;
Which was revealed in Makkah
﴿ بِسۡمِ ٱللَّهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

﴿ حمٓ تَنزِيلُ ٱلۡكِتَـٰبِ مِنَ ٱللَّهِ ٱلۡعَزِيزِ ٱلۡحَكِيمِ مَا خَلَقۡنَا ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضَ وَمَا بَيۡنَهُمَآ إِلَّا بِٱلۡحَقِّ وَأَجَلٍ۬ مُّسَمًّ۬ى‌ۚ وَٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ عَمَّآ أُنذِرُواْ مُعۡرِضُونَ قُلۡ أَرَءَيۡتُم مَّا تَدۡعُونَ مِن دُونِ ٱللَّهِ أَرُونِى مَاذَا خَلَقُواْ مِنَ ٱلۡأَرۡضِ أَمۡ لَهُمۡ شِرۡكٌ۬ فِى ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ‌ۖ ٱئۡتُونِى بِكِتَـٰبٍ۬ مِّن قَبۡلِ هَـٰذَآ أَوۡ أَثَـٰرَةٍ۬ مِّنۡ عِلۡمٍ إِن ڪُنتُمۡ صَـٰدِقِينَ وَمَنۡ أَضَلُّ مِمَّن يَدۡعُواْ مِن دُونِ ٱللَّهِ مَن لَّا يَسۡتَجِيبُ لَهُ ۥۤ إِلَىٰ يَوۡمِ ٱلۡقِيَـٰمَةِ وَهُمۡ عَن دُعَآٮِٕهِمۡ غَـٰفِلُونَ وَإِذَا حُشِرَ ٱلنَّاسُ كَانُواْ لَهُمۡ أَعۡدَآءً۬ وَكَانُواْ بِعِبَادَتِہِمۡ كَـٰفِرِينَ

(1. Ha Mim.) (2. The revelation of the Book is from Allah, the Almighty, the All-Wise.) (3. We created not the heavens and the earth and all that is between them except with truth, and for a specified term. But those who disbelieve, turn away from that whereof they are warned.) (4. Say: "Think you about all that you invoke besides Allah Show me what have they created of the earth Or have they a share in (the creation of) the heavens Bring me a scripture prior to this or some trace of knowledge, if you are truthful!'') (5. And who is more astray than those who invoke besides Allah others who will not answer them until the Day of Resurrection, and who are unaware of their invocations to them) (6. And when mankind are gathered, they (false deities) will become their enemies and will deny their worship.)

The Qur'an is a Revelation from Allah and the Universe is His True Creation

Allah informs that He has revealed the Book to His servant and Messenger Muhammad -- may Allah's blessings be upon him until the Day of Judgment. Allah then describes Himself as being of unimaginable glory, possessing ultimate wisdom in His statements and actions. Allah then says,

﴿ مَا خَلَقۡنَا ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضَ وَمَا بَيۡنَهُمَآ إِلَّا بِٱلۡحَقِّ

(We created not the heavens and the earth and all that is between them except in truth,) meaning, not in idle play and falsehood.

﴿ وَأَجَلٍ۬ مُّسَمًّ۬ى‌ۚ

(and for a specified term.) meaning, for a fixed and specified duration that will not increase or decrease. Allah continues,

﴿ وَٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ عَمَّآ أُنذِرُواْ مُعۡرِضُونَ

(But those who disbelieve, turn away from that of which they are warned.) Meaning, the disbelievers are distracted from what is intended for them. Allah has indeed revealed to them a Book and sent to them a Messenger. Yet, they obstinately turn away from all of that. Therefore, they will soon realize the consequence of their behavior.

Refuting the Idolators

Allah then says,

﴿ قُلۡ

(Say) meaning, to these idolaters who worship others besides Allah.

﴿ أَرَءَيۡتُم مَّا تَدۡعُونَ مِن دُونِ ٱللَّهِ أَرُونِى مَاذَا خَلَقُواْ مِنَ ٱلۡأَرۡضِ

(Think you about all that you invoke besides Allah Show me what they have created of the earth) (46:4) meaning, `show me the place that they have independently created from the earth.'

