;
Which was revealed in Makkah
﴿ بِسۡمِ ٱللَّهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

﴿ حمٓ عٓسٓقٓ كَذَٲلِكَ يُوحِىٓ إِلَيۡكَ وَإِلَى ٱلَّذِينَ مِن قَبۡلِكَ ٱللَّهُ ٱلۡعَزِيزُ ٱلۡحَكِيمُ لَهُ ۥ مَا فِى ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَمَا فِى ٱلۡأَرۡضِ‌ۖ وَهُوَ ٱلۡعَلِىُّ ٱلۡعَظِيمُ تَكَادُ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتُ يَتَفَطَّرۡنَ مِن فَوۡقِهِنَّ‌ۚ وَٱلۡمَلَـٰٓٮِٕكَةُ يُسَبِّحُونَ بِحَمۡدِ رَبِّہِمۡ وَيَسۡتَغۡفِرُونَ لِمَن فِى ٱلۡأَرۡضِ‌ۗ أَلَآ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ هُوَ ٱلۡغَفُورُ ٱلرَّحِيمُ وَٱلَّذِينَ ٱتَّخَذُواْ مِن دُونِهِۦۤ أَوۡلِيَآءَ ٱللَّهُ حَفِيظٌ عَلَيۡہِمۡ وَمَآ أَنتَ عَلَيۡہِم بِوَكِيلٍ۬

(1. Ha Mim.) (2. `Ain Sin Qaf.) (3. Likewise Allah, the Almighty, the All-Wise sends revelation to you as to those before you.) (4. To Him belongs all that is in the heavens and all that is on the earth, and He is the Most High, the Most Great.) (5. Nearly the heavens might be rent asunder from above them, and the angels glorify the praises of their Lord, and ask for forgiveness for those on the earth. Lo, Verily, Allah is the Oft-Forgiving, the Most Merciful.) (6. And as for those who take as protecting friends others besides Him -- Allah is Hafiz over them, and you are not a trustee over them.)

The Revelation and Allah's Might

We have previously discussed the individual letters.

﴿ كَذَٲلِكَ يُوحِىٓ إِلَيۡكَ وَإِلَى ٱلَّذِينَ مِن قَبۡلِكَ ٱللَّهُ ٱلۡعَزِيزُ ٱلۡحَكِيمُ

(Likewise Allah, the Almighty, the All-Wise sends revelation to you as to those before you.) means, `just as this Qur'an has been revealed to you, so too the Books and Scriptures were revealed to the Prophets who came before you.'

﴿ ٱللَّهُ ٱلۡعَزِيزُ

(Allah, the Almighty) means, in His vengeance

﴿ ٱلۡحَكِيمُ

(the All-Wise) means, in all that He says and does. Imam Malik, may Allah have mercy on him, narrated that `A'ishah (may Allah be pleased with her) said, "Al-Harith bin Hisham asked the Messenger of Allah, `O Messenger of Allah, how does the revelation come to you' The Messenger of Allah said:

« أَحْيَانًا يَأْتِينِي مِثْلَ صَلْصَلَةِ الْجَرَسِ، وَهُوَ أَشَدُّهُ عَلَيَّ فَيَفْصِمُ عَنِّي وَقَدْ وَعَيْتُ مَا قَالَ، وَأَحْيَانًا يَأْتِينِي الْمَلَكُ رَجُلًا فَيُكَلِّمُنِي فَأَعِي مَا يَقُول »

(Sometimes it comes to me like the ringing of a bell, which is the most difficult for me; then it goes away, and I understand what was said. And sometimes the angel comes to me in the image of a man, and he speaks to me and I understand what he says.)'' `A'ishah (may Allah be pleased with her) said, "I saw him receiving the revelation on a very cold day, and when it departed from him, there were beads of sweat on his forehead.'' It was also reported in the Two Sahihs, and the version quoted here is that recorded by Al-Bukhari.

