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The Description of the Sinful Liar and His Requital

Allah the Exalted says,

﴿ تِلۡكَ ءَايَـٰتُ ٱللَّهِ

(These are the Ayat of Allah) -- in reference to the Qur'an with the proofs and evidences that it contains,

﴿ نَتۡلُوهَا عَلَيۡكَ بِٱلۡحَقِّ‌ۖ

(which We recite to you with truth.) for they contain the truth from the Truth (i.e., Allah). Therefore, if they do not believe in Allah's Ayat nor abide by them, what speech after Allah and His Ayat will they then believe in Allah said next,

﴿ وَيۡلٌ۬ لِّكُلِّ أَفَّاكٍ أَثِيمٍ۬

(Woe to every sinful liar.) who lies in his speech, often swears, who is worthless, commits and utters sinful acts and statements, and disbelieves in Allah's Ayat,

﴿ يَسۡمَعُ ءَايَـٰتِ ٱللَّهِ تُتۡلَىٰ عَلَيۡهِ

(Who hears the Ayat of Allah Tutla (recited) to him,) meaning, being recited to him,

﴿ ثُمَّ يُصِرُّ

(yet persists) in his disbelief, denial, pride and rebellion,

﴿ كَأَن لَّمۡ يَسۡمَعۡهَا‌ۖ

(as if he heard them not. ) as if he did not hear them being recited to him,

﴿ فَبَشِّرۡهُ بِعَذَابٍ أَلِيمٍ۬

(So announce to him a painful torment!) convey the news to him that on the Day of Resurrection, he will have a painful, severe torment from Allah. Allah said,

﴿ وَإِذَا عَلِمَ مِنۡ ءَايَـٰتِنَا شَيۡـًٔا ٱتَّخَذَهَا هُزُوًا‌ۚ

(And when he learns something of Our Ayat, he makes them a jest.) if he learns anything from the Qur'an, he disbelieves in it and takes it as the subject of jest and ridicule,

﴿ أُوْلَـٰٓٮِٕكَ لَهُمۡ عَذَابٌ۬ مُّهِينٌ۬

(For such there will be a humiliating torment.) as recompense for ridiculing the Qur'an and jesting about it. In the Sahih, Muslim recorded from `Abdullah bin `Umar that the Messenger of Allah prohibited traveling with the Qur'an to enemy lands for fear that the Qur'an might be desecrated by the enemy. Allah explained the type of torment that these people earn on the Day of Return;

﴿ مِّن وَرَآٮِٕهِمۡ جَهَنَّمُ‌ۖ

(In front of them there is Hell.) meaning, all those who have these evil characteristics will end up in Hellfire on the Day of Resurrection,

﴿ وَلَا يُغۡنِى عَنۡہُم مَّا كَسَبُواْ شَيۡـًٔ۬ا

(And that which they have earned will be of no profit to them,) their wealth and children will not avail them,

﴿ وَلَا مَا ٱتَّخَذُواْ مِن دُونِ ٱللَّهِ أَوۡلِيَآءَ‌ۖ

(nor those whom they have taken as protecting friends besides Allah.) nor will the false gods that they worshipped besides Allah benefit them in the least,

﴿ وَلَهُمۡ عَذَابٌ عَظِيمٌ

(And theirs will be a great torment.) Allah the Exalted said,

﴿ هَـٰذَا هُدً۬ى‌ۖ

(This is Huda (guidance).) in reference to the Qur'an,

﴿ وَٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ بِـَٔايَـٰتِ رَبِّہِمۡ لَهُمۡ عَذَابٌ۬ مِّن رِّجۡزٍ أَلِيمٌ

(And those who disbelieve in the Ayat of their Lord, for them there is a painful torment of Rijz.) that is agonizing and severe. Allah knows best.

﴿ ٱللَّهُ ٱلَّذِى سَخَّرَ لَكُمُ ٱلۡبَحۡرَ لِتَجۡرِىَ ٱلۡفُلۡكُ فِيهِ بِأَمۡرِهِۦ وَلِتَبۡتَغُواْ مِن فَضۡلِهِۦ وَلَعَلَّكُمۡ تَشۡكُرُونَ وَسَخَّرَ لَكُم مَّا فِى ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَمَا فِى ٱلۡأَرۡضِ جَمِيعً۬ا مِّنۡهُ‌ۚ إِنَّ فِى ذَٲلِكَ لَأَيَـٰتٍ۬ لِّقَوۡمٍ۬ يَتَفَكَّرُونَ قُل لِّلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ يَغۡفِرُواْ لِلَّذِينَ لَا يَرۡجُونَ أَيَّامَ ٱللَّهِ لِيَجۡزِىَ قَوۡمَۢا بِمَا كَانُواْ يَكۡسِبُونَ مَنۡ عَمِلَ صَـٰلِحً۬ا فَلِنَفۡسِهِۦ‌ۖ وَمَنۡ أَسَآءَ فَعَلَيۡہَا‌ۖ ثُمَّ إِلَىٰ رَبِّكُمۡ تُرۡجَعُونَ

