;
Forgiving or exacting Revenge on Wrongdoers
﴿ وَجَزَٲٓؤُاْ سَيِّئَةٍ۬ سَيِّئَةٌ۬ مِّثۡلُهَا‌ۖ

(The recompense for an evil is an evil like thereof). This is like the Ayat:

﴿ فَمَنِ ٱعۡتَدَىٰ عَلَيۡكُمۡ فَٱعۡتَدُواْ عَلَيۡهِ بِمِثۡلِ مَا ٱعۡتَدَىٰ عَلَيۡكُمۡ‌ۚ

(Then whoever transgresses the prohibition against you, you transgress likewise against him) (2:194), and

﴿ وَإِنۡ عَاقَبۡتُمۡ فَعَاقِبُواْ بِمِثۡلِ مَا عُوقِبۡتُم بِهِۦ‌ۖ

(And if you punish, then punish them with the like of that with which you were afflicted) (16:126). Justice, has been prescribed, in the form of the prescribed laws of equality in punishment (Al-Qisas), but the better way, which means forgiving, is recommended, as Allah says:

﴿ وَٱلۡجُرُوحَ قِصَاصٌ۬‌ۚ فَمَن تَصَدَّقَ بِهِۦ فَهُوَ ڪَفَّارَةٌ۬ لَّهُ ۥ‌ۚ

(and wounds equal for equal. But if anyone remits the retaliation by way of charity, it shall be for him an expiation) (5:45). Allah says here:

﴿ فَمَنۡ عَفَا وَأَصۡلَحَ فَأَجۡرُهُ ۥ عَلَى ٱللَّهِ‌ۚ

(but whoever forgives and makes reconciliation, his reward is with Allah.) means, that will not be wasted with Allah. As it says in a Sahih Hadith:

« وَمَا زَادَ اللهُ تَعَالَى عَبْدًا بِعَفْوٍ إِلَّا عِزًّا »

(Allah does not increase the person who forgives except in honor.)''

﴿ إِنَّهُ ۥ لَا يُحِبُّ ٱلظَّـٰلِمِينَ

(Verily, He likes not the wrongdoers.) means, the aggressors, i.e., those who initiate the evil actions.

﴿ وَلَمَنِ ٱنتَصَرَ بَعۡدَ ظُلۡمِهِۦ فَأُوْلَـٰٓٮِٕكَ مَا عَلَيۡہِم مِّن سَبِيلٍ

(And indeed whosoever takes revenge after he has suffered wrong, for such there is no way (of blame) against them.) means, there is no sin on him for taking revenge against the one who wronged him.

﴿ إِنَّمَا ٱلسَّبِيلُ

(The way) means, the burden of sin,

﴿ عَلَى ٱلَّذِينَ يَظۡلِمُونَ ٱلنَّاسَ وَيَبۡغُونَ فِى ٱلۡأَرۡضِ بِغَيۡرِ ٱلۡحَقِّ‌ۚ

(is only against those who oppress men and rebel in the earth without justification;) means, those who initiate wrongful actions against others, as it says in the Sahih Hadith:

« الْمُسْتَبَّانِ مَا قَالَا فَعَلَى الْبَادِىءِ، مَا لَمْ يَعْتَدِ الْمَظْلُوم »

(When two persons indulge in abusing each other, the one who initiated the wrongful action is to blame, unless the one who was wronged oversteps the mark in retaliation.)

﴿ أُوْلَـٰٓٮِٕكَ لَهُمۡ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ۬

(for such there will be a painful torment.) means, intense and agonizing. It was reported that Muhammad bin Wasi` said, "I came to Makkah and there was a security out post over the trench whose guards took me to Marwan bin Al-Muhallab, who was the governor of Basrah. He said, `What do you need, O Abu `Abdullah' I said, `If you can do it, I need you to be like the brother of Banu `Adiy.' He said, `Who is the brother of Banu `Adiy' He said, `Al-`Ala' bin Ziyad; he once appointed a friend of his to a position of authority, and he wrote to him: If you can, only go to sleep after you make sure that there is nothing on your back ﴿i.e., you do not owe anything to anyone, your stomach is empty and your hands are untainted by the blood or wealth of the Muslims. If you do that, then there will be no way (of blame) against you --

