In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.
(1. Ha Mim.) (2. `Ain Sin Qaf.) (3. Likewise Allah, the Almighty, the All-Wise sends revelation to you as to those before you.) (4. To Him belongs all that is in the heavens and all that is on the earth, and He is the Most High, the Most Great.) (5. Nearly the heavens might be rent asunder from above them, and the angels glorify the praises of their Lord, and ask for forgiveness for those on the earth. Lo, Verily, Allah is the Oft-Forgiving, the Most Merciful.) (6. And as for those who take as protecting friends others besides Him -- Allah is Hafiz over them, and you are not a trustee over them.)
We have previously discussed the individual letters.
(Likewise Allah, the Almighty, the All-Wise sends revelation to you as to those before you.) means, `just as this Qur'an has been revealed to you, so too the Books and Scriptures were revealed to the Prophets who came before you.'
(Allah, the Almighty) means, in His vengeance
(the All-Wise) means, in all that He says and does. Imam Malik, may Allah have mercy on him, narrated that `A'ishah (may Allah be pleased with her) said, "Al-Harith bin Hisham asked the Messenger of Allah, `O Messenger of Allah, how does the revelation come to you' The Messenger of Allah said:
(Sometimes it comes to me like the ringing of a bell, which is the most difficult for me; then it goes away, and I understand what was said. And sometimes the angel comes to me in the image of a man, and he speaks to me and I understand what he says.)'' `A'ishah (may Allah be pleased with her) said, "I saw him receiving the revelation on a very cold day, and when it departed from him, there were beads of sweat on his forehead.'' It was also reported in the Two Sahihs, and the version quoted here is that recorded by Al-Bukhari.
(To Him belongs all that is in the heavens and all that is on the earth,) means, everything is subject to His dominion and control.
(and He is the Most High, the Most Great.) This is like the Ayat:
(the Most Great, the Most High) (13:9), and
(He is the Most High, the Most Great) (22:62). And there are many similar Ayat.
(Nearly the heavens might be rent asunder from above them,) Ibn `Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him) Ad-Dahhak, Qatadah, As-Suddi and Ka`b Al-Ahbar said, "Out of fear of His might.''
(and the angels glorify the praises of their Lord, and ask for forgiveness for those on the earth.) This is like the Ayah:
(Those who bear the Throne and those around it glorify the praises of their Lord, and believe in Him, and ask forgiveness for those who believe (saying): "Our Lord! You comprehend all things in mercy and knowledge,'') (40:7)
(Lo! Verily, Allah is the Oft-Forgiving, the Most Merciful.) This is a reminder, to take heed of this fact.
(And as for those who take as protecting friends others besides Him) This refers to the idolaters,
(Allah is Hafiz over them.) meaning, He is Witness to their deeds, recording and enumerating them precisely, and He will requite them for them in full.
(and you are not a trustee over them.) meaning, `you are just a warner, and Allah is the Trustee of all affairs.'
(7. And thus We have revealed to you a Qur'an in Arabic that you may warn the Mother of the Towns and all around it, and warn (them) of the Day of Assembling of which there is no doubt, a party will be in Paradise and a party in the blazing Fire.) (8. And if Allah had willed, He could have made them one nation, but He admits whom He wills to His mercy. And the wrongdoers will have neither a protector nor a helper.)
Allah says, `just as We sent revelation to the Prophets before you,'
(thus We have revealed to you a Qur'an in Arabic) meaning, plain, clear, and manifest
(that you may warn the Mother of the Towns), i.e., Makkah,
(and all around it,) means, all the lands, east and west. Makkah is called Umm Al-Qura (the Mother of the Towns) because it is nobler than all other lands, as indicated by much evidence that has been discussed elsewhere. Among the most concise and clear proofs of that is the report recorded by Imam Ahmad from `Abdullah bin `Adi bin Al-Hamra' Az-Zuhri, who heard the Messenger of Allah say, as he was standing in the market place of Makkah;
(By Allah, you are the best land of Allah, the most beloved land to Allah; were it not for the fact that I was driven out from you, I would never have left you.) This was also recorded by At-Tirmidhi, An-Nasa'i and Ibn Majah; At-Tirmidhi said, "Hasan Sahih. ''
(and warn (them) of the Day of Assembling) i.e., the Day of Resurrection, when Allah will assemble the first and the last in one plain.
