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The Qur'an is Allah's True Speech and the Position of the Disbelievers and the Muslims towards it

Allah says,

﴿ قُلۡ

(Say) meaning, `O Muhammad to these idolaters who disbelieve in the Qur'an.'

﴿ أَرَءَيۡتُمۡ إِن كَانَ

(Tell me! If it was) meaning, this Qur'an.

﴿ مِنۡ عِندِ ٱللَّهِ وَكَفَرۡتُم بِهِۦ

(from Allah, and you disbelieved in it) meaning, `what do you think that Allah will do to you if this Book that I have come to you with is actually revealed to me from Him in order that I convey it to you, and yet you disbelieve in it and deny it

﴿ وَشَہِدَ شَاهِدٌ۬ مِّنۢ بَنِىٓ إِسۡرَٲٓءِيلَ عَلَىٰ مِثۡلِهِۦ

((at the same time), a witness from among the Children of Israel has testified to something similar) meaning, `the previous Scriptures that were revealed to the Prophets before me all testify to its truthfulness and authenticity. They have prophecied, well in advance, about things similar to that which this Qur'an informs of.' Concerning Allah's statement,

﴿ فَـَٔامَنَ

(and believed) `this person who testified to its truthfulness from the Children of Israel, due to his realization that it was the truth.'

﴿ وَٱسۡتَكۡبَرۡتُمۡ‌ۖ

(while you rejected (the truth)!) `whereas you have arrogantly refused to follow it.' Masruq said: "That witness believed in his Prophet and Book, while you disbelieved in your Prophet and Book.''

﴿ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ لَا يَهۡدِى ٱلۡقَوۡمَ ٱلظَّـٰلِمِينَ

(Verily, Allah does not guide the wrongdoing people.) The witness here refers to any witness in general. It includes `Abdullah bin Salam and other from them as well. For indeed, this Ayah was revealed in Makkah before `Abdullah bin Salam had accepted Islam. This is similar to the statement of Allah,

﴿ وَإِذَا يُتۡلَىٰ عَلَيۡہِمۡ قَالُوٓاْ ءَامَنَّا بِهِۦۤ إِنَّهُ ٱلۡحَقُّ مِن رَّبِّنَآ إِنَّا كُنَّا مِن قَبۡلِهِۦ مُسۡلِمِينَ

(And when it is recited to them, they say: "We believe in it. Verily, it is the truth from our Lord. Indeed, even before it we have been Muslims.'') (28:53) It is also similar to Allah's saying,

﴿ قُلۡ ءَامِنُواْ بِهِۦۤ أَوۡ لَا تُؤۡمِنُوٓاْ‌ۚ إِنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ أُوتُواْ ٱلۡعِلۡمَ مِن قَبۡلِهِۦۤ إِذَا يُتۡلَىٰ عَلَيۡہِمۡ يَخِرُّونَ لِلۡأَذۡقَانِ سُجَّدً۬ا وَيَقُولُونَ سُبۡحَـٰنَ رَبِّنَآ إِن كَانَ وَعۡدُ رَبِّنَا لَمَفۡعُولاً۬

(Verily! Those who were given knowledge before it -- when it is recited to them, they fall upon their faces in prostration, and they say: "Exalted is our Lord! Truly, the promise of our Lord has been fulfilled.'') (17:107-108) It has been narrated from Sa`d (may Allah be pleased with him) that he said, "I have not heard Allah's Messenger say about anyone walking on the surface of the earth that he is of the people of Jannah -- except for `Abdullah bin Salam. Concerning him the following Ayah was revealed,

﴿ وَشَہِدَ شَاهِدٌ۬ مِّنۢ بَنِىٓ إِسۡرَٲٓءِيلَ عَلَىٰ مِثۡلِهِۦ

((at the same time), a witness from among the Children of Israel has testified to something similar)'' This has been recorded in the Two Sahihs and An-Nasa'i. Similarly, Ibn `Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him) Mujahid, Ad-Dahhak, Qatadah, `Ikrimah, Yusuf bin `Abdullah bin Salam, Hilal bin Yasaf, As-Suddi, Ath-Thawri, Malik bin Anas and Ibn Zayd all said that this refers to `Abdullah bin Salam. Allah then says,

﴿ وَقَالَ ٱلَّذِينَ ڪَفَرُواْ لِلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ لَوۡ كَانَ خَيۡرً۬ا مَّا سَبَقُونَآ إِلَيۡهِ‌ۚ

