In these Ayat, Allah the Exalted teaches His faithful servants the good manners they should observe with the Messenger, which are respect, honor and esteem. Allah the Exalted and Most Honored said,
(O you who believe! Make not (a decision) in advance before Allah and His Messenger,) meaning, do not rush in making decisions before him, rather, follow his lead in all matters. `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him) commented;
(Make not (a decision) in advance before Allah and His Messenger,) "Do not say anything that contradicts the Qur'an and Sunnah.'' Qatadah commented, "We were told that some people used to say, `Revelation should be sent down about such and such matters,' and, `such and such practices should be rendered allowed.' Allah the Exalted disliked this attitude.'' Allah said,
(and have Taqwa of Allah.) meaning, `in what He has ordered you;'
(Verily, Allah is Hearing,) `your statements,'
(Knowing.) `your intentions.' Allah said,
(O you who believe! Raise not your voices above the voice of the Prophet,) This contains another kind of favorable behavior. Allah the Exalted is teaching the believers that they should not raise their voices above the voice of the Prophet. It was stated that this Ayah was revealed about Abu Bakr and `Umar. Al-Bukhari recorded that Ibn Abi Mulaykah said, "The two righteous ones, Abu Bakr and `Umar, almost earned destruction when they raised their voices before the Prophet who was receiving the delegation of Bani Tamim. One of them recommended Al-Aqra` bin Habis the member of the Banu Mujashi` while the other recommended another man. Nafi` (a subnarrator) said: "I don't remember his name.'' Abu Bakr said to `Umar, `You only wanted to contradict me,' while `Umar said, `I did not intend to contradict you.' Their voices then became loud, thereupon Allah the Exalted sent down this Ayah,
(O you who believe! Raise not your voices above the voice of the Prophet, nor speak aloud to him in talk as you speak aloud to one another, lest your deeds should be thwarted while you perceive not.)'' `Abdullah bin Az-Zubayr said, "After that, `Umar's voice was so low that the Messenger of Allah had to ask him to repeat what he said so that he could understand what he was saying to him.'' `Abdullah bin Az-Zubayr did not mention the same regarding his father, Abu Bakr, may Allah be pleased with him. Muslim did not collect this Hadith. In another narration collected by Al-Bukhari, he said that a delegation from the tribe of Banu Tamim came to the Prophet and that Abu Bakr recommended Al-Qa`qa` bin Ma`bad to be appointed as their leader, while `Umar recommended Al-Aqra` bin Habis. Muslim did not collect this narration. Al-Bukhari recorded that Anas bin Malik said, "The Prophet missed Thabit bin Qays and a man said, `O Allah's Messenger! I will find out about his news.' That man went to Thabit and found him sitting at home with his head lowered and asked him, `What is the matter' Thabit said, `An evil matter!' And he said that he used to raise his voice above the voice of the Prophet. He feared that his good deeds would be useless and he would be among the people of the Fire. The man went back to the Prophet and conveyed Thabit's statement and returned to Thabit with a wonderfully good news. The Prophet said,
(Go back to him and tell him this news; you are not among the people of the Fire. Rather, you are among the dwellers of Paradise.)'' Al-Bukhari collected this Hadith with this wording. Imam Ahmad recorded that Anas bin Malik said, "When this Ayah was revealed,
(O you who believe! Raise not your voices above the voice of the Prophet), until,
(while you perceive not), Thabit bin Qays bin Ash-Shammas, whose voice was loud, said, `I was the one who raised his voice above the voice of Allah's Messenger. I am among the dwellers of the Fire. My good deeds have been done in vain.' He remained in his house feeling distressed, and the Messenger of Allah noticed his absence. So some men went to Thabit and said to him, `The Prophet noticed your absence. What is the matter with you' Thabit said, `I used to raise my voice above the voice of the Prophet and speak loudly in front of him. My deeds have been rendered useless and I am among the people of the Fire.' They went to the Prophet and told him what Thabit said and the Prophet said,
