In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.
(1. By the scattering Dhariyat;) (2. And the laden Hamilat;) (3. And the steady Jariyat;) (4. And the distributors of command,) (5. Verily, that which you are promised is surely true.) (6. And verily, Ad-Din is sure to occur.) (7. By the heaven full of Hubuk,) (8. Certainly, you have different ideas.) (9. Turned aside therefrom is he who is turned aside.) (10. Cursed be Al-Kharrasun) (11. Who are under a cover of Sahun,) (12. They ask: "When will be the Day of Ad-Din'') (13. (It will be) a Day when they will be Yuftanun in the Fire!) (14. "Taste you your trial! This is what you used to ask to be hastened!'')
`Ali bin Abi Talib (may Allah be pleased with him) ascended the Minbar in Kufah and declared, "Any Ayah in the Book of Allah the Exalted and any Sunnah from Allah's Messenger you ask me about today, I will explain them.'' Ibn Al-Kawwa stood up and said, "O Leader of the faithful! What is the meaning of Allah's statement,
(By the scattering Dhariyat),'' and `Ali said, "The wind.'' The man asked,
"(And the laden Hamilat)'' `Ali said, "The clouds.'' The man again asked,
"(And the steady Jariyat)'' `Ali said, "The ships.'' The man asked,
"(And the distributors of command)'' `Ali said, it refers to "The angels.'' Some scholars said that Al-Jariyat Yusra refers to the stars that float in their orbits with ease. This would mean that the things mentioned were ascendant in their order, beginning with the lower, then mentioning the higher one after that, etc. The winds bring the clouds, the stars are above them and the angels who distribute by Allah's order are above that, and they descend with Allah's legislative orders and the decrees He determines. These Ayat contain a vow from Allah that Resurrection shall come to pass. Allah's statement,
(Verily, that which you are promised is surely true.), it is a truthful promise,
(And verily, Ad-Din) the Recompense,
(will occur), it will surely come to pass. Then Allah the Exalted said,
(By the heaven full of Hubuk,) Ibn `Abbas said; "Full of beauty, grace, magnificence and perfection.'' Mujahid, `Ikrimah, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Abu Malik, Abu Salih, As-Suddi, Qatadah, `Atiyah Al-`Awfi, Ar-Rabi` bin Anas and others said similarly. Ad-Dahhak, Al-Minhal bin `Amr and others said, "The meandering of the water, sand and plants when the wind passes over them; carving paths out of them, that is the Hubuk.'' All of these sayings return to the same meaning, that of beauty and complexity. The sky is high above us, clear yet thick, firmly structured, spacious and graceful, beautified with stars such as the sun and orbiting planets such as the moon and the planets of the solar system.
Allah the Exalted said,
(Certainly, you have different ideas.) Allah says, `you disbelievers who deny the Messengers have different and confused opinions that do not connect or conform to each other.' Qatadah commented on the Ayah, "You have different ideas about the Qur'an. Some of you agree that it is true while some others deny this fact.'' Allah said,
(Turned aside therefrom is he who is turned aside.) Allah says, these confused and different opinions only fool those who are inwardly misguided. Surely, such falsehood is accepted, embraced and it becomes the source of confusion only for those who are misguided and originally liars, the fools who have no sound comprehension, as Allah said,
(So, verily you and those whom you worship cannot lead astray, except those who are predetermined to burn in Hell!)(37:161-163) Ibn `Abbas, (may Allah be pleased with him) and As-Suddi said:
(Turned aside therefrom is he who is turned aside.) "He who is misguided is led astray from it. '' Allah said;
(Cursed be Al-Kharrasun), Mujahid said; "The liars. This is similar to what is mentioned in (Surah) `Abasa:
(Be cursed man! How ungrateful he is!)(80:17) Al-Kharrasun are those who claim that they will never be brought back to life, doubting the coming of Resurrection.'' `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported from Ibn `Abbas;
(Cursed be Al-Kharrasun), "Cursed be the doubters.'' Mu`adh said similarly, may Allah be pleased with him. During one of his speeches he said, "Destroyed be the doubters.'' Qatadah said, "Al-Kharrasun are the people of doubt and suspicion.'' Allah said;
(Who are under a cover of Sahun,) Ibn `Abbas, (may Allah be pleased with him) and others said; "In disbelief and doubt, they are heedless and playful.'' Allah said,
(They ask: "When will be the Day of Ad-Din'') They utter this statement in denial, stubbornness, doubt and suspicion. Allah the Exalted replied,
((It will be) a Day when they will be Yuftanun in the Fire!) Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, Al-Hasan and several others said that Yuftanun means punished. Mujahid said: "Just as gold is forged in the fire.'' A group of others also including Mujahid, `Ikrimah, Ibrahim An-Nakha`i, Zayd bin Aslam, and Sufyan Ath-Thawri said, "They will be burnt.''
