Allah then says:
(O you who believe! If you support (the cause of) Allah, He will support you and make your foothold firm.) This is similar to His saying,
(Indeed, Allah will surely support those who support Him (His cause).) (22:40) That is because the reward is comparable to the type of deed that is performed. Thus, Allah says here,
(and make your foothold firm.) Allah then says,
(But as for those who disbelieve -- misery awaits them) This misery is the opposite of making firm the footholds of the believers who support the cause of Allah and His Messenger. It has been confirmed in a Hadith that Allah's Messenger said,
(Misery awaits the servant of the Dinar; misery awaits the servant of the Dirham; misery awaits the servant of velvet. Misery awaits him, and degeneracy; and if he is pricked by a thorn, may he not find anyone to pull it for him.) This means may Allah not cure him. Then Allah says,
(and (Allah) will make their deeds vain.) meaning, He will nullify them and make them fruitless. Thus, Allah says,
(That is because they hate that which Allah has sent down;) which means that they did not want or like what Allah revealed.
(so He made their deeds fruitless.)
(10. Have they not traveled through the earth and seen what happened in the end to those before them Allah destroyed them completely, and a similar (awaits) the disbelievers.) (11. That is because Allah is the Protector of those who believe, whereas the disbelievers have no protector.) (12. Certainly Allah will admit those who believe and do righteous good deeds, into Gardens under which rivers flow (Paradise); while those who disbelieve enjoy their life and eat as cattle eat; but the Fire will be their abode.) (13. And how many a town mightier than your town that has driven you out We have destroyed, with none to help them!)
(Have they not traveled) meaning, those who associate partners with Allah and deny His Messenger.
(through the land and seen what happened in the end to those before them Allah destroyed them completely,) which means that Allah punished them because of their denial and disbelief, and saved the believers from among them. That is why He says,
(and a similar (end awaits) the disbelievers.) Then Allah says,
(That is because Allah is the Protector of all those who believe, whereas the disbelievers have no protector.) After the battle of Uhud, Abu Sufyan Sakhr bin Harb, the commander of the idolaters at that time, inquired about the Prophet, Abu Bakr, and `Umar, may Allah be pleased with them. When he heard no response, he announced: "Verily, those three have died!'' `Umar then responded to him: "You lie, O enemy of Allah! Allah has indeed saved those who will displease you. Indeed, those whom you mentioned are all alive!'' Abu Sufyan then said: "Well, today makes up for (the defeat on) the day of Badr, and the war has its ups and downs. And indeed, you are going to find mutilation (in the bodies of your dead) that I did not command, nor did I prohibit.'' Then he turned around chanting: "Glory to Hubal (their greatest idol), Glory to Hubal.'' Allah's Messenger said:
(Aren't you going to respond to him) The Companions said: "What should we say, O Messenger of Allah'' He said:
(Say: "Allah is Most High and Most Glorious.'') Then Abu Sufyan said: "We have Al-`Uzza (their second idol), and you have no `Uzza. (honor).'' Allah's Messenger said:
(Aren't you all going to respond to him) They said: "What should we say, O Messenger of Allah'' He said:
(Say: "Allah is our Protector, and you have no protector.'') Allah then says,
(Verily, Allah will admit those who believe and do righteous good deeds into Gardens through which rivers flow.) meaning, on the Day of Resurrection.
(Whereas those who disbelieve enjoy their life and eat as cattle eat. ) Which means that the disbelievers enjoy their worldly life and eat in it like animals, munching and gnawing (with greed). They have no concern other than that. Thus, it has been confirmed in the Sahih that the Messenger of Allah said,
(A believer eats with one intestine, and a disbeliever eats with seven intestines.) Then Allah says,
(but the Fire will be their abode.) meaning, on the Day of their Reckoning. Allah then says,
(And how many a town mightier than your town that has driven you out) meaning, Makkah.
(We have destroyed, with none to help them!) This is a great threat and severe warning to the people of Makkah because they rejected Allah's Messenger, who was the chief of the Messengers and the last of the Prophets. If Allah had destroyed the previous nations because of their denial of their Messengers, what then would those (people of Makkah) expect that Allah would do to them in the worldly life and the Hereafter And if the torment were to be lifted off some of them in this life by the blessing of the presence of the Messenger, the Prophet of Mercy, the torment will be stored for them in their next life, as Allah says,
(Their torment will be doubled! They could not bear to hear (the preaching), and they used not to see (the truth).) (11:20) Concerning Allah's saying,
(than Your town that has driven you out) This means, `its people who have driven you (Muhammad) out from amongst them (the people of Makkah).' Ibn Abi Hatim recorded from Ibn `Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him) that when Allah's Messenger left Makkah (at the time of Hijrah -- migration), and he reached the cave and hid inside it, he looked back toward Makkah and said,
(You are the most beloved to Allah among Allah's lands, and you are also the most beloved to me among Allah's lands. Were it not that the idolaters have driven me out from you, I would never have left you.) Ibn `Abbas then said, "The worst of enemies is he who transgresses against Allah in His own sacred place, who kills a person who is not trying to kill him, or who kills because of Jahiliyyah vengeance. Allah then revealed to His Prophet,
(And how many a town mightier than your town that has driven you out have We destroyed, with none to help them!)''
(14. Can then he, who stands on clear evidence from his Lord, be like those for whom their evil deeds are beautified for them, while they follow their own lusts) (15. The description of Paradise which is promised to those who have Taqwa, (is that) in it are rivers of water that are not Asin, rivers of milk the taste of which never changes, rivers of wine delicious to those who drink it, and rivers of refined honey; and therein for them are all kinds of fruits, and forgiveness from their Lord. Can this be likened to those who abide eternally in the Fire and are given to drink boiling water that severs their intestines)
(Can then he, who stands on clear evidence from his Lord...) This means a person who is upon clear vision and certainty concerning Allah's commands and His religion, because of the guidance and knowledge that Allah has revealed in His Book, and because of the pure nature upon which Allah has created him.
((Can he) be likened to those for whom their evil deeds are beautified for them, while they follow their own lusts) which means that they cannot be equal. This is similar to Allah's saying,
(Can he who knows that what has been revealed unto you from your Lord is the truth be like him who is blind) (13:19) And,
(Not equal are the people of the Fire and the people of Paradise. The People of Paradise will be the successful ones.) (59:20)
Allah then says:
(The description of Paradise which is promised for those who have Taqwa...) `Ikrimah said,
(The description of Paradise) "This means its description.''
(In it are rivers of water that are not Asin,) Ibn `Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him) Al-Hasan, and Qatadah all said, "It does not change.'' Qatadah, Ad-Dahhak, and `Ata' Al-Khurasani all said, "It is not foul-smelling.'' The Arabs say Asin if its (water) scent changes.
(rivers of milk, the taste of which never changes,) which means that the milk is of utmost whiteness, sweetness, and richness. It has been mentioned in a Hadith attributed to the Prophet "Their milk did not come out of the udders of cattle.''
(rivers of wine delightful to those who drink it, ) which means that the wine does not have a bad taste or foul smell like that of the worldly life. Rather, it is good in its appearance, taste, smell, and effect, as Allah says,
(it (the wine) has no bad effects, nor does it cause intoxication.) (37:47) and,
(From which (the wine) they will have no headache, nor will they be intoxicated.) (56:19)
(white, delicious to the drinkers.)(37:46) It has been mentioned in a Hadith attributed to the Prophet, "Their wine was not pressed under men's feet.''
(and rivers of refined honey;) which means that the honey is of utmost purity and pleasant color, taste, and smell. It has been mentioned in a Hadith attributed to the Prophet, "Their honey did not come out of the bellies of bees.'' Imam Ahmad recorded from Hakim bin Mu`awiyah who narrated from his father that Allah's Messenger said,
(Verily, there is in Paradise a lake of milk, a lake of water, a lake of honey, and a lake of wine. The rivers then gush out of them. At-Tirmidhi reported this narration in his section of the Description of Paradise, and he said, "Hasan Sahih. In the Sahih, it is recorded that Allah's Messenger said,
(When you ask Allah, ask Him for Al-Firdaws, because it is the central and highest part of the Paradise, and from it gush the rivers of the Paradise and above it is the Throne of the Most Merciful.) Allah says,
(...and therein for them are all kinds of fruits, ...) This similar to His saying,
(They will call in it for every kind of fruit in peace and security.) (44:55) And His saying,
(In them will be every kind of fruits in pairs.) (55:52) Allah says
(. ..and forgiveness from their Lord.) meaning, in addition to all of the above. Allah says,
(Can this be likened to those who abide eternally in the Fire) meaning, `can those that We have described their position in the Paradise be like those who will abide eternally in the Fire' They are not equal, and nor are those who will be in the high ranks (in the Paradise) and those who will be in the lowest depths (Hell).
(and are given to drink boiling water) meaning, extremely hot; so hot that it is unbearable.
(that severs their intestines) meaning, that will cut their insides -- both bowels and intestines. We seek refuge in Allah from that.
(16. And among them are some who listen to you till when they go out from you, they say to those who have received knowledge: "What is it that he has said just now "Such are men whose hearts Allah has sealed because they followed their lusts.) (17. And as for those who accept guidance, He increases them in guidance and bestows on them their Taqwa.) (18. Do they then await except that the Hour should come upon them suddenly But already there have come (some of) its portents; and when it (actually) is on them, how can they benefit then by their reminder) (19. So know that La ilaha illallah and ask forgiveness for your sin, and also for (the sin of) believing men and women. And Allah knows well your moving about, and your place of rest.)