(And those who disbelieve say of those who believe: "Had it been good, they (the weak and poor) would not have preceded us to it!'') which means that those who disbelieve say of those who believe in the Qur'an: "Had it (the Qur'an) been any good, they (the weak and poor) would not have preceded us to it!'' By that, they meant Bilal, `Ammar, Suhayb, Khabbab, may Allah be pleased with them, and others like them of the weak, the male servants, and female servants. The pagans said this only because they thought that they held a high status with Allah, and that He took special care of them. By that, they made a great and obvious error, as Allah says:

﴿ وَڪَذَٲلِكَ فَتَنَّا بَعۡضَہُم بِبَعۡضٍ۬ لِّيَقُولُوٓاْ أَهَـٰٓؤُلَآءِ مَنَّ ٱللَّهُ عَلَيۡهِم مِّنۢ بَيۡنِنَآ‌ۗ

(Thus have We tried some of them with others, that they might say: "Is it these whom Allah has favored from among us'') (6:53) meaning, they wonder how could those weaklings be the ones who were guided from among them. Thus, Allah says,

﴿ لَوۡ كَانَ خَيۡرً۬ا مَّا سَبَقُونَآ إِلَيۡهِ‌ۚ

(Had it been good, they (the weak and poor) would not have preceded us to it!) Contrary to this is the position of Ahl us-Sunnah wal-Jama`ah: They say about any act or saying that has not been reported from the Companions: "It is an innovation. If there was any good in it, they would have preceded us in doing it, because they have not left off any of the good characteristics except that they hurried to perform them.'' Allah continues,

﴿ وَإِذۡ لَمۡ يَهۡتَدُواْ بِهِۦ

(And when they have not been guided by it,) meaning, the Qur'an.

﴿ فَسَيَقُولُونَ هَـٰذَآ إِفۡكٌ۬ قَدِيمٌ۬

(they say: "This is an ancient falsehood!'') meaning, an old lie. They mean by this that the Qur'an has been quoted and taken from the ancient people, thereby belittling the Qur'an and its followers. This is clear arrogance, as Allah's Messenger said:

« بَطَرُ الْحَقِّ وَغَمْطُ النَّاس »

((Arrogance is) rejecting the truth and belittling the people.) Allah then says,

﴿ وَمِن قَبۡلِهِۦ كِتَـٰبُ مُوسَىٰٓ

(And before this was the Scripture of Musa) and it was the Tawrah.

﴿ إِمَامً۬ا وَرَحۡمَةً۬‌ۚ وَهَـٰذَا كِتَـٰبٌ۬

(as a guide and mercy. And this is a Book) meaning, the Qur'an.

﴿ مُّصَدِّقُ

(confirming) meaning, that which came before it of the previous Books.

﴿ لِّسَانًا عَرَبِيًّ۬ا

(in the Arabic tongue,) means that it is eloquent and clear.

﴿ لِّيُنذِرَ ٱلَّذِينَ ظَلَمُواْ وَبُشۡرَىٰ لِلۡمُحۡسِنِينَ

(to warn those who do wrong, and as glad tidings for the doers of good.) meaning, it contains a warning to the disbelievers and glad tidings for the believers. Allah then says:

﴿ إِنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ قَالُواْ رَبُّنَا ٱللَّهُ ثُمَّ ٱسۡتَقَـٰمُواْ

(Verily, those who say: "Our Lord is (only) Allah,'' and thereafter stand firm,) The explanation of this has been discussed earlier in Surat As-Sajdah. (See 41:30) Allah then says,

﴿ فَلَا خَوۡفٌ عَلَيۡهِمۡ

(on them shall be no fear,) meaning, concerning their future.

﴿ وَلَا هُمۡ يَحۡزَنُونَ

(nor shall they grieve.) meaning, over what they have left behind. Allah continues,

﴿ أُوْلَـٰٓٮِٕكَ أَصۡحَـٰبُ ٱلۡجَنَّةِ خَـٰلِدِينَ فِيہَا جَزَآءَۢ بِمَا كَانُواْ يَعۡمَلُونَ

(Such shall be the dwellers of Paradise, abiding therein (forever) -- a reward for what they used to do.) meaning, the deeds are a cause for their attaining the mercy and their being engulfed by it -- and Allah knows best.

