth barren,) means, lifeless, with nothing growing in it; it is dead.
(but when We send down water (rain) to it, it is stirred to life and growth.) means, it brings forth all kinds of crops and fruits.
(Verily, He Who gives it life, surely is able to give life to the dead. Indeed He is Able to do all things.)
(40. Verily, those who Yulhiduna Fi Our Ayat are not hidden from Us. Is he who is cast into the Fire better or he who comes secure on the Day of Resurrection Do what you will. Verily, He is All-Seer of what you do.) (41. Verily, those who disbelieved in the Reminder when it came to them. And verily, it is an honorable well-fortified respected Book.) (42. Falsehood cannot come to it from before it or behind it, (it is) sent down by the All-Wise, Worthy of all praise.) (43. Nothing is said to you except what was said to the Messengers before you. Verily, your Lord is the Possessor of forgiveness, and (also) the Possessor of painful punishment.)
(Verily, Yulhiduna Fi Our Ayat) Ibn `Abbas said, "Al-Ilhad means putting words in their improper places.'' Qatadah and others said, "It means disbelief and obstinate behavior.''
(are not hidden from Us.) This is a stern warning and dire threat, stating that He, may He be exalted, knows who denies His signs, Names and attributes, and He will punish them for that. He says:
(Is he who is cast into the Fire better or he who comes secure on the Day of Resurrection) means, are these two equal They are not equal. Then Allah warns the disbelievers:
(Do what you will.) Mujahid, Ad-Dahhak and `Ata' Al-Khurasani said that
(Do what you will. ) is a threat. Meaning, `do what you will of good or evil, for He knows and sees all that you do.' He says:
(Verily, He is All-Seer of what you do.)
(Verily, those who disbelieved in the Reminder when it came to them.) Ad-Dahhak, As-Suddi and Qatadah said, "This is the Qur'an.''
(And verily, it is an honorable well-fortified respected Book.) means, it is protected and preserved, and nobody can produce anything like it.
(Falsehood cannot come to it from before it or behind it,) means, there is no way to corrupt it, because it has been sent down by the Lord of the worlds. Allah says:
((it is) sent down by the All-Wise, Worthy of all praise.) meaning, He is Wise in all that He says and does, Praiseworthy in all that He commands and forbids; everything that He does is for praiseworthy purposes and its consequences will be good.
(Nothing is said to you except what was said to the Messengers before you.) Qatadah, As-Suddi and others said, "Nothing is said to you by way of rejection and disbelief, that was not said to the Messengers who came before you. Just as you have been rejected, they were also rejected. Just as they bore their people's insults with patience, so too you must bear your people's insults with patience.''
(Verily, your Lord is the Possessor of forgiveness,) means, for those who turn to Him in repentance.
(and (also) the Possessor of painful punishment.) means, for those who persist in disbelief, transgression and stubborn opposition.
(44. And if We had sent this as a Qur'an in a foreign language, they would have said: "Why are not its verses explained in detail What! Not in Arabic nor an Arab'' Say: "It is for those who believe, a guide and a cure. And as for those who disbelieve, there is heaviness in their ears, and it is blindness for them. They are called from a place far away.'') (45. And indeed We gave Musa the Scripture, but dispute arose therein. And had it not been for a Word that went forth before from your Lord, and the matter would have been settled between them. But truly, they are in grave doubt thereto.)
Allah tells us that the Qur'an is so eloquent and perfect in its wording and meanings, yet despite that the idolaters do not believe in it. He tells us that their disbelief is the disbelief of stubbornness, as He says elsewhere:
(And if We had revealed it unto any of the non-Arabs, and he had recited it unto them, they would not have believed in it.) (26:198-199). If the Qur'an had been revealed in the language of the non-Arabs, they would have said, because of their stubbornness:
(Why are not its verses explained in detail What! not in Arabic and an Arab) meaning, why is it not revealed in detail in Arabic And by way of denunciation they would have said, "What! not in Arabic nor from an Arab -- i.e., how can foreign words be revealed to an Arab who does not understand them This interpretation was reported from Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, `Ikrimah, Sa`id bin Jubayr, As-Suddi and others.
(Say: "It is for those who believe, a guide and a cure...'') means, `say, O Muhammad: this Qur'an, for the one who believes in it, is guidance for his heart and a cure for the doubts and confusion that exists in people's hearts.'
(And as for those who disbelieve, there is heaviness in their ears,) means, they do not understand what is in it.
(and it is blindness for them.) means they are not guided to the explanations contained therein. This is like the Ayah:
(And We send down of the Qur'an that which is a healing and a mercy to those who believe, and it increases the wrongdoers nothing but loss.) (17:82).
(They are called from a place far away.) Mujahid said, "Far away from their hearts.'' Ibn Jarir said, "It is as if the one who is addressing them is calling to them from a distant place, and they cannot understand what he is saying.'' This is like the Ayah:
(And the example of those who disbelieve is as that of him who shouts to those (flock of sheep) that hears nothing but calls and cries. (They are) deaf, dumb and blind. So they do not understand.) (2:171)
(And indeed We gave Musa the Scripture, but dispute arose therein.) means, they disbelieved in him and did not show him any respect.
(Therefore be patient as did the Messengers of strong will) (46:35).
(And had it not been for a Word that went forth before from your Lord,) i.e., to delay the Reckoning until the Day of Resurrection,
(the matter would have been settled between them.) means, the punishment would have been hastened for them. But they have an appointed time, beyond which they will find no escape.
(But truly, they are in grave doubt thereto.) means, their words of disbelief are not due to any wisdom or insight on their part; rather they spoke without any attempt at examining it thoroughly. This was also the interpretation of Ibn Jarir, and it is a plausible interpretation. And Allah knows best.
(46. Whosoever does righteous good deed, it is for himself; and whosoever does evil, it is against himself. And your Lord is not at all unjust to (His) servants.) (47. To Him is referred the knowledge of the Hour. No fruit comes out of its sheath, nor does a female conceive nor brings forth (young), except by His knowledge. And on the Day when He will call unto them (saying): "Where are My (so-called) partners'' They will say: "We inform You that none of us bears witness to it!'') (48. And those whom they used to invoke before (in this world) shall disappear from them, and they will perceive that they have no place of refuge.)