﴿ أَمۡ لَهُمۡ شِرۡكٌ۬ فِى ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ‌ۖ

(Or have they a share in the heavens) which means that they are not partners in anything in the heavens, nor on earth. They do not own even the thin membrane covering a date's pit. The dominion and control only belong to Allah, Exalted is He. `How then would you worship others or join them as partners with Him Who guided you to that Who called you to that Did He command you to do it, or is it something that you suggested yourselves' Thus, He says,

﴿ ٱئۡتُونِى بِكِتَـٰبٍ۬ مِّن قَبۡلِ هَـٰذَآ

(Bring me a scripture prior to this) meaning, `bring a book from among the Books of Allah that have been revealed to the Prophets, that commands you to worship these idols.'

﴿ أَوۡ أَثَـٰرَةٍ۬ مِّنۡ عِلۡمٍ

(or some trace of knowledge,) meaning, `some clear evidence justifying this way you have chosen.'

﴿ إِن ڪُنتُمۡ صَـٰدِقِينَ

(if you are truthful!) meaning, `you have absolutely no evidence for that -- neither textual (from revelation) nor rational.' For this reason, some recited it; (أَوْ أَثَرَةٍ مِنْ عِلْمٍ) "or something inherited from knowledge'' meaning, `or true knowledge that you have inherited from anyone before you.' This is similar to Mujahid's statement when he said,

﴿ أَوۡ أَثَـٰرَةٍ۬ مِّنۡ عِلۡمٍ

(or some trace of knowledge.) "Or anyone who has inherited any knowledge.'' Allah then says,

﴿ وَمَنۡ أَضَلُّ مِمَّن يَدۡعُواْ مِن دُونِ ٱللَّهِ مَن لَّا يَسۡتَجِيبُ لَهُ ۥۤ إِلَىٰ يَوۡمِ ٱلۡقِيَـٰمَةِ وَهُمۡ عَن دُعَآٮِٕهِمۡ غَـٰفِلُونَ

(And who is more astray than those who invokes besides Allah others who will not answer them until the Day of Resurrection, and who are unaware of their invocations to them) meaning, no one is more misguided than those who invoke idols instead of Allah, asking them for things that they cannot give -- until the Day of Judgment. They (the idols) are unaware of what he asks, they can neither hear, see, or act. This is because they are inanimate, senseless stones. Allah then says,

﴿ وَإِذَا حُشِرَ ٱلنَّاسُ كَانُواْ لَهُمۡ أَعۡدَآءً۬ وَكَانُواْ بِعِبَادَتِہِمۡ كَـٰفِرِينَ

(And when mankind are gathered, they will become their enemies and will deny their worship.) This is similar to Allah's saying:

﴿ وَٱتَّخَذُواْ مِن دُونِ ٱللَّهِ ءَالِهَةً۬ لِّيَكُونُواْ لَهُمۡ عِزًّ۬ا
﴿ كَلَّا‌ۚ سَيَكۡفُرُونَ بِعِبَادَتِہِمۡ وَيَكُونُونَ عَلَيۡہِمۡ ضِدًّا

(They have taken gods beside Allah, that they might give them dignity. No! They will deny their worship of them, and will be opponents to them.) (19:81, 82) meaning, they will betray them when they need them the most. (Ibrahim) Al-Khalil, peace be upon him, said:

﴿ إِنَّمَا ٱتَّخَذۡتُم مِّن دُونِ ٱللَّهِ أَوۡثَـٰنً۬ا مَّوَدَّةَ بَيۡنِكُمۡ فِى ٱلۡحَيَوٰةِ ٱلدُّنۡيَا‌ۖ ثُمَّ يَوۡمَ ٱلۡقِيَـٰمَةِ يَكۡفُرُ بَعۡضُڪُم بِبَعۡضٍ۬ وَيَلۡعَنُ بَعۡضُڪُم بَعۡضً۬ا وَمَأۡوَٮٰكُمُ ٱلنَّارُ وَمَا لَڪُم مِّن نَّـٰصِرِينَ

(You have taken only idols besides Allah! The love between you is only in the life of this world. On the Day of Resurrection, you shall disown each other and curse each other, and your abode will be the Fire, and you shall have no helpers.)(29:25)