﴿ وَوَصَّيۡنَا ٱلۡإِنسَـٰنَ بِوَٲلِدَيۡهِ إِحۡسَـٰنًا‌ۖ حَمَلَتۡهُ أُمُّهُ ۥ كُرۡهً۬ا وَوَضَعَتۡهُ كُرۡهً۬ا‌ۖ وَحَمۡلُهُ ۥ وَفِصَـٰلُهُ ۥ ثَلَـٰثُونَ شَہۡرًا‌ۚ حَتَّىٰٓ إِذَا بَلَغَ أَشُدَّهُ ۥ وَبَلَغَ أَرۡبَعِينَ سَنَةً۬ قَالَ رَبِّ أَوۡزِعۡنِىٓ أَنۡ أَشۡكُرَ نِعۡمَتَكَ ٱلَّتِىٓ أَنۡعَمۡتَ عَلَىَّ وَعَلَىٰ وَٲلِدَىَّ وَأَنۡ أَعۡمَلَ صَـٰلِحً۬ا تَرۡضَٮٰهُ وَأَصۡلِحۡ لِى فِى ذُرِّيَّتِىٓ‌ۖ إِنِّى تُبۡتُ إِلَيۡكَ وَإِنِّى مِنَ ٱلۡمُسۡلِمِينَ أُوْلَـٰٓٮِٕكَ ٱلَّذِينَ نَتَقَبَّلُ عَنۡہُمۡ أَحۡسَنَ مَا عَمِلُواْ وَنَتَجَاوَزُ عَن سَيِّـَٔاتِہِمۡ فِىٓ أَصۡحَـٰبِ ٱلۡجَنَّةِ‌ۖ وَعۡدَ ٱلصِّدۡقِ ٱلَّذِى كَانُواْ يُوعَدُونَ

(15. And We have enjoined on man to be dutiful and kind to his parents. His mother bears him with hardship. And she delivers him with hardship. And (the period of) his gestation and the weaning of him is thirty months, till when he attains full strength and reaches forty years, he says: "My Lord! Grant me the power and ability that I may be grateful for Your favor which You have bestowed upon me and upon my parents, and that I may do righteous good deeds, such as please You, and make my offspring good. Truly, I have turned to You in repentance, and truly, I am one of the Muslims.'') (16. They are those from whom We shall accept the best of their deeds and overlook their evil deeds. (They shall be) among the dwellers of Paradise. That is a promise of truth that they had been promised.)

Allah's Advice about the Parents

After mentioning that one must confess His Oneness, worship Him with sincerity, and remain upright in obeying Him, Allah follows that by giving instructions regarding the parents. These appear together in many places of the Qur'an, such as Allah's saying,

﴿ وَقَضَىٰ رَبُّكَ أَلَّا تَعۡبُدُوٓاْ إِلَّآ إِيَّاهُ وَبِٱلۡوَٲلِدَيۡنِ إِحۡسَـٰنًا‌ۚ

(Your Lord has decreed that you worship none but Him, and that you be dutiful to your parents.) (17:23) Allah says,

﴿ أَنِ ٱشۡڪُرۡ لِى وَلِوَٲلِدَيۡكَ إِلَىَّ ٱلۡمَصِيرُ

(Be grateful to Me and to your parents. Unto Me is the final destination.) (31:14) There are many other Ayat like this as well. Here Allah says,

﴿ وَوَصَّيۡنَا ٱلۡإِنسَـٰنَ بِوَٲلِدَيۡهِ إِحۡسَـٰنًا‌ۖ

(And We have enjoined on man to be dutiful and kind to his parents.) (46:15) meaning, `We have commanded him to treat them well and show compassion towards them. Abu Dawud At-Tayalisi recorded from Sa`d bin Abi Waqqas (may Allah be pleased with him) that his mother said to him: "Hasn't Allah commanded that you obey your parents Then I will not eat any food or drink any drink until you disbelieve in Allah.'' Thus she stubbornly abstained from eating and drinking, until they had to open her mouth with a stick. Then this Ayah was revealed,

﴿ وَوَصَّيۡنَا ٱلۡإِنسَـٰنَ بِوَٲلِدَيۡهِ إِحۡسَـٰنًا‌ۖ

(And We have enjoined on man to be dutiful and kind to his parents.) This was also recorded by Muslim and the Sunan compilers, except for Ibn Majah. Allah continues,

﴿ حَمَلَتۡهُ أُمُّهُ ۥ كُرۡهً۬ا

(His mother bears him with hardship.) which means that the mother suffers hardship because of her child, such as fatigue, sickness, vomiting, heaviness, distress, and other forms of hardship that the pregnant women suffer.

﴿ وَوَضَعَتۡهُ كُرۡهً۬ا‌ۖ

(And she delivers him with hardship.) meaning, she also delivers him with hardship, suffering the pains of labor and their severity.