﴿ إِنَّمَا ٱلسَّبِيلُ عَلَى ٱلَّذِينَ يَظۡلِمُونَ ٱلنَّاسَ وَيَبۡغُونَ فِى ٱلۡأَرۡضِ بِغَيۡرِ ٱلۡحَقِّ‌ۚ أُوْلَـٰٓٮِٕكَ لَهُمۡ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ۬

(The way is only against those who oppress men and rebel in the earth without justification; for such there will be a painful torment.)' Marwan said, `He spoke the truth, by Allah, and gave sincere advice. ' Then he said, `What do you need, O Abu `Abdullah' I said, `I need you to let me join my family.' He said, `Yes ﴿I will do that.''' This was recorded by Ibn Abi Hatim. When Allah condemned wrongdoing and the people who do it, and prescribed Al-Qisas, He encouraged forgiveness:

﴿ وَلَمَن صَبَرَ وَغَفَرَ

(And verily, whosoever shows patience and forgives,) meaning, whoever bears the insult with patience and conceals the evil action,

﴿ إِنَّ ذَٲلِكَ لَمِنۡ عَزۡمِ ٱلۡأُمُورِ

(that would truly be from the things recommended by Allah.) Sa`id bin Jubayr said, "This means, one of the things enjoined by Allah,'' i.e., good actions for which there will be a great reward and much praise.

﴿ وَمَن يُضۡلِلِ ٱللَّهُ فَمَا لَهُ ۥ مِن وَلِىٍّ۬ مِّنۢ بَعۡدِهِۦ‌ۗ وَتَرَى ٱلظَّـٰلِمِينَ لَمَّا رَأَوُاْ ٱلۡعَذَابَ يَقُولُونَ هَلۡ إِلَىٰ مَرَدٍّ۬ مِّن سَبِيلٍ۬ وَتَرَٮٰهُمۡ يُعۡرَضُونَ عَلَيۡهَا خَـٰشِعِينَ مِنَ ٱلذُّلِّ يَنظُرُونَ مِن طَرۡفٍ خَفِىٍّ۬‌ۗ وَقَالَ ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوٓاْ إِنَّ ٱلۡخَـٰسِرِينَ ٱلَّذِينَ خَسِرُوٓاْ أَنفُسَہُمۡ وَأَهۡلِيهِمۡ يَوۡمَ ٱلۡقِيَـٰمَةِ‌ۗ أَلَآ إِنَّ ٱلظَّـٰلِمِينَ فِى عَذَابٍ۬ مُّقِيمٍ۬ وَمَا كَانَ لَهُم مِّنۡ أَوۡلِيَآءَ يَنصُرُونَهُم مِّن دُونِ ٱللَّهِ‌ۗ وَمَن يُضۡلِلِ ٱللَّهُ فَمَا لَهُ ۥ مِن سَبِيلٍ

(44. And whomsoever Allah sends astray, for him there is no protector after Him. And you will see the wrongdoers, when they behold the torment, they will say: "Is there any way of return'') (45. And you will see them brought forward to it (Hell) made humble by disgrace, (and) looking with stealthy glance. And those who believe will say: "Verily, the losers are they who lose themselves and their families on the Day of Resurrection.'' Verily, the wrongdoers will be in a lasting torment.) (46. And they will have no protectors to help them other than Allah. And he whom Allah sends astray, for him there is no way.)

The State of the Wrongdoers on the Day of Resurrection

Allah tells us that whatever He wills happens and whatever He does not will does not happen, and no one can make it happen. Whomever He guides, none can lead astray, and whomever He leads astray, none can guide, as He says:

﴿ وَمَن يُضۡلِلۡ فَلَن تَجِدَ لَهُ ۥ وَلِيًّ۬ا مُّرۡشِدً۬ا

(but he whom He sends astray, for him you will find no protecting to lead him.) (18:17). Then Allah tells us about the wrongdoers, i.e., the idolaters who associate others in worship with Allah:

﴿ لَمَّا رَأَوُاْ ٱلۡعَذَابَ

(when they behold the torment,) i.e., on the Day of Resurrection, they will wish that they could go back to this world.