(of which there is no doubt,) means, there is no doubt that it will happen and will most certainly come to pass.
(a party will be in Paradise and a party in the blazing Fire.) This is like the Ayah:
((And remember) the Day when He will gather you (all) on the Day of Gathering, --- that will be the Day of mutual loss and gain) (64:9). which means that the people of Paradise and the people of Hell will gain and lose, respectively. And it is like the Ayah:
(Indeed in that (there) is a sure lesson for those who fear the torment of the Hereafter. That is a Day whereon will be gathered together, and that is a Day when all (the dwellers of the heavens and the earth) will be present. And We delay it only for a term fixed. On the Day when it comes, no person shall speak except by His leave. Some among them will be wretched and (others) blessed.) (11:103-105) Imam Ahmad recorded that `Abdullah bin `Amr (may Allah be pleased with him) said, "The Messenger of Allah came out to us, holding two books in his hand. He said,
(Do you know what these two books are) We said, "We do not know unless you tell us, O Messenger of Allah.'' Concerning the book in his right hand, He said:
(This is a book from the Lord of the worlds, containing the names of the people of Paradise and of their fathers and tribes; all of them are detailed, down to the last one of them, and nothing will be added or taken away from it.) Then concerning the book in his left hand, he said:
(This is the book of the people of Hell, containing their names and the names of their fathers and tribes, all of them are detailed down to the last one of them, and nothing will be added or taken away from it.) The Companions of the Messenger of Allah said, "Why should we strive if it is something that is already cut and dried'' The Messenger of Allah said:
(Strive with your deeds as hard as you can for middle course or close to it, for the person who is destined for Paradise will die doing the deeds of the people of Paradise, regardless of what he did before, and the person who is destined for Hell will die doing the deeds of the people of Hell, regardless of what he did before.) Then he made a gesture with his fist and said,
(Your Lord has settled the matter of His servants) and he opened his right hand as if throwing something;
(A party in Paradise.) and he made a similar gesture with his left hand;
(And a party in the blazing Fire.)'' This was also recorded by At-Tirmidhi, and An-Nasa'i; At-Tirmidhi said, "Hasan Sahih Gharib.'' Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Nadrah said, "One of the Companions of the Prophet, whose name was Abu Abdullah, was visited by some of his friends, and they found him weeping. They asked him, `What has caused you to weep Didn't the Messenger of Allah say to you,
(Trim your moustache and adhere to that practice until you meet me)' He said, `Yes, but I heard the Messenger of Allah say;
(Allah picked up a handful in His Right Hand and another in His other Hand, and said, "This is for this and this is for this, and I do not care.'') `And I do not know in which of the two handfuls I am.''' There are several Hadiths about Al-Qadr (the Divine Decree) in the books of Sahih, Sunan and Musnad. Including those narrated by `Ali, Ibn Mas`ud, `A'ishah and a large number of Companions, may Allah be pleased with them all.
(And if Allah had willed, He could have made them one nation,) means, either all following guidance or all following misguidance, but He made them all different, and He guides whomsoever He wills to the truth and He sends astray whomsoever He wills, and He has complete wisdom and perfect proof. Allah says:
(but He admits whom He wills to His mercy. And the wrongdoers will have neither a protector nor a helper.)
(9. Or have they taken protecting friends besides Him But Allah --- He Alone is the protector. And He Who gives life to the dead, and He is Able to do all things.) (10. And in whatsoever you differ, the decision thereof is with Allah. Such is Allah, my Lord in Whom I put my trust, and to Him I turn in repentance.) (11. The Creator of the heavens and the earth. He has made for you mates from yourselves, and for the cattle (also) mates. By this means He creates you. There is nothing like Him, and He is the All-Hearer, the All-Seer.) (12. To Him belong the keys of the heavens and the earth. He enlarges provision for whom He wills, and straitens. Verily, He is the All-Knower of everything.)