﴿ وَحَمۡلُهُ ۥ وَفِصَـٰلُهُ ۥ ثَلَـٰثُونَ شَہۡرًا‌ۚ

(And (the period of) his gestation and weaning is thirty months,) `Ali (may Allah be pleased with him) used this Ayah along with the following two Ayat to prove that the minimum period of pregnancy (gestation) is six months:

﴿ وَفِصَـٰلُهُ ۥ فِى عَامَيۡنِ

(And his weaning is in two years.) (31:14) and

﴿ وَٱلۡوَٲلِدَٲتُ يُرۡضِعۡنَ أَوۡلَـٰدَهُنَّ حَوۡلَيۡنِ كَامِلَيۡنِ‌ۖ لِمَنۡ أَرَادَ أَن يُتِمَّ ٱلرَّضَاعَةَ‌ۚ

(The mothers suckle their children two complete years -- for those who desire to complete the term of suckling.) (2:233) This is a strong and valid conclusion, and it was approved by `Uthman and a number of the Companions. Muhammad bin Ishaq bin Yasar narrated from Ba`jah bin `Abdullah Al-Juhani that a man from his tribe (Juhaynah) married a woman from Juhaynah. She delivered a baby after six months. So her husband went to `Uthman (may Allah be pleased with him) and told him about that. Thus, `Uthman summoned her. When she was getting dressed, her sister started crying. She asked her: "Why do you cry By Allah, no one has ever approached me (for sexual relations) of Allah's creation except him (my husband). So let Allah decree (for me) as He wills.'' When she was brought before `Uthman, he commanded that she be stoned to death (for adultery). `Ali heard of this, came to `Uthman, and said: "What are you doing'' He (`Uthman) said: "She delivered after six months! Can this ever happen'' `Ali (may Allah be pleased with him) said: "Don't you read the Qur'an'' He said: "Yes, of course!'' He (`Ali) then said: `Haven't you heard Allah's saying,

﴿ وَحَمۡلُهُ ۥ وَفِصَـٰلُهُ ۥ ثَلَـٰثُونَ شَہۡرًا‌ۚ

(and his gestation and weaning is thirty months), and;

﴿ حَوۡلَيۡنِ كَامِلَيۡنِ‌ۖ

( two complete years) (2:233) (Subtracting the two numbers) we are only left with six months.'' `Uthman (may Allah be pleased with him) said: "By Allah, I did not see that! Bring the woman back.'' But they found that she had already been killed. Ba`jah continued: "By Allah, no two crows and no two eggs are more similar than that child turned out to be to his father! When his father saw that he said, `By Allah! This is my son without any doubt.' Later on, Allah afflicted him with a skin abscess in his face (because of his false accusation to his wife). It kept eating him up until he died.'' Ibn Abi Hatim related from his father that Farwah bin Abi Al-Maghra' told them that `Ali bin Mushir narrated to them from Dawud bin Abi Hind, who narrated from `Ikrimah that Ibn `Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him) said, "When a woman delivers after nine months, the baby will only need twenty-one months of suckling. When she delivers after seven months, the baby will need twenty-three months of suckling. When she delivers after six months, the baby will need two full years of suckling, because Allah says,

﴿ وَحَمۡلُهُ ۥ وَفِصَـٰلُهُ ۥ ثَلَـٰثُونَ شَہۡرًا‌ۚ حَتَّىٰٓ إِذَا بَلَغَ أَشُدَّهُ ۥ

(and his gestation and weaning is thirty months, till when he attains full strength).'' meaning, he becomes strong, youthful, and attains full ability.

﴿ وَبَلَغَ أَرۡبَعِينَ سَنَةً۬

(and reaches forty years,) meaning, his complete intellect, understanding, and patience reach the level of maturity. It has also been said that usually one will not change his ways once he reaches the age of forty.

﴿ قَالَ رَبِّ أَوۡزِعۡنِىٓ

(he says: "My Lord! Grant me the power and ability) meaning, `inspire me.'

﴿ أَنۡ أَشۡكُرَ نِعۡمَتَكَ ٱلَّتِىٓ أَنۡعَمۡتَ عَلَىَّ وَعَلَىٰ وَٲلِدَىَّ وَأَنۡ أَعۡمَلَ صَـٰلِحً۬ا تَرۡضَٮٰهُ

(that I may be grateful for Your favor which You have bestowed upon me and upon my parents, and that I may do righteous good deeds, such as please You,) meaning, in the future.

﴿ وَأَصۡلِحۡ لِى فِى ذُرِّيَّتِىٓ‌ۖ

(and make my offspring good.) meaning, my offspring and descendants.