﴿ يَقُولُونَ هَلۡ إِلَىٰ مَرَدٍّ۬ مِّن سَبِيلٍ۬

(they will say: "Is there any way of return'') This is like the Ayah:

﴿ وَلَوۡ تَرَىٰٓ إِذۡ وُقِفُواْ عَلَى ٱلنَّارِ فَقَالُواْ يَـٰلَيۡتَنَا نُرَدُّ وَلَا نُكَذِّبَ بِـَٔايَـٰتِ رَبِّنَا وَنَكُونَ مِنَ ٱلۡمُؤۡمِنِينَ بَلۡ بَدَا لَهُم مَّا كَانُواْ يُخۡفُونَ مِن قَبۡلُ‌ۖ وَلَوۡ رُدُّواْ لَعَادُواْ لِمَا نُہُواْ عَنۡهُ وَإِنَّہُمۡ لَكَـٰذِبُونَ

(If you could but see when they will be held over the (Hell) Fire! They will say: "Would that we were but sent back! Then we would not deny the Ayat of our Lord, and we would be of the believers!'' Nay, it has become manifest to them what they had been concealing before. But if they were returned, they would certainly revert to that which they were forbidden. And indeed they are liars.) (6:27-28)

﴿ وَتَرَٮٰهُمۡ يُعۡرَضُونَ عَلَيۡهَا

(And you will see them brought forward to it) means, to the Fire.

﴿ خَـٰشِعِينَ مِنَ ٱلذُّلِّ

(made humble by disgrace,) means, in a befitting manner, because of their previous disobedience towards Allah.

﴿ يَنظُرُونَ مِن طَرۡفٍ خَفِىٍّ۬‌ۗ

((and) looking with stealthy glance.) Mujahid said, "In a humiliated manner.'' That is, they will steal glances at it, because they will be afraid of it. But the thing that they are afraid of will undoubtedly happen, and worse than that -- may Allah save us from that.

﴿ وَقَالَ ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوٓاْ

(And those who believe will say) means, on the Day of Resurrection they will say:

﴿ إِنَّ ٱلۡخَـٰسِرِينَ

(Verily, the losers...) means, the greatest losers.

﴿ ٱلَّذِينَ خَسِرُوٓاْ أَنفُسَہُمۡ وَأَهۡلِيهِمۡ يَوۡمَ ٱلۡقِيَـٰمَةِ‌ۗ

(are they who lose themselves and their families on the Day of Resurrection.) means, they will be taken to the Fire and deprived of any pleasures in the Hereafter. They will lose themselves, and they will be separated from their loved ones, companions, families and relatives, and they will lose them.

﴿ أَلَآ إِنَّ ٱلظَّـٰلِمِينَ فِى عَذَابٍ۬ مُّقِيمٍ۬

(Verily, the wrongdoers will be in a lasting torment.) means, everlasting and eternal, with no way out and no escape.

﴿ وَمَا كَانَ لَهُم مِّنۡ أَوۡلِيَآءَ يَنصُرُونَهُم مِّن دُونِ ٱللَّهِ‌ۗ

(And they will have no protectors to help them other than Allah.) means, no one to save them from the punishment and torment which they are suffering.

﴿ وَمَن يُضۡلِلِ ٱللَّهُ فَمَا لَهُ ۥ مِن سَبِيلٍ

(And he whom Allah sends astray, for him there is no way.) means, no salvation.