﴿ وَإِذَا تُتۡلَىٰ عَلَيۡہِمۡ ءَايَـٰتُنَا بَيِّنَـٰتٍ۬ قَالَ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ لِلۡحَقِّ لَمَّا جَآءَهُمۡ هَـٰذَا سِحۡرٌ۬ مُّبِينٌ أَمۡ يَقُولُونَ ٱفۡتَرَٮٰهُ‌ۖ قُلۡ إِنِ ٱفۡتَرَيۡتُهُ ۥ فَلَا تَمۡلِكُونَ لِى مِنَ ٱللَّهِ شَيۡـًٔا‌ۖ هُوَ أَعۡلَمُ بِمَا تُفِيضُونَ فِيهِ‌ۖ كَفَىٰ بِهِۦ شَہِيدَۢا بَيۡنِى وَبَيۡنَكُمۡ‌ۖ وَهُوَ ٱلۡغَفُورُ ٱلرَّحِيمُ قُلۡ مَا كُنتُ بِدۡعً۬ا مِّنَ ٱلرُّسُلِ وَمَآ أَدۡرِى مَا يُفۡعَلُ بِى وَلَا بِكُمۡ‌ۖ إِنۡ أَتَّبِعُ إِلَّا مَا يُوحَىٰٓ إِلَىَّ وَمَآ أَنَا۟ إِلَّا نَذِيرٌ۬ مُّبِينٌ۬

(7. And when Our Clear Ayat are recited to them, the disbelievers say of the truth when it reaches them: "This is plain magic!'') (8. Or say they: "He has fabricated it.'' Say: "If I have fabricated it, still you have no power to support me against Allah. He knows best of what you say among yourselves concerning it! Sufficient is He as a witness between me and you! And He is the Oft--Forgiving, the Most Merciful.'') (9. Say: "I am not a new thing among the Messengers, nor do I know what will be done with me or you. I only follow that which is revealed to me, and I am but a plain warner.'')

Refuting Claims of the Idolators about the Qur'an and the Messenger

Concerning the disbelief and rebellion of the idolaters, Allah says that when the clear Ayat of Allah are recited to them they say;

﴿ هَـٰذَا سِحۡرٌ۬ مُّبِينٌ

(This is plain magic!) meaning, simple magic. In this statement of theirs, they have lied, invented a falsehood, went astray and disbelieved.

﴿ أَمۡ يَقُولُونَ ٱفۡتَرَٮٰهُ‌ۖ

(Or they say: "He has fabricated it.'') They are referring to Muhammad. Allah responds saying,

﴿ قُلۡ إِنِ ٱفۡتَرَيۡتُهُ ۥ فَلَا تَمۡلِكُونَ لِى مِنَ ٱللَّهِ شَيۡـًٔا‌ۖ

(Say: "If I have fabricated it, you have no power to support me against Allah...'') which means, `if I lie against Allah and falsely claim that He sent me when He actually had not, then He would punish me with a severe punishment. No one on the earth -- you or anyone else -- would then be able to protect me from Him.' It is similar to Allah's saying,

﴿ قُلۡ إِنِّى لَن يُجِيرَنِى مِنَ ٱللَّهِ أَحَدٌ۬ وَلَنۡ أَجِدَ مِن دُونِهِۦ مُلۡتَحَدًا إِلَّا بَلَـٰغً۬ا مِّنَ ٱللَّهِ وَرِسَـٰلَـٰتِهِۦ‌ۚ

(Say: "None can protect me from Allah, nor would I find a refuge except in Him. (My duty) is only to convey from Allah and (deliver) His Messages. '') (72:22-23) Allah says,

﴿ وَلَوۡ تَقَوَّلَ عَلَيۡنَا بَعۡضَ ٱلۡأَقَاوِيلِ لَأَخَذۡنَا مِنۡهُ بِٱلۡيَمِينِ ثُمَّ لَقَطَعۡنَا مِنۡهُ ٱلۡوَتِينَ فَمَا مِنكُم مِّنۡ أَحَدٍ عَنۡهُ حَـٰجِزِينَ

(And if he made up a false saying concerning Us, We surely would have seized him by the right hand. Then we would have cut off his life artery. And none of you could withhold Us from (punishing) him.) (69:44-47) Thus, Allah says here,

﴿ قُلۡ إِنِ ٱفۡتَرَيۡتُهُ ۥ فَلَا تَمۡلِكُونَ لِى مِنَ ٱللَّهِ شَيۡـًٔا‌ۖ هُوَ أَعۡلَمُ بِمَا تُفِيضُونَ فِيهِ‌ۖ كَفَىٰ بِهِۦ شَہِيدَۢا بَيۡنِى وَبَيۡنَكُمۡ‌ۖ

(Say: "If I have fabricated it, still you have no power to support me against Allah. He knows best of what you say among yourselves concerning it (i.e. this Qur'an)! Sufficient is He as a witness between me and you!...'') This is a severe threat, intimidation and warning for them. Allah then says,

﴿ وَهُوَ ٱلۡغَفُورُ ٱلرَّحِيمُ

(And He is the Oft-Forgiving, the Most Merciful.) This is an encouragement for them to repent and turn to Allah. It means, `despite all of this, if you turn back and repent, Allah will accept your repentance, pardon you, forgive you, and have mercy upon on.' This is similar to Allah's saying in Surat Al-Furqan,

﴿ وَقَالُوٓاْ أَسَـٰطِيرُ ٱلۡأَوَّلِينَ ٱڪۡتَتَبَهَا فَهِىَ تُمۡلَىٰ عَلَيۡهِ بُڪۡرَةً۬ وَأَصِيلاً۬ قُلۡ أَنزَلَهُ ٱلَّذِى يَعۡلَمُ ٱلسِّرَّ فِى ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِ‌ۚ إِنَّهُ ۥ ڪَانَ غَفُورً۬ا رَّحِيمً۬ا

(And they say: "(This Book is) legends of the ancients that he has written down, and they are dictated to him morning and afternoon.'' Say: "It has been sent down by the One Who knows every secret within the heavens and the earth. Truly, He is ever Forgiving and Merciful.'') (25:5-6) Allah then says,

﴿ قُلۡ مَا كُنتُ بِدۡعً۬ا مِّنَ ٱلرُّسُلِ

(Say: "I am not a new thing among the Messengers...") which means, `I am not the first Messenger who ever came to the world. Rather, Messengers came before me. Therefore, I am not an unprecedented incident that should cause you all to reject me and doubt my being sent to you. Indeed, Allah has sent before me all of the Prophets to various nations.' Allah then says,

﴿ وَمَآ أَدۡرِى مَا يُفۡعَلُ بِى وَلَا بِكُمۡ‌ۖ

(nor do I know what will be done with me or with you.) `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported from Ibn `Abbas that he said, "It (this Ayah) was followed in revelation by,

﴿ لِّيَغۡفِرَ لَكَ ٱللَّهُ مَا تَقَدَّمَ مِن ذَنۢبِكَ وَمَا تَأَخَّرَ

(That Allah may forgive for you your sins of the past and future). Similarly, `Ikrimah, Al-Hasan, and Qatadah all said that this Ayah was abrogated by the Ayah;

﴿ لِّيَغۡفِرَ لَكَ ٱللَّهُ مَا تَقَدَّمَ مِن ذَنۢبِكَ وَمَا تَأَخَّرَ

(That Allah may forgive for you your sins of the past and future). They said that when the latter Ayah was revealed, one of the Muslims said to Allah's Messenger, "Allah has declared what He will do for you. But what will He do for us'' Then Allah revealed;

﴿ لِّيُدۡخِلَ ٱلۡمُؤۡمِنِينَ وَٱلۡمُؤۡمِنَـٰتِ جَنَّـٰتٍ۬ تَجۡرِى مِن تَحۡتِہَا ٱلۡأَنۡہَـٰرُ

(That He may admit the believing men and the believing women to Gardens under which rivers flow). This is what they said. That which has been confirmed in the Sahih is that the believers said, "May you enjoy that, O Allah's Messenger! But what do we get'' So Allah revealed this Ayah. Imam Ahmad recorded that Kharijah bin Zayd bin Thabit, reported that Umm Al-`Ala' -- a woman from the Ansar who had given her pledge of loyalty to Allah's Messenger -- said, "When the Ansar drew lots regarding taking in the Muhajirun to dwell with them, our lot was to have `Uthman bin Maz`un. Later, `Uthman fell sick in our house, so we nursed him until he died, and we wrapped him in his garments (for burial). Allah's Messenger then came in, and I said, `O Abu As-Sa'ib! May Allah have mercy on you. I bear witness that Allah has indeed honored you.' Allah's Messenger asked,

« وَمَا يُدْرِيكِ أَنَّ اللهَ تَعَالَى أَكْرَمَه »

(How do you know that Allah has honored him) I said, `I do not know -- may my father and mother both be ransoms for you!' Allah's Messenger then said,

« أَمَّا هُوَ فَقَدْ جَاءَهُ الْيَقِينُ مِنْ رَبِّهِ، وَإِنِّي لَأَرْجُو لَهُ الْخَيْرَ. وَاللهِ مَا أَدْرِي وَأَنَا رَسُولُ اللهِ مَا يُفْعَلُ بِي »

(As for him, certainty (death) has reached him from his Lord, and I surely wish well for him. But by Allah, even though I am Allah's Messenger, I do not know what will happen to me (after death).) I then said, `Never will I claim a person to be pious after this.' This incident caused me some distress, and I went to sleep thereafter. I saw in my dream that `Uthman owned a running water spring. I went to Allah's Messenger and told him about that. Allah's Messenger said,

« ذَاكِ عَمَلُه »

(That was his (good) deeds.)'' Al-Bukhari recorded this Hadith but Muslim did not. In one of the narrations, Allah's Messenger said,

« مَا أَدْرِي وَأَنَا رَسُولُ اللهِ مَا يُفْعَلُ بِه »

(Even though I am Allah's Messenger, I do not know what will happen to him.) This and similar texts indicate that it is not allowed to declare that a specific person will enter Jannah except for those who were distinctly indicated by Allah or his Messenger. Examples of those are the Ten, Ibn Sallam, Al-Ghumaysa', Bilal, Suraqah, `Abdullah bin `Amr bin Haram (Jabir's father), the Seventy Recitors (of Qur'an) who were assassinated near the Well of Ma`unah, Zayd bin Harithah, Ja`far, Ibn Rawahah, and other similar individuals, may Allah be pleased with them. Allah then says,

﴿ إِنۡ أَتَّبِعُ إِلَّا مَا يُوحَىٰٓ إِلَىَّ

(I only follow that which is revealed to me,) which means, `I only follow what Allah has revealed to me of the revelation.'

﴿ وَمَآ أَنَا۟ إِلَّا نَذِيرٌ۬ مُّبِينٌ۬

(and I am but a plain warner.) meaning, `my warnings are obvious to every person with sound intellect and reason.' And Allah knows best.

﴿ قُلۡ أَرَءَيۡتُمۡ إِن كَانَ مِنۡ عِندِ ٱللَّهِ وَكَفَرۡتُم بِهِۦ وَشَہِدَ شَاهِدٌ۬ مِّنۢ بَنِىٓ إِسۡرَٲٓءِيلَ عَلَىٰ مِثۡلِهِۦ فَـَٔامَنَ وَٱسۡتَكۡبَرۡتُمۡ‌ۖ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ لَا يَہۡدِى ٱلۡقَوۡمَ ٱلظَّـٰلِمِينَ وَقَالَ ٱلَّذِينَ ڪَفَرُواْ لِلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ لَوۡ كَانَ خَيۡرً۬ا مَّا سَبَقُونَآ إِلَيۡهِ‌ۚ وَإِذۡ لَمۡ يَهۡتَدُواْ بِهِۦ فَسَيَقُولُونَ هَـٰذَآ إِفۡكٌ۬ قَدِيمٌ۬ وَمِن قَبۡلِهِۦ كِتَـٰبُ مُوسَىٰٓ إِمَامً۬ا وَرَحۡمَةً۬‌ۚ وَهَـٰذَا كِتَـٰبٌ۬ مُّصَدِّقٌ۬ لِّسَانًا عَرَبِيًّ۬ا لِّيُنذِرَ ٱلَّذِينَ ظَلَمُواْ وَبُشۡرَىٰ لِلۡمُحۡسِنِينَ إِنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ قَالُواْ رَبُّنَا ٱللَّهُ ثُمَّ ٱسۡتَقَـٰمُواْ فَلَا خَوۡفٌ عَلَيۡهِمۡ وَلَا هُمۡ يَحۡزَنُونَ أُوْلَـٰٓٮِٕكَ أَصۡحَـٰبُ ٱلۡجَنَّةِ خَـٰلِدِينَ فِيہَا جَزَآءَۢ بِمَا كَانُواْ يَعۡمَلُونَ

(10. Say: "Tell me! If it was from Allah and you disbelieved it, (at the same time), a witness from among the Children of Israel has testified to something similar and believed while you rejected (the truth)!'' Verily, Allah does not guide the wrongdoing people.) (11. And those who disbelieve say of those who believe: "Had it been a good thing, they (the poor believers) would not have preceded us to it!'' And when they have not been guided by it, they say: "This is ancient falsehood!'') (12. And before this was the Scripture of Musa as a guide and a mercy. And this is a Book confirming in the Arabic tongue, to warn those who do wrong, and as glad tidings for the doers of good.) (13. Verily, those who say: "Our Lord is (only) Allah,'' and thereafter stand firm, on them shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve.) (14. Such shall be the dwellers of Paradise, abiding therein (forever) -- a reward for what they used to do.)