﴿ لَهُ ۥ مَا فِى ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَمَا فِى ٱلۡأَرۡضِ‌ۖ

(To Him belongs all that is in the heavens and all that is on the earth,) means, everything is subject to His dominion and control.

﴿ وَهُوَ ٱلۡعَلِىُّ ٱلۡعَظِيمُ

(and He is the Most High, the Most Great.) This is like the Ayat:

﴿ ٱلۡڪَبِيرُ ٱلۡمُتَعَالِ

(the Most Great, the Most High) (13:9), and

﴿ وَهُوَ ٱلۡعَلِىُّ ٱلۡكَبِيرُ

(He is the Most High, the Most Great) (22:62). And there are many similar Ayat.

﴿ تَكَادُ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتُ يَتَفَطَّرۡنَ مِن فَوۡقِهِنَّ‌ۚ

(Nearly the heavens might be rent asunder from above them,) Ibn `Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him) Ad-Dahhak, Qatadah, As-Suddi and Ka`b Al-Ahbar said, "Out of fear of His might.''

﴿ وَٱلۡمَلَـٰٓٮِٕكَةُ يُسَبِّحُونَ بِحَمۡدِ رَبِّہِمۡ وَيَسۡتَغۡفِرُونَ لِمَن فِى ٱلۡأَرۡضِ‌ۗ

(and the angels glorify the praises of their Lord, and ask for forgiveness for those on the earth.) This is like the Ayah:

﴿ ٱلَّذِينَ يَحۡمِلُونَ ٱلۡعَرۡشَ وَمَنۡ حَوۡلَهُ ۥ يُسَبِّحُونَ بِحَمۡدِ رَبِّہِمۡ وَيُؤۡمِنُونَ بِهِۦ وَيَسۡتَغۡفِرُونَ لِلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ رَبَّنَا وَسِعۡتَ ڪُلَّ شَىۡءٍ۬ رَّحۡمَةً۬ وَعِلۡمً۬ا

(Those who bear the Throne and those around it glorify the praises of their Lord, and believe in Him, and ask forgiveness for those who believe (saying): "Our Lord! You comprehend all things in mercy and knowledge,'') (40:7)

﴿ أَلَآ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ هُوَ ٱلۡغَفُورُ ٱلرَّحِيمُ

(Lo! Verily, Allah is the Oft-Forgiving, the Most Merciful.) This is a reminder, to take heed of this fact.

﴿ وَٱلَّذِينَ ٱتَّخَذُواْ مِن دُونِهِۦۤ أَوۡلِيَآءَ

(And as for those who take as protecting friends others besides Him) This refers to the idolaters,

﴿ ٱللَّهُ حَفِيظٌ عَلَيۡہِمۡ

(Allah is Hafiz over them.) meaning, He is Witness to their deeds, recording and enumerating them precisely, and He will requite them for them in full.

﴿ وَمَآ أَنتَ عَلَيۡہِم بِوَكِيلٍ۬

(and you are not a trustee over them.) meaning, `you are just a warner, and Allah is the Trustee of all affairs.'

﴿ وَكَذَٲلِكَ أَوۡحَيۡنَآ إِلَيۡكَ قُرۡءَانًا عَرَبِيًّ۬ا لِّتُنذِرَ أُمَّ ٱلۡقُرَىٰ وَمَنۡ حَوۡلَهَا وَتُنذِرَ يَوۡمَ ٱلۡجَمۡعِ لَا رَيۡبَ فِيهِ‌ۚ فَرِيقٌ۬ فِى ٱلۡجَنَّةِ وَفَرِيقٌ۬ فِى ٱلسَّعِيرِ وَلَوۡ شَآءَ ٱللَّهُ لَجَعَلَهُمۡ أُمَّةً۬ وَٲحِدَةً۬ وَلَـٰكِن يُدۡخِلُ مَن يَشَآءُ فِى رَحۡمَتِهِۦ‌ۚ وَٱلظَّـٰلِمُونَ مَا لَهُم مِّن وَلِىٍّ۬ وَلَا نَصِيرٍ

(7. And thus We have revealed to you a Qur'an in Arabic that you may warn the Mother of the Towns and all around it, and warn (them) of the Day of Assembling of which there is no doubt, a party will be in Paradise and a party in the blazing Fire.) (8. And if Allah had willed, He could have made them one nation, but He admits whom He wills to His mercy. And the wrongdoers will have neither a protector nor a helper.)