﴿ ٱسۡتَجِيبُواْ لِرَبِّكُم مِّن قَبۡلِ أَن يَأۡتِىَ يَوۡمٌ۬ لَّا مَرَدَّ لَهُ ۥ مِنَ ٱللَّهِ‌ۚ مَا لَكُم مِّن مَّلۡجَإٍ۬ يَوۡمَٮِٕذٍ۬ وَمَا لَكُم مِّن نَّڪِيرٍ۬ فَإِنۡ أَعۡرَضُواْ فَمَآ أَرۡسَلۡنَـٰكَ عَلَيۡہِمۡ حَفِيظًا‌ۖ إِنۡ عَلَيۡكَ إِلَّا ٱلۡبَلَـٰغُ‌ۗ وَإِنَّآ إِذَآ أَذَقۡنَا ٱلۡإِنسَـٰنَ مِنَّا رَحۡمَةً۬ فَرِحَ بِہَا‌ۖ وَإِن تُصِبۡہُمۡ سَيِّئَةُۢ بِمَا قَدَّمَتۡ أَيۡدِيهِمۡ فَإِنَّ ٱلۡإِنسَـٰنَ كَفُورٌ۬

(47. Answer the Call of your Lord before there comes from Allah a Day which cannot be averted. You will have no refuge on that Day nor there will be for you any denying.) (48. But if they turn away, We have not sent you as a Hafiz over them. Your duty is to convey. And verily, when We cause man to taste of mercy from Us, he rejoices there at; but when some evil befalls them because of the deeds which their hands have sent forth, then verily, man (becomes) ingrate!)

Encouragement to obey Allah before the Day of Resurrection

When Allah tells us about the horrors and terrifying events of the Day of Resurrection, He warns us about it and commands us to prepare for it:

﴿ ٱسۡتَجِيبُواْ لِرَبِّكُم مِّن قَبۡلِ أَن يَأۡتِىَ يَوۡمٌ۬ لَّا مَرَدَّ لَهُ ۥ مِنَ ٱللَّهِ‌ۚ

(Answer the Call of your Lord before there comes from Allah a Day which cannot be averted.) means, once He issues the command, it will come to pass within the blinking of an eye, and no one will be able to avert it or prevent it.

﴿ مَا لَكُم مِّن مَّلۡجَإٍ۬ يَوۡمَٮِٕذٍ۬ وَمَا لَكُم مِّن نَّڪِيرٍ۬

(You will have no refuge on that Day nor there will be for you any denying.) means, you will have no stronghold in which to take refuge, no place in which to hide from Allah, for He will encompass you with His knowledge and power, and you will have no refuge from Him except with Him.

﴿ يَقُولُ ٱلۡإِنسَـٰنُ يَوۡمَٮِٕذٍ أَيۡنَ ٱلۡمَفَرُّ كَلَّا لَا وَزَرَ إِلَىٰ رَبِّكَ يَوۡمَٮِٕذٍ ٱلۡمُسۡتَقَرُّ

(On that Day man will say: "Where (is the refuge) to flee'' No! There is no refuge! Unto your Lord will be the place of rest that Day.) (75:10-12)

﴿ فَإِنۡ أَعۡرَضُواْ

(But if they turn away,) refers to the idolaters,

﴿ فَمَآ أَرۡسَلۡنَـٰكَ عَلَيۡهِمۡ حَفِيظً۬ا

(We have not sent you as a Hafiz over them.) means, `you have no power over them.' And Allah says elsewhere:

﴿ لَّيۡسَ عَلَيۡكَ هُدَٮٰهُمۡ وَلَـٰڪِنَّ ٱللَّهَ يَهۡدِى مَن يَشَآءُ‌ۗ

(Not upon you is their guidance, but Allah guides whom He wills) (2:272).

﴿ فَإِنَّمَا عَلَيۡكَ ٱلۡبَلَـٰغُ وَعَلَيۡنَا ٱلۡحِسَابُ

(your duty is only to convey (the Message) and on Us is the reckoning) (13:40). And Allah says here:

﴿ إِنۡ عَلَيۡكَ إِلَّا ٱلۡبَلَـٰغُ‌ۗ

(Your duty is to convey.) meaning, `all that We require you to do is to convey the Message of Allah to them.'

﴿ وَإِنَّآ إِذَآ أَذَقۡنَا ٱلۡإِنسَـٰنَ مِنَّا رَحۡمَةً۬ فَرِحَ بِہَا‌ۖ

(And verily, when We cause man to taste of mercy from Us, he rejoices there at;) means, when a time of ease and comfort comes to him, he is happy about it.