(12. Allah, it is He Who has subjected to you the sea, that ships may sail through it by His command, and that you may seek of His bounty, and that you may be thankful.) (13. And has subjected to you all that is in the heavens and all that is on the earth; it is all (as a favor and kindness) from Him. Verily, in it are signs for a people who think deeply.) (14. Say to the believers to forgive those who hope not for the Days of Allah, that He may recompense people, according to what they have earned.) (15. Whosoever does a good deed, it is for himself, and whosoever does evil, it is against (himself). Then to your Lord you will be made to return.)

The Subjugation of the Sea, etc., is among Allah's Signs

Allah the Exalted mentions some of the favors He gave to His servants, such as subjecting the sea for their service,

﴿ لِتَجۡرِىَ ٱلۡفُلۡكُ فِيهِ بِأَمۡرِهِۦ

(that ships may sail through the sea by His command,) i.e., of Allah the Exalted, Who ordered the sea to carry ships,

﴿ وَلِتَبۡتَغُواْ مِن فَضۡلِهِۦ

(and that you may seek of His bounty,) in commercial and business transactions,

﴿ وَلَعَلَّكُمۡ تَشۡكُرُونَ

(and that you may be thankful.) for earning various provisions brought to you from far away provinces and distant areas through the sea. Allah the Exalted said,

﴿ وَسَخَّرَ لَكُم مَّا فِى ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَمَا فِى ٱلۡأَرۡضِ

(And has subjected to you all that is in the heavens and all that is on the earth;) the stars, the mountains, the seas, the rivers and all that you use for your benefit; these are all from His favor, kindness and bounty. Allah's statement next,

﴿ جَمِيعً۬ا مِّنۡهُ‌ۚ

(it is all from Him.) Alone without partners in giving any of it. Allah the Exalted said in another Ayah,

﴿ وَمَا بِكُم مِّن نِّعۡمَةٍ۬ فَمِنَ ٱللَّهِ‌ۖ ثُمَّ إِذَا مَسَّكُمُ ٱلضُّرُّ فَإِلَيۡهِ تَجۡـَٔرُونَ

(And whatever of blessings you have, it is from Allah. Then, when harm touches you unto Him you cry aloud for help.) (16:53) Ibn Jarir recorded that Al-`Awfi reported that Ibn `Abbas said about Allah's statement,

﴿ وَسَخَّرَ لَكُم مَّا فِى ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَمَا فِى ٱلۡأَرۡضِ جَمِيعً۬ا مِّنۡهُ‌ۚ

(And has subjected to you all that is in the heavens and all that is on the earth; it is all from Him.) "Everything is from Allah, and that is a Name from His Names. So it all comes from Him without rivals to dispute His authority; surely, this fact is completely certain.'' Allah said.

﴿ إِنَّ فِى ذَٲلِكَ لَأَيَـٰتٍ۬ لِّقَوۡمٍ۬ يَتَفَكَّرُونَ

(Verily, in it are signs for a people who think deeply.)

The Command to be Patient with the Harm of Idolators

Allah's saying;

﴿ قُل لِّلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ يَغۡفِرُواْ لِلَّذِينَ لَا يَرۡجُونَ أَيَّامَ ٱللَّهِ

(Say to the believers to forgive those who hope not for the Days of Allah,) means, let the believers forgive the disbelievers and endure the harm that they direct against them. In the beginning of Islam, Muslims were ordered to observe patience in the face of the oppression of the idolaters and the People of the Scriptures so that their hearts may incline towards Islam. However, when the disbelievers persisted in stubbornness, Allah legislated for the believers to fight in Jihad. Statements of this meaning were collected from `Abdullah bin `Abbas and Qatadah. Mujahid said about Allah's statement,

﴿ لَا يَرۡجُونَ أَيَّامَ ٱللَّهِ

(those who hope not for the Days of Allah,) "They do not appreciate Allah's favors.'' Allah said,

﴿ لِيَجۡزِىَ قَوۡمَۢا بِمَا كَانُواْ يَكۡسِبُونَ

(that He may recompense people, according to what they have earned.) meaning, if the believers forgive the disbelievers in this life, Allah will still punish the disbelievers for their evil in the Hereafter. Allah's statement next,

﴿ مَنۡ عَمِلَ صَـٰلِحً۬ا فَلِنَفۡسِهِۦ‌ۖ وَمَنۡ أَسَآءَ فَعَلَيۡہَا‌ۖ ثُمَّ إِلَىٰ رَبِّكُمۡ تُرۡجَعُونَ

(Whosoever does a good deed, it is for himself, and whosoever does evil, it is against (himself). Then to your Lord you will be made to return.) meaning, you will all return to Allah on the Day of Resurrection, when you and your actions will be displayed before Him. Then, He will recompense you for your deeds, good for good and evil for evil.

﴿ وَلَقَدۡ ءَاتَيۡنَا بَنِىٓ إِسۡرَٲٓءِيلَ ٱلۡكِتَـٰبَ وَٱلۡحُكۡمَ وَٱلنُّبُوَّةَ وَرَزَقۡنَـٰهُم مِّنَ ٱلطَّيِّبَـٰتِ وَفَضَّلۡنَـٰهُمۡ عَلَى ٱلۡعَـٰلَمِينَ وَءَاتَيۡنَـٰهُم بَيِّنَـٰتٍ۬ مِّنَ ٱلۡأَمۡرِ‌ۖ فَمَا ٱخۡتَلَفُوٓاْ إِلَّا مِنۢ بَعۡدِ مَا جَآءَهُمُ ٱلۡعِلۡمُ بَغۡيَۢا بَيۡنَهُمۡ‌ۚ إِنَّ رَبَّكَ يَقۡضِى بَيۡنَہُمۡ يَوۡمَ ٱلۡقِيَـٰمَةِ فِيمَا كَانُواْ فِيهِ يَخۡتَلِفُونَ ثُمَّ جَعَلۡنَـٰكَ عَلَىٰ شَرِيعَةٍ۬ مِّنَ ٱلۡأَمۡرِ فَٱتَّبِعۡهَا وَلَا تَتَّبِعۡ أَهۡوَآءَ ٱلَّذِينَ لَا يَعۡلَمُونَ
﴿ إِنَّہُمۡ لَن يُغۡنُواْ عَنكَ مِنَ ٱللَّهِ شَيۡـًٔ۬ا‌ۚ وَإِنَّ ٱلظَّـٰلِمِينَ بَعۡضُہُمۡ أَوۡلِيَآءُ بَعۡضٍ۬‌ۖ وَٱللَّهُ وَلِىُّ ٱلۡمُتَّقِينَ هَـٰذَا بَصَـٰٓٮِٕرُ لِلنَّاسِ وَهُدً۬ى وَرَحۡمَةٌ۬ لِّقَوۡمٍ۬ يُوقِنُونَ

(16. And indeed We gave the Children of Israel the Scripture, and the understanding of the Scripture and its laws, and the prophethood; and provided them with good things, and preferred them above the nations.) (17. And gave them clear proofs in matters. And they differed not until after the knowledge came to them, through envy among themselves. Verily, your Lord will judge between them on the Day of Resurrection about that wherein they used to differ.) (18. Then We have put you on a (legal) way of commandment. So follow you that, and follow not the desires of those who know not.) (19. Verily, they can avail you nothing against Allah. Verily, the wrongdoers are protecting friends of one another, but Allah is the Protector of those who have Taqwa.) (20. This is a clear insight and evidence for mankind, and a guidance and a mercy for people who have faith with certainty.)

Preference of Allah to the Children of Israel and their dispute thereafter

Allah the Exalted mentions the favors He granted the Children of Israel, such as revealing the Divine Books to them, sending the Messengers to them and granting them kingship. Allah said,

﴿ وَلَقَدۡ ءَاتَيۡنَا بَنِىٓ إِسۡرَٲٓءِيلَ ٱلۡكِتَـٰبَ وَٱلۡحُكۡمَ وَٱلنُّبُوَّةَ وَرَزَقۡنَـٰهُم مِّنَ ٱلطَّيِّبَـٰتِ

(And indeed We gave the Children of Israel the Scripture, and the understanding of the Scripture and its laws, and the prophethood; and provided them with good things,) such as foods and drinks,

﴿ وَفَضَّلۡنَـٰهُمۡ عَلَى ٱلۡعَـٰلَمِينَ

(and preferred them above the nations.) of their time,

﴿ وَءَاتَيۡنَـٰهُم بَيِّنَـٰتٍ۬ مِّنَ ٱلۡأَمۡرِ‌ۖ

(And gave them clear proofs in matters.) `We gave them evidences, proofs and unequivocal signs.' Therefore, the proof has been established against them, yet they differed among themselves after the proof came to them, out of transgression against each other,

﴿ إِنَّ رَبَّكَ

(Verily, your Lord) `O Muhammad',

﴿ يَقۡضِى بَيۡنَہُمۡ يَوۡمَ ٱلۡقِيَـٰمَةِ فِيمَا كَانُواْ فِيهِ يَخۡتَلِفُونَ

(will judge between them on the Day of Resurrection about that wherein they used to differ.) He will judge between them by His just judgment.

Warning to this Ummah against following the Ways of the Children of Israel

This Ayah contains a warning to the Muslim Ummah as well. It warns them not to take the path the Jews took nor adopt their ways. This is why Allah said,

﴿ ثُمَّ جَعَلۡنَـٰكَ عَلَىٰ شَرِيعَةٍ۬ مِّنَ ٱلۡأَمۡرِ فَٱتَّبِعۡهَا

(Then We have put you on a (legal) way of commandment. So follow you that.) `follow what was revealed to you from your Lord, O Muhammad, there is no true deity except Him, and turn away from the idolaters.' Allah said,

﴿ وَلَا تَتَّبِعۡ أَهۡوَآءَ ٱلَّذِينَ لَا يَعۡلَمُونَ إِنَّہُمۡ لَن يُغۡنُواْ عَنكَ مِنَ ٱللَّهِ شَيۡـًٔ۬ا‌ۚ وَإِنَّ ٱلظَّـٰلِمِينَ بَعۡضُہُمۡ أَوۡلِيَآءُ بَعۡضٍ۬‌ۖ

(and follow not the desires of those who know not. Verily, they can avail you nothing against Allah. Verily, the wrongdoers are protecting friends of one another,) Allah says, `what will the loyalty that the idolaters give each other avail them' Indeed, all they will earn from their protecting friends is more loss, destruction and demise,

﴿ وَٱللَّهُ وَلِىُّ ٱلۡمُتَّقِينَ

(but Allah is the Protector of those who have Taqwa.) and He will deliver them from the darkness to the light. In contrast, all the false deities are the protecting friends of those who disbelieve, taking them out of the light to the darkness. Allah said,

﴿ هَـٰذَا بَصَـٰٓٮِٕرُ لِلنَّاسِ

(This is a clear insight and evidence for man- kind,) in reference to the Qur'an,

﴿ وَهُدً۬ى وَرَحۡمَةٌ۬ لِّقَوۡمٍ۬ يُوقِنُونَ

(and a guidance and a mercy for people who have faith with certainty.)

﴿ أَمۡ حَسِبَ ٱلَّذِينَ ٱجۡتَرَحُواْ ٱلسَّيِّـَٔاتِ أَن نَّجۡعَلَهُمۡ كَٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ وَعَمِلُواْ ٱلصَّـٰلِحَـٰتِ سَوَآءً۬ مَّحۡيَاهُمۡ وَمَمَاتُہُمۡ‌ۚ سَآءَ مَا يَحۡكُمُونَ وَخَلَقَ ٱللَّهُ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضَ بِٱلۡحَقِّ وَلِتُجۡزَىٰ كُلُّ نَفۡسِۭ بِمَا ڪَسَبَتۡ وَهُمۡ لَا يُظۡلَمُونَ أَفَرَءَيۡتَ مَنِ ٱتَّخَذَ إِلَـٰهَهُ ۥ هَوَٮٰهُ وَأَضَلَّهُ ٱللَّهُ عَلَىٰ عِلۡمٍ۬ وَخَتَمَ عَلَىٰ سَمۡعِهِۦ وَقَلۡبِهِۦ وَجَعَلَ عَلَىٰ بَصَرِهِۦ غِشَـٰوَةً۬ فَمَن يَہۡدِيهِ مِنۢ بَعۡدِ ٱللَّهِ‌ۚ أَفَلَا تَذَكَّرُونَ

(21. Or do those who earn evil deeds think that We shall hold them equal with those who believe and do righteous good deeds, in their present life and after their death Worst is the judgment that they make.) (22. And Allah has created the heavens and the earth with truth, in order that each person may be recompensed what he has earned, and they will not be wronged.) (23. Have you seen him who takes his own lust as his god And Allah, left him astray with knowledge, and sealed his hearing and his heart, and put a cover on his sight. Who then will guide him after Allah Will you not then remember)