(Nay, he is among the dwellers of Paradise.)'' Anas commented, "We used to see Thabit walk among us knowing that he was (to be) among the dwellers of Paradise. During the battle of Yamamah, our forces suffered retreat. Suddenly, Thabit bin Qays bin Shammas came, having put on his Hanut and shrouds, and said, `The worst habit is the one you acquire from your enemy and do not set a bad example for your companions.' And he went on fighting until he was martyred, may Allah be pleased with him.'' Allah then prohibited speaking to the Prophet in a loud voice, just as one speaks loudly to another in a way that offends him. Instead, they were required to speak to him in terms of respect, honor and calmness. This is why Allah the Exalted and Most Honored said,
(nor speak aloud to him in talk as you speak aloud to one another,) just as He said in another Ayah,
(Make not the calling of the Messenger among you as your calling one of another.) (24:63) Allah's statement,
(lest your deeds should be thwarted while you perceive not.) means, `We ordered you to refrain from raising your voices to the Prophet, so that he will not get angry with you, because in doing so, you will also anger Allah.' The good deeds of he who caused the Prophet's anger will become useless without him even knowing. In the Sahih, there is a Hadith that states,
(Verily, a man might utter a word that pleases Allah the Exalted, even though he does not recognize the significance of his word, and on its account Paradise is written for him. Verily, a man might utter a word carelessly that angers Allah the Exalted, and on its account, he is cast in the Fire farther than the distance between the heavens and earth.) Allah then ordains lowering one's voice before the Messenger and encourages, directs and recommends this better behavior.
(Verily, those who lower their voices in the presence of Allah's Messenger, they are the ones whose hearts Allah has tested for Taqwa.) whose hearts have been purified by Allah and made as a residence and dwelling for the Taqwa,
(For them is forgiveness and a great reward.) Imam Ahmad recorded in the Book of Az-Zuhd that Mujahid said, "Someone wrote to `Umar, `O Leader of the faithful! Who is better, a man who does not feel the desire to commit a sin and does not commit it, or a man who feels desire to commit a sin, but does not commit it' `Umar replied, `He who feels desire to commit a sin, but does not commit it,
(they are the ones whose hearts Allah has tested for Taqwa. For them is forgiveness and a great reward.)'''
(4. Verily, those who call you from behind the dwellings, most of them have no sense.) (5. And if they had patience till you could come out to them, it would have been better for them. And Allah is Forgiving, Most Merciful.) (6. O you who believe! If a rebellious evil person comes to you with a news, verify it, lest you harm people in ignorance, and afterwards you become regretful to what you have done. )
Allah the Exalted and Most Blessed admonished those, such as the uncivilized Bedouins, who used to call to the Prophet from behind the dwellings which belong to his wives,
(most of them have no sense.) Allah the Exalted and Most Honored then ordains the better behavior in this regard,
(And if they had patience till you could come out to them, it would have been better for them.) it would have earned them the better benefit of this life and the Hereafter. Allah, Worthy of all praise, then encourages them to turn to Him in repentance.
(And Allah is Forgiving, Most Merciful.) It was reported that this Ayah was revealed about Al-Aqra` bin Habis At-Tamimi (may Allah be pleased with him) according to more than one source. Imam Ahmad recorded that Al-Aqra` bin Habis said that he called the Messenger of Allah from behind his dwellings, saying, "O Muhammad! O Muhammad!'' "O Allah's Messenger!'' according to another narration, but the Messenger did not answer him, Al-Aqra` said, "O Allah's Messenger.
Allah the Exalted ordered investigating the news that sinners and the wicked bring, to make sure of its authenticity. Otherwise, if the sinner's word is taken for granted and a decision is based on it, regardless of whether the information is true or not, the authorities will be taking the lead of the sinners. Allah the Exalted and Most Honored forbade taking the path of the corrupted and sinners. This is why groups of the scholars of Hadith refuse to accept narrations from narrators whose reliability is unknown, for they might be from among the wicked people, in reality.