﴿ وَإِن تُصِبۡهُمۡ

(but when befalls them) means mankind.

﴿ سَيِّئَةٌ۬

(some evil) means, drought, punishment, tribulation or difficulty,

﴿ فَإِنَّ ٱلۡإِنسَـٰنَ كَفُورٌ۬

(then verily, man (becomes) ingrate!) means, he forgets the previous times of ease and blessings and acknowledges nothing but the present moment. If times of ease come to him, he becomes arrogant and transgresses, but if any difficulty befalls him, he loses hope and is filled with despair. This is like what the Messenger of Allah said to the women:

« يَا مَعْشَرَ النِّسَاءِ، تَصَدَّقْنَ، فَإِنِّي رَأَيْتُكُنَّ أَكْثَرَ أَهْلِ النَّار »

(O women, give in charity, for I have seen that you form the majority of the people of Hell.) A woman asked, "Why is that, O Messenger of Allah'' He said:

« لِأَنَّكُنَّ تُكْثِرْنَ الشِّكَايَةَ وَتَكْفُرْنَ الْعَشِيرَ، لَوْ أَحْسَنْتَ إِلى إِحْدَاهُنَّ الدَّهْرَ ثُمَّ تَرَكْتَ يَوْمًا، قَالَتْ: مَا رَأَيْتُ مِنْكَ خَيْرًا قَط »

(Because you complain too much, and you are ungrateful to (your) husbands. If one of you were to be treated kindly for an entire lifetime, then that kindness was lacking for one day, she would say, `I have never seen anything good from you!') This is the case with most women, except for those whom Allah guides and who are among the people who believe and do righteous deeds. As the Prophet said, the believer is the one who:

« إِنْ أَصَابَتْهُ سَرَّاءُ شَكَرَ، فَكَانَ خَيْرًا لَهُ، وَإِنْ أَصَابَتْهُ ضَرَّاءُ صَبَرَ، فَكَانَ خَيْرًا لَهُ، وَلَيْسَ ذَلِكَ لِأَحَدٍ إِلَّا لِلْمُؤْمِن »

(... if something good happens to him, he is thankful, and that is good for him. If something bad happens to him, he bears it with patience, and that is good for him. This does not happen to anyone except the believer.)

﴿ لِّلَّهِ مُلۡكُ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِ‌ۚ يَخۡلُقُ مَا يَشَآءُ‌ۚ يَہَبُ لِمَن يَشَآءُ إِنَـٰثً۬ا وَيَهَبُ لِمَن يَشَآءُ ٱلذُّكُورَ أَوۡ يُزَوِّجُهُمۡ ذُكۡرَانً۬ا وَإِنَـٰثً۬ا‌ۖ وَيَجۡعَلُ مَن يَشَآءُ عَقِيمًا‌ۚ إِنَّهُ ۥ عَلِيمٌ۬ قَدِيرٌ۬

(49. To Allah belongs the kingdom of the heavens and the earth. He creates what He wills. He bestows female upon whom He wills, and bestows male upon whom He wills.) (50. Or He bestows both males and females, and He renders barren whom He wills. Verily, He is the All-Knower and is Able (to do all things).)

Allah tells us that He is the Creator, Sovereign and Controller of the heavens and the earth.

Whatever he wills happens, and whatever He does not will does not happen. He gives to whomsoever He wills and withholds from whomsoever he wills; none can withhold what He gives, and none can give what He withholds, and He creates whatever He wills.

﴿ يَہَبُ لِمَن يَشَآءُ إِنَـٰثً۬ا

(He bestows female upon whom He wills.) means, He gives them daughters only. Al-Baghawi said, "And among them (those who were given daughters only) was Lut, peace be upon him.''

﴿ وَيَهَبُ لِمَن يَشَآءُ ٱلذُّكُورَ

(and bestows male upon whom He wills.) means, He gives them sons only. Al-Baghawi said, "Like Ibrahim Al-Khalil (peace be upon him) who did not have any daughters.''

﴿ أَوۡ يُزَوِّجُهُمۡ ذُكۡرَانً۬ا وَإِنَـٰثً۬ا‌ۖ

(Or He bestows both males and females,) means, He gives to whomsoever He wills both males and females, sons and daughters. Al-Baghawi said, "Like Muhammad.''

﴿ وَيَجۡعَلُ مَن يَشَآءُ عَقِيمًا‌ۚ

(and He renders barren whom He wills.) means, so that he has no children at all. Al-Baghawi said, "Like Yahya and `Isa, peace be upon them.'' So people are divided into four categories: some are given daughters, some are given sons, some are given both sons and daughters, and some are not given either sons or daughters, but they are rendered barren, with no offspring.

﴿ إِنَّهُ ۥ عَلِيمٌ۬

(Verily, He is the All-Knower) means, He knows who deserves to be in which of these categories.

﴿ قَدِيرٌ۬

(and is Able (to do all things).) means, to do whatever He wills and to differentiate between people in this manner. This issue is similar to that referred to in the Ayah where Allah says of `Isa, peace be upon him:

﴿ وَلِنَجۡعَلَهُ ۥۤ ءَايَةً۬ لِّلنَّاسِ

(And (We wish) to appoint him as a sign to mankind) (19:21): i.e., proof for them of His power, for He created people in four different ways. Adam (peace be upon him) was created from clay, from neither a male nor a female. Hawwa', peace be upon her, was created from a male without a female. All other people, besides `Isa (peace be upon him) were created from male and female, and this sign of Allah was completed with the creation of `Isa bin Maryam, may peace be upon them both, who was created from a female without a male. Allah says:

﴿ وَلِنَجۡعَلَهُ ۥۤ ءَايَةً۬ لِّلنَّاسِ

(And (We wish) to appoint him as a sign to mankind) (19: 21). This issue has to do with parents, whilst the previous issue has to do with children, and in each case there are four categories. Glory be to the All-Knower Who is Able to do all things.

﴿ وَمَا كَانَ لِبَشَرٍ أَن يُكَلِّمَهُ ٱللَّهُ إِلَّا وَحۡيًا أَوۡ مِن وَرَآىِٕ حِجَابٍ أَوۡ يُرۡسِلَ رَسُولاً۬ فَيُوحِىَ بِإِذۡنِهِۦ مَا يَشَآءُ‌ۚ إِنَّهُ ۥ عَلِىٌّ حَڪِيمٌ۬ وَكَذَٲلِكَ أَوۡحَيۡنَآ إِلَيۡكَ رُوحً۬ا مِّنۡ أَمۡرِنَا‌ۚ مَا كُنتَ تَدۡرِى مَا ٱلۡكِتَـٰبُ وَلَا ٱلۡإِيمَـٰنُ وَلَـٰكِن جَعَلۡنَـٰهُ نُورً۬ا نَّہۡدِى بِهِۦ مَن نَّشَآءُ مِنۡ عِبَادِنَا‌ۚ وَإِنَّكَ لَتَہۡدِىٓ إِلَىٰ صِرَٲطٍ۬ مُّسۡتَقِيمٍ۬ صِرَٲطِ ٱللَّهِ ٱلَّذِى لَهُ ۥ مَا فِى ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَمَا فِى ٱلۡأَرۡضِ‌ۗ أَلَآ إِلَى ٱللَّهِ تَصِيرُ ٱلۡأُمُورُ

(51. It is not given to any human being that Allah should speak to him unless (it be) by revelation, or from behind a veil, or (that) He sends a Messenger to reveal what He wills by His leave. Verily, He is Most High, Most Wise.) (52. And thus We have sent to you Ruh of Our command. You knew not what is the Book, nor what is Faith. But We have made it a light wherewith We guide whosoever of Our servants We will. And verily, you are indeed guiding to a straight path.) (53. The path of Allah to Whom belongs all that is in the heavens and all that is on the earth. Verily, all matters at the end go to Allah.)