The Qur'an was revealed to serve as a Warning

Allah says, `just as We sent revelation to the Prophets before you,'

﴿ أَوۡحَيۡنَآ إِلَيۡكَ قُرۡءَانًا عَرَبِيًّ۬ا

(thus We have revealed to you a Qur'an in Arabic) meaning, plain, clear, and manifest

﴿ لِّتُنذِرَ أُمَّ ٱلۡقُرَىٰ

(that you may warn the Mother of the Towns), i.e., Makkah,

﴿ وَمَنۡ حَوۡلَهَا

(and all around it,) means, all the lands, east and west. Makkah is called Umm Al-Qura (the Mother of the Towns) because it is nobler than all other lands, as indicated by much evidence that has been discussed elsewhere. Among the most concise and clear proofs of that is the report recorded by Imam Ahmad from `Abdullah bin `Adi bin Al-Hamra' Az-Zuhri, who heard the Messenger of Allah say, as he was standing in the market place of Makkah;

« وَاللهِ إِنَّكِ لَخَيْرُ أَرْضِ اللهِ وَأَحَبُّ أَرْضِ اللهِ إِلَى اللهِ، وَلَوْلَا أَنِّي أُخْرِجْتُ مِنْكِ مَا خَرَجْت »

(By Allah, you are the best land of Allah, the most beloved land to Allah; were it not for the fact that I was driven out from you, I would never have left you.) This was also recorded by At-Tirmidhi, An-Nasa'i and Ibn Majah; At-Tirmidhi said, "Hasan Sahih. ''

﴿ وَتُنذِرَ يَوۡمَ ٱلۡجَمۡعِ

(and warn (them) of the Day of Assembling) i.e., the Day of Resurrection, when Allah will assemble the first and the last in one plain.

﴿ لَا رَيۡبَ فِيهِ‌ۚ

(of which there is no doubt,) means, there is no doubt that it will happen and will most certainly come to pass.

﴿ فَرِيقٌ۬ فِى ٱلۡجَنَّةِ وَفَرِيقٌ۬ فِى ٱلسَّعِيرِ

(a party will be in Paradise and a party in the blazing Fire.) This is like the Ayah:

﴿ يَوۡمَ يَجۡمَعُكُمۡ لِيَوۡمِ ٱلۡجَمۡعِ‌ۖ ذَٲلِكَ يَوۡمُ ٱلتَّغَابُنِ‌ۗ

((And remember) the Day when He will gather you (all) on the Day of Gathering, --- that will be the Day of mutual loss and gain) (64:9). which means that the people of Paradise and the people of Hell will gain and lose, respectively. And it is like the Ayah:

﴿ إِنَّ فِى ذَٲلِكَ لَأَيَةً۬ لِّمَنۡ خَافَ عَذَابَ ٱلۡأَخِرَةِ‌ۚ ذَٲلِكَ يَوۡمٌ۬ مَّجۡمُوعٌ۬ لَّهُ ٱلنَّاسُ وَذَٲلِكَ يَوۡمٌ۬ مَّشۡهُودٌ۬ وَمَا نُؤَخِّرُهُ ۥۤ إِلَّا لِأَجَلٍ۬ مَّعۡدُودٍ۬ يَوۡمَ يَأۡتِ لَا تَڪَلَّمُ نَفۡسٌ إِلَّا بِإِذۡنِهِۦ‌ۚ فَمِنۡهُمۡ شَقِىٌّ۬ وَسَعِيدٌ۬