(Taste you your trial!), Mujahid said, "Your burning'' while others said, "Your punishment.''
(This is what you used to ask to be hastened!) This will be said admonishing, chastising, humiliating and belittling them. Allah knows best.
(15. Verily, those who have Taqwa will be in the midst of Gardens and Springs,) (16. Taking joy in the things which their Lord has given them. Verily, they were before this doers of good.) (17. They used to sleep but little by night.) (18. And in the hours before dawn, they were asking for forgiveness.) (19. And in their wealth there was the right of the Sa'il and the Mahrum.) (20. And on the earth are signs for those who have faith with certainty.) (21. And also in yourselves. Will you not then see (22. And in the heaven is your provision, and that which you are promised.) (23. Then by the Lord of the heaven and the earth, it is the truth, just as you can speak.)
Allah the Exalted informs about those who have Taqwa, that on the Day of their Return they will be amidst gardens and springs. To the contrary the miserable ones will be amidst torment, punishment, fire and chains. Allah said,
(Taking joy in the things which their Lord has given them.) His statement;
(Taking) describes the state of the people of Taqwa in the midst of gardens and springs. They will receive what their Lord gives them, meaning, delight, happiness and favors. Allah the Exalted and Most Honored said,
(Verily, they were before that), in the life of the world,
(good doers) As He said:
(Eat and drink at ease for that which you have sent on before you in days past!)(69:24) Allah the Exalted described the good acts that they performed,
(They used to sleep but little at night.) The scholars of Tafsir have two opinions about this:
The first is that, they used to spend a little part of every night awake. Ibn `Abbas said, "Every night, they would worship Allah, even during a little part of the night.'' Qatadah narrated that Mutarrif bin `Abdullah said, "Hardly a night would pass by them that they did not pray to Allah the Exalted and Most Honored, either in the beginning, or the middle of it.'' Mujahid said, "Only a few nights, if any, would they sleep through the night until the morning without praying Tahajjud.'' Qatadah said similarly. Anas bin Malik and Abu Al-`Aliyah said, "They used to pray between Al-Maghrib and Al-`Isha'.'' The Second Opinion They used to spend a little part of the night in sleep. This was preferred by Ibn Jarir. Al-Hasan Al-Basri said:
(They used to sleep but little by night), "They performed voluntary night prayer and would not sleep during the night except a little. They were active and would continue until they were seeking forgiveness right before dawn.'' `Abdullah bin Salam said, "When the Messenger of Allah arrived at Al-Madinah, people quickly gathered around him and I was among them. When I saw his face, I knew that it was not the face of a liar. The first statement I heard from him was,
(O people! Feed with food, keep relations to kith and kin, spread the Salam, pray at night while people are asleep, and you will enter Paradise in peace.)'' Imam Ahmad recorded that `Abdullah bin `Umar said that the Messenger of Allah said,
(Verily, there are lofty rooms in Paradise in which their outside can be seen from inside and their inside from the outside.) Abu Musa Al-Ash`ari said, "Who are they for, O Allah's Messenger'' He said,
(For those who use soft speech, feed food and spend the night in voluntary prayer while people are asleep.) Allah said:
(And in the hours before dawn, they were asking for forgiveness.) Mujahid and several others said: