(My servants! No fear shall be on you this Day, nor shall you grieve.) Then He will give them the glad tidings:
((You) who believed in Our Ayat and were Muslims.) means, their hearts believed and they submitted inwardly and outwardly to the Laws of Allah. Al-Mu`tamir bin Sulayman narrated that his father said: "When the Day of Resurrection comes and the people are resurrected, there will be no one left who will not be filled with terror. Then a caller will cry out:
(My servants! No fear shall be on you this Day, nor shall you grieve.) So all the people will be filled with hope, but this will be followed by the words:
((You) who believed in Our Ayat and were Muslims.) Then all of mankind will be filled with despair apart from the believers.''
(Enter Paradise,) means, they will be told to enter Paradise.
(you and your wives,) means, your counterparts
(in happiness (Tuhbarun).) means, in delight and joy.
(Trays of gold and cups will be passed round them;) means, fine vessels of gold containing food and drink, without spouts or handles. (وَفِيهَا مَا تَشْتَهِي الْأَنْفُسُ) ﴿(there will be) therein all that their souls could desire).﴾ Some of them recited:
(that their souls desire,)
(and all that eyes could delight in) means, of good food, delightful fragrances and beautiful scenes.
(and you will therein) means, in Paradise
(abide forever) means, you will never leave it or want to exchange it. Then it will be said to them, as a reminder of the blessing and favor of Allah:
(This is the Paradise, which you have been made to inherit because of your deeds that you used to do.) means, the righteous deeds which were the cause of your being included in the mercy of Allah. For no one will be admitted to Paradise by virtue of their deeds alone; that will be by the mercy and grace of Allah. But the varying ranks and degrees of Paradise will be attained according to one's righteous deeds.
(Therein for you will be fruits in plenty,) means, of all kinds.
(of which you will eat.) means, whatever you choose and desire. When food and drink are mentioned, fruit is also mentioned to complete the picture of blessing and joy. And Allah knows best.
(74. Verily, the criminals will be in the torment of Hell to abide therein forever.) (75. (The torment) will not be lightened for them, and they will be plunged into destruction with deep regrets, sorrows and in despair therein.) (76. We wronged them not, but they were the wrongdoers.) (77. And they will cry: "O Malik (keeper of Hell)! Let your Lord make an end of us.'' He will say: "Verily, you shall abide forever.'') (78. Indeed We have brought the truth to you, but most of you have a hatred for the truth.) (79. Or have they plotted some plan Then We too are planning.) (80. Or do they think that We hear not their secrets and their private counsel Yes (We do) and Our messengers are by them, to record.)
The description of the state of the blessed is followed by a description of the state of the doomed.
(Verily, the criminals will be in the torment of Hell to abide therein forever. It will not be lightened for them,) meaning, not even for one moment.
(and they will be plunged into destruction with deep regrets, sorrows and in despair therein,) means, they will despair of any goodness.
(We wronged them not, but they were the wrongdoers.) means, by their committing wrong actions after proof had been established against them and Messengers had been sent to them, but they rejected them and rebelled, so they are to be punished accordingly. And your Lord is not at all unjust to (His) servants.
(And they will cry: "O Malik...'') who is the keeper of Hell. Al-Bukhari said, "Hajjaj bin Minhal told us, Sufyan bin `Uyaynah told us, from `Amr bin `Ata, ' from Safwan bin Ya`la that his father (may Allah be pleased with him) said, `I heard the Messenger of Allah reciting on the Minbar:
(And they will cry: "O Malik! Let your Lord make an end of us.'') meaning, `let Him destroy our souls and give us some respite from our predicament.' But it will be as Allah says:
(Neither will it have a complete killing effect on them so that they die nor shall its torment be lightened for them) (35:36).
(But it will be avoided by the wretched, who will enter the great Fire. There he will neither die (to be in rest) nor live (a good living).) (87:11-13). When they ask to be allowed to die, Malik will answer them:
He will say: Verily, you shall abide forever. meaning, you will have no way out from it and no refuge. Then the reason why they are doomed will be given, which is their stubborn resistance to the truth. Allah says:
(Indeed We have brought the truth to you,) meaning, `We have explained it to you clearly and in detail.'
(but most of you have a hatred for the truth.) means, `but your nature could not accept it and did not seek it; on the contrary, you followed and venerated falsehood, and you stood in the way of truth and refused it, and despised its followers.' So they will blame themselves and will feel regret at the time when regret will not be of any benefit to them. Then Allah says:
(Or have they plotted some plan Then We too are planning.) Mujahid said, "They wanted to plot some evil, but We are also planning.'' What Mujahid said is like the Ayah:
(So they plotted a plot, and We planned a plan, while they perceived not.) (27:50). The idolaters were trying their utmost to find ways of refuting the truth with falsehood, but Allah planned it so that the consequences of that would backfire on them. He said in refutation:
(Or do they think that We hear not their secrets and their private counsel) meaning, what they say secretly and openly.
(Yes (We do) and Our messengers are by them, to record.) means, `We know what they are doing, and the angels are also recording their deeds, major and minor.'
(81. Say: "If the Most Gracious had a son, then I am the first of the worshippers.'') (82. Glorified is the Lord of the heavens and the earth, the Lord of the Throne! Exalted be He from all that they ascribe (to Him).) (83. So leave them (alone) to speak nonsense and play until they meet the Day of theirs which they have been promised.) (84. It is He Who is the only God in the heaven and the only God on the earth. And He is the All-Wise, the All-Knower.) (85. And Blessed be He to Whom belongs the kingdom of the heavens and the earth, and all that is between them, and with Whom is the knowledge of the Hour, and to Whom you (all) will be returned.) (86. And those whom they invoke instead of Him have no power of intercession -- except for those who bear witness to the truth knowingly, and they know.) (87. And if you ask them who created them, they will surely say: "Allah.'' How then are they turned away) (88. And his saying: "O my Lord! Verily, these are a people who believe not!'') (89. So turn away from them, and say: Salam (peace!) But they will come to know.)
(Say) -- `O Muhammad' --
(If the Most Gracious had a son, then I am the first of the worshippers.) meaning, `if this were so, then I would worship Him on that basis, because I am one of His servants; I obey all that He commands me and I am not too arrogant or proud to worship Him.' This conditional phrase does not mean that what is described could happen nor that is possible as Allah says:
(Had Allah willed to take a son, He could have chosen whom He willed out of those whom He created. But glory be to Him! He is Allah, the One, the Irresistible.) (39:4). Allah says here:
(Glorified is the Lord of the heavens and the earth, the Lord of the Throne! Exalted be He from all that they ascribe (to Him).) meaning, exalted and sanctified and glorified be the Creator of all things far above having any offspring, for He is Unique, One and Eternally Self-Sufficient. There is none equal to Him or like Him, and He does not have any offspring.
(So leave them (alone) to speak nonsense) means, in their ignorance and misguidance,
(and play) in their world,
(until they meet the Day of theirs which they have been promised.) which is the Day of Resurrection, i.e., then they will come to know what their end and destination will be on that Day.
(It is He Who is the only God in the heaven and the only God on the earth.) means, He is the God of those who are in the heavens and the God of those who are on earth; all of them worship Him and are humbled before Him.
(And He is the All-Wise, the All-Knower.) This Ayah is like the Ayah:
(And He is Allah in the heavens and on the earth; He knows what you conceal and what you reveal, and He knows what you earn.) (6:3) which means, He is the One who is called Allah in the heavens and on the earth.
(And Blessed be He to Whom belongs the kingdom of the heavens and the earth, and all that is between them,) means, He is their Creator and Sovereign, the One Who is controlling them with none to resist or oppose His rule. Blessed and exalted be He far above the notion of His having a child. He is eternally free of all faults and shortcomings, because He is the Lord, the Exalted, the Almighty, the Sovereign of all things, Who is in control of all affairs.
(and with Whom is the knowledge of the Hour,) means, no one knows when it will happen except Him.
(and to Whom you (all) will be returned.) means, and each person will be requited for his deeds; if they are good, then he will be rewarded, and if they are bad, then he will be punished.
(And those whom they invoke instead of Him have no power) means, the idols and false gods.
(of intercession) means, they are not able to intercede for them.
(except for those who bear witness to the truth knowingly, and they know.) This means, but the one who bears witness to the truth has knowledge and insight, so his intercession with Allah will avail, by His leave.
(And if you ask them who created them, they will surely say: "Allah.'' How then are they turned away) means, `if you ask these idolaters who associate others in worship with Allah,'
(who created them, they will surely say: "Allah.'') means, they will admit that He Alone is the Creator of all things and He has no partner in that. Yet despite that they still worship others alongside Him who have nothing and are able to do nothing. This is the utmost foolishness and stupidity. Allah says:
(How then are they turned away)
(And his saying: "O my Lord! Verily, these are a people who believe not!'') means, Muhammad said this; he complained to his Lord about his people who did not believe in him, and said, `O Lord, these people do not believe.' This is like the Ayah:
(And the Messenger will say: "O my Lord! Verily, my people deserted this Qur'an.'') (25:30). This is the view of Ibn Mas`ud (may Allah be pleased with him) Mujahid and Qatadah, and this is how Ibn Jarir interpreted it. Al-Bukhari said: "`Abdullah -- meaning Ibn Mas`ud, may Allah be pleased with him -- recited (Ayah 88 of Az-Zukhruf): (وَقَالَ الرَّسُولُ ياربِّ) (And the Messenger will say: "O my Lord!'') Mujahid said concerning the Ayah:
(And his saying: "O my Lord! Verily, these are a people who believe not!'') "Allah is stating what Muhammad said.'' Qatadah said, "These are the words of your Prophet, when he complained about his people to his Lord.''
(So turn away from them, ) means, from the idolaters.
(and say Salam (peace!)) means, `do not respond to them in the same evil manner in which they address you; but try to soften their hearts and forgive them in word and deed.'
(But they will come to know.) This is a warning from Allah for them. His punishment, which cannot be warded off, struck them, and His religion and His word was supreme. Subsequently Jihad and striving were prescribed until the people entered the religion of Allah in crowds, and Islam spread throughout the east and the west. And Allah knows best. This is the end of the Tafsir of Surat Az-Zukhruf.