(Indeed in that (there) is a sure lesson for those who fear the torment of the Hereafter. That is a Day whereon will be gathered together, and that is a Day when all (the dwellers of the heavens and the earth) will be present. And We delay it only for a term fixed. On the Day when it comes, no person shall speak except by His leave. Some among them will be wretched and (others) blessed.) (11:103-105) Imam Ahmad recorded that `Abdullah bin `Amr (may Allah be pleased with him) said, "The Messenger of Allah came out to us, holding two books in his hand. He said,

« أَتَدْرُونَ مَا هذَانِ الْكِتَابَانِ؟ »

(Do you know what these two books are) We said, "We do not know unless you tell us, O Messenger of Allah.'' Concerning the book in his right hand, He said:

« هَذَا كِتَابٌ مِنْ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ بِأَسْمَاءِ أَهْلِ الْجَنَّةِ وَأَسْمَاءِ آبَائِهِمْ وَقَبَائِلِهِمْ، ثُمَّ أُجْمِلَ عَلى آخِرِهِمْ، لَا يُزَادُ فِيهِمْ وَلَا يُنْقَصُ مِنْهُمْ أبدًا »

(This is a book from the Lord of the worlds, containing the names of the people of Paradise and of their fathers and tribes; all of them are detailed, down to the last one of them, and nothing will be added or taken away from it.) Then concerning the book in his left hand, he said:

« هَذَا كِتَابُ أَهْلِ النَّارِ بِأَسْمَائِهِمْ وَأَسْمَاءِ آبَائِهِمْ وَقَبَائِلِهِمْ، ثُمَّ أُجْمِلَ عَلى آخِرِهِمْ، لَا يُزَادُ فِيهِمْ وَلَا يُنْقَصُ مِنْهُمْ أَبَدًا »

(This is the book of the people of Hell, containing their names and the names of their fathers and tribes, all of them are detailed down to the last one of them, and nothing will be added or taken away from it.) The Companions of the Messenger of Allah said, "Why should we strive if it is something that is already cut and dried'' The Messenger of Allah said:

« سَدِّدُوا وَقَارِبُوا فَإِنَّ صَاحِبَ الْجَنَّةِ يُخْتَمُ لَهُ بِعَمَلِ أَهْلِ الْجَنَّةِ، وَإِنْ عَمِلَ أَيَّ عَمَلٍ، وَإِنَّ صَاحِبَ النَّارِ يُخْتَمُ لَهُ بِعَمَلِ أَهْلِ النَّارِ، وَإِنْ عَمِلَ أَيَّ عَمَل »

(Strive with your deeds as hard as you can for middle course or close to it, for the person who is destined for Paradise will die doing the deeds of the people of Paradise, regardless of what he did before, and the person who is destined for Hell will die doing the deeds of the people of Hell, regardless of what he did before.) Then he made a gesture with his fist and said,

« فَرَغَ رَبُّكُمْ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ مِنَ الْعِبَاد »

(Your Lord has settled the matter of His servants) and he opened his right hand as if throwing something;

« فَرِيقٌ فِي الْجَنَّة »

(A party in Paradise.) and he made a similar gesture with his left hand;

« فَرِيقٌ فِي السَّعِير »

(And a party in the blazing Fire.)'' This was also recorded by At-Tirmidhi, and An-Nasa'i; At-Tirmidhi said, "Hasan Sahih Gharib.'' Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Nadrah said, "One of the Companions of the Prophet, whose name was Abu Abdullah, was visited by some of his friends, and they found him weeping. They asked him, `What has caused you to weep Didn't the Messenger of Allah say to you,

« خُذْ مِنْ شَارِبِكَ ثُمَّ أَقِرَّهُ حَتَّى تَلْقَانِي »