(7. And know that among you there is the Messenger of Allah.) `know that among you is the Messenger of Allah . Therefore, honor and respect him, be polite with him and obey his orders. For he is more knowledgeable about what benefits you and is more concerned with you than you yourselves are. His opinions in such matters are more complete than your own.' Allah the Exalted and Most Blessed said in another Ayah,
(The Prophet is closer to the believers than themselves) (33:6). Then He clarifies that they fall short in overseeing their own benefit;
(If he were to obey you in much of the matter, you would surely be in trouble.) `if he obeys all of your opinions and desires, you will earn trouble and hardship.' Allah the Exalted and Most Honored said,
(And if the truth had been in accordance with their desires, verily, the heavens and the earth, and whosoever is therein would have been corrupted! Nay, We have brought them their reminder, but they turn away from their reminder.) (23:71) Allah's statement,
(But Allah has endeared the faith to you and has beautified it in your hearts,) `made faith dear to your souls and beautified it in your hearts.' Allah said,
(and has made disbelief, Fusuq and `Isyan hateful to you.) `He has made disbelief, sins, whether major or minor, and `Isyan -- all types of sins, hateful to you.' This statement transfers us from one level to a better level, to perfect Allah's bounty. Allah's statement next,
(Such are they who are the rightly guided.) those who have these qualities are the rightly guided ones whom Allah has granted guidance and correctness. Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Rifa`ah Az-Zuraqi said that his father said, "During the battle of Uhud, when the idolaters retreated, the Messenger of Allah said,
(Stay in straight lines so that I praise my Lord, the Exalted and Most Honored.) They stood behind him in lines and he said,
(O Allah! Your is the praise. O Allah! There is none who can withhold what You send, or send what You withhold, or guide whom You send astray, or misguide whomever You guide, or give what You deprive, or deprive whom You give, or draw closer whom You cast or cast whom You draw closer. O Allah! Bestow on us from Your blessings, mercy, grace and provisions. O Allah! I ask You for the eternal delight that never ends or fades away. O Allah! I ask You for provisions on the Day of deprivation and safety on the Day of fear. O Allah! I seek refuge with You from the evil repercussions of what You have given us and from the evil of what You have deprived us of. O Allah! Make faith dear to us and beatify it in our hearts and make disbelief, Fusuq and `Isyan hateful to us, and make us among the rightly guided. O Allah! Allow us to die as Muslims, live as Muslims and join us with the ranks of the righteous ones, without tasting humiliation or turmoil. O Allah! Fight the disbelievers who deny Your Messengers and hinder others from Your path; send on them Your torment and punishment. O Allah! Fight the disbelievers who were given the Scriptures, the True God.)'' An-Nasa'i collected this Hadith in `Amal Al-Yawm wal-Laylah. Allah said,
(8. (This is) a grace from Allah and His favor.) meaning, this favor that He has bestowed on you is a favor and a bounty from Him to you,
(And Allah is All-Knowing, All-Wise.) All-Knower in those who deserve guidance and those who deserve misguidance, All-Wise in His statements, actions, legislation and the destiny He appoints.
(9. And if two parties among the believers fall to fighting, then make peace between them both. But if one of them outrages against the other, then fight you (all) against the one that which outrages till it complies with the command of Allah. Then if it complies, then make reconciliation between them justly, and be equitable. Verily, Allah loves those who are the equitable.) (10. The believers are but a brotherhood. So make reconciliation between your brothers, and have Taqwa of Allah that you may receive mercy.)
Allah commands making peace between Muslims that fight each other,
(And if two parties among the believers fall to fighting, then make peace between them both.) Therefore, Allah calls both opposing groups among Muslims, believers, although they are fighting each other. Al-Bukhari and other scholars relied on this Hadith as evidence that committing a sin does not nullify faith, no matter how major the sin is. This creed contradicts the creed of the Khawarij sect and those who accepted their idea, such as the Mu`tazilah sect. Al-Bukhari narrated that Al-Hasan said that Abu Bakrah said that the Messenger of Allah gave a speech on the Minbar while Al-Hasan bin `Ali was with him. He was repeatedly looking at Al-Hasan and then at the people; then said,
(Verily, this son of mine is a Sayyid (chief or master), and may Allah make peace between two great groups of Muslims through him.) What the Prophet said, occurred. Al-Hasan brought peace between the people of Ash-Sham and `Iraq, after they fought tremendous wars and frightening battles. Allah's statement,
(But if one of them outrages against the other, then fight you (all) against the one that which outrages till it complies with the command of Allah.) means, until the rebellious group refers to the commands of Allah and His Messenger for judgment and they listen to and obey the truth. There is a Hadith in the Sahih in which Anas states that the Messenger of Allah said,
(Help your brother, whether he is an oppressor or he is oppressed.) "I asked, `O Allah's Messenger! It is right that I help him if he is oppressed, but how should I help him if he is an oppressor' He said,
(By preventing him from oppressing others; this is how you help him in this case.)'' Sa`id bin Jubayr said that tribes of Aws and Khazraj once got in a scuffle using date tree branches and slippers. Allah revealed this honorable Ayah commanding them to make peace between them. As-Suddi said, "A man from Al-Ansar, whose name was `Imran, had a wife called Umm Zayd. She wanted to visit her family, but her husband prevented her from visiting them by locking her in an upper room. So, none of her family could visit or see her. She sent someone to her family. They came, took her down from the room and wanted to take her away. Her husband was absent at the time, so his family called on their people. Their cousins came to help prevent the wife from going with her family. A push and shove situation occurred that led to them fighting using slippers. This Ayah was then revealed in their case, and the Messenger of Allah sent someone to bring peace between them, and they both agreed to resort to the decision of Allah the Exalted.'' The statement of Allah the Exalted, next,
(Then if it complies, then make reconciliation between them justly, and be equitable. Verily, Allah loves those who are the equitable.) means, be fair in your judgment regarding the dispute that occurred between them,
(Verily, Allah loves those who are the equitable.) Ibn Abi Hatim recorded, that `Abdullah bin `Amr said that the Messenger of Allah said,
(Verily, those who are equitable in this life, will be on podiums made of pearls before Ar-Rahman, the Exalted and Most Honored, on account of their fairness in this life.) An-Nasa'i collected this Hadith. Allah's statement,
(The believers are but a brotherhood.) means, all of them are brothers in Islam. The Messenger of Allah said,
(The Muslim is the brother of the Muslim, he is not unjust with him nor does he forsake him.) In the Sahih,
(Allah helps the servant as long as the servant helps his brother.) Also in the Sahih:
(If the Muslim invokes Allah for the benefit of his absent brother, the angel says afterwards, "Amin, and for you the same.'') There are many Hadiths with this meaning, such as, in the Sahih,
(The parable of the believers in relation to the kindness, mercy and compassion they have for each other, is that of the body: when an organ of it falls ill, the rest of the body responds with fever and sleeplessness.) And also in Sahih.
(A believer to another believer is like a building whose different parts enforce each other.) The Prophet then clasped his hands with the fingers interlaced. Allah's statement,
(So make reconciliation between your brothers, ) refers to the two groups that fight each other,
(and have Taqwa of Allah) in all of your affairs,
(that you may receive mercy.) and this is a promise from Allah that He will grant mercy to those who fear and obey Him.
(11. O you who believe! Let not a group scoff at another group, it may be that the latter are better than the former. Nor let (some) women scoff at other women, it may be that the latter are better than the former. Nor defame yourselves, nor insult one another by nicknames. Evil is the name of wickedness after faith. And whosoever does not repent, then such are indeed wrongdoers.)