﴿ إِنِّى تُبۡتُ إِلَيۡكَ وَإِنِّى مِنَ ٱلۡمُسۡلِمِينَ

(Truly, I have turned to You in repentance, and truly, I am one of the Muslims.) This contains an instruction for anyone who reaches forty years of age to renew his repentance and turn to Allah with strong resolution. Allah then says,

﴿ أُوْلَـٰٓٮِٕكَ ٱلَّذِينَ نَتَقَبَّلُ عَنۡہُمۡ أَحۡسَنَ مَا عَمِلُواْ وَنَتَجَاوَزُ عَن سَيِّـَٔاتِہِمۡ فِىٓ أَصۡحَـٰبِ ٱلۡجَنَّةِ‌ۖ

(Those are the ones from whom We shall accept the best of what they did and overlook their evil deeds. (They shall be) among the dwellers of Paradise.) meaning, those to whom applies the above description -- those who repent to Allah, turn back to Him, and rectify their shortcomings through repentance and seeking forgiveness - those are the ones from whom We will accept the best of what they did and overlook their evil deeds. Many of their errors will be forgiven and Allah will accept from them a modest amount of deeds.

﴿ فِىٓ أَصۡحَـٰبِ ٱلۡجَنَّةِ‌ۖ

(among the dwellers of Paradise.) which means that they will be among the dwellers of Paradise. That is Allah's ruling concerning them, as He has promised for those who repent and turn to Him. Thus, He says,

﴿ وَعۡدَ ٱلصِّدۡقِ ٱلَّذِى كَانُواْ يُوعَدُونَ

(That is the promise of truth that they had been promised.)

﴿ وَٱلَّذِى قَالَ لِوَٲلِدَيۡهِ أُفٍّ۬ لَّكُمَآ أَتَعِدَانِنِىٓ أَنۡ أُخۡرَجَ وَقَدۡ خَلَتِ ٱلۡقُرُونُ مِن قَبۡلِى وَهُمَا يَسۡتَغِيثَانِ ٱللَّهَ وَيۡلَكَ ءَامِنۡ إِنَّ وَعۡدَ ٱللَّهِ حَقٌّ۬ فَيَقُولُ مَا هَـٰذَآ إِلَّآ أَسَـٰطِيرُ ٱلۡأَوَّلِينَ أُوْلَـٰٓٮِٕكَ ٱلَّذِينَ حَقَّ عَلَيۡهِمُ ٱلۡقَوۡلُ فِىٓ أُمَمٍ۬ قَدۡ خَلَتۡ مِن قَبۡلِهِم مِّنَ ٱلۡجِنِّ وَٱلۡإِنسِ‌ۖ إِنَّہُمۡ ڪَانُواْ خَـٰسِرِينَ وَلِڪُلٍّ۬ دَرَجَـٰتٌ۬ مِّمَّا عَمِلُواْ‌ۖ وَلِيُوَفِّيَہُمۡ أَعۡمَـٰلَهُمۡ وَهُمۡ لَا يُظۡلَمُونَ وَيَوۡمَ يُعۡرَضُ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ عَلَى ٱلنَّارِ أَذۡهَبۡتُمۡ طَيِّبَـٰتِكُمۡ فِى حَيَاتِكُمُ ٱلدُّنۡيَا وَٱسۡتَمۡتَعۡتُم بِہَا فَٱلۡيَوۡمَ تُجۡزَوۡنَ عَذَابَ ٱلۡهُونِ بِمَا كُنتُمۡ تَسۡتَكۡبِرُونَ فِى ٱلۡأَرۡضِ بِغَيۡرِ ٱلۡحَقِّ وَبِمَا كُنتُمۡ تَفۡسُقُونَ

(17. But he who says to his parents: "Uff to you! Do you promise me that I will be raised up when generations before me have passed'' While they invoke Allah for help: "Woe to you! Believe! Verily, the promise of Allah is true.'' But he says: "This is nothing but the legends of the ancient.'') (18. They are those against whom the Word (of torment) has justified among the previous generations of Jinn and mankind that have passed away. Verily, they are ever the losers.) (19. And for all, there will be degrees according to that which they did, so that He might fully recompense for their deeds. And they will not be wronged.) (20. On the Day when those who disbelieve will be exposed to the Fire (it will be said): "You received your good things in the life of the world, and you took your pleasure therein. Today, you will be recompensed with the torment of extreme humiliation, because you were arrogant upon the earth without a right, and because you used to rebel against Allah's command.)