(Trim your moustache and adhere to that practice until you meet me)' He said, `Yes, but I heard the Messenger of Allah say;

« إِنَّ اللهَ تَعَالَى قَبَضَ بِيَمِينِهِ قَبْضَةً وَأُخْرَى بِالْيَدِ الْأُخْرَى، قَالَ: هذِهِ لِهذِهِ، وَهذِهِ لِهذِهِ، وَلَا أُبَالِي »

(Allah picked up a handful in His Right Hand and another in His other Hand, and said, "This is for this and this is for this, and I do not care.'') `And I do not know in which of the two handfuls I am.''' There are several Hadiths about Al-Qadr (the Divine Decree) in the books of Sahih, Sunan and Musnad. Including those narrated by `Ali, Ibn Mas`ud, `A'ishah and a large number of Companions, may Allah be pleased with them all.

﴿ وَلَوۡ شَآءَ ٱللَّهُ لَجَعَلَهُمۡ أُمَّةً۬ وَٲحِدَةً۬

(And if Allah had willed, He could have made them one nation,) means, either all following guidance or all following misguidance, but He made them all different, and He guides whomsoever He wills to the truth and He sends astray whomsoever He wills, and He has complete wisdom and perfect proof. Allah says:

﴿ وَلَـٰكِن يُدۡخِلُ مَن يَشَآءُ فِى رَحۡمَتِهِۦ‌ۚ وَٱلظَّـٰلِمُونَ مَا لَهُم مِّن وَلِىٍّ۬ وَلَا نَصِيرٍ

(but He admits whom He wills to His mercy. And the wrongdoers will have neither a protector nor a helper.)

﴿ أَمِ ٱتَّخَذُواْ مِن دُونِهِۦۤ أَوۡلِيَآءَ‌ۖ فَٱللَّهُ هُوَ ٱلۡوَلِىُّ وَهُوَ يُحۡىِ ٱلۡمَوۡتَىٰ وَهُوَ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَىۡءٍ۬ قَدِيرٌ۬ وَمَا ٱخۡتَلَفۡتُمۡ فِيهِ مِن شَىۡءٍ۬ فَحُكۡمُهُ ۥۤ إِلَى ٱللَّهِ‌ۚ ذَٲلِكُمُ ٱللَّهُ رَبِّى عَلَيۡهِ تَوَڪَّلۡتُ وَإِلَيۡهِ أُنِيبُ فَاطِرُ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِ‌ۚ جَعَلَ لَكُم مِّنۡ أَنفُسِكُمۡ أَزۡوَٲجً۬ا وَمِنَ ٱلۡأَنۡعَـٰمِ أَزۡوَٲجً۬ا‌ۖ يَذۡرَؤُكُمۡ فِيهِ‌ۚ لَيۡسَ كَمِثۡلِهِۦ شَىۡءٌ۬‌ۖ وَهُوَ ٱلسَّمِيعُ ٱلۡبَصِيرُ لَهُ ۥ مَقَالِيدُ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِ‌ۖ يَبۡسُطُ ٱلرِّزۡقَ لِمَن يَشَآءُ وَيَقۡدِرُ‌ۚ إِنَّهُ ۥ بِكُلِّ شَىۡءٍ عَلِيمٌ۬

(9. Or have they taken protecting friends besides Him But Allah --- He Alone is the protector. And He Who gives life to the dead, and He is Able to do all things.) (10. And in whatsoever you differ, the decision thereof is with Allah. Such is Allah, my Lord in Whom I put my trust, and to Him I turn in repentance.) (11. The Creator of the heavens and the earth. He has made for you mates from yourselves, and for the cattle (also) mates. By this means He creates you. There is nothing like Him, and He is the All-Hearer, the All-Seer.) (12. To Him belong the keys of the heavens and the earth. He enlarges provision for whom He wills, and straitens. Verily, He is the All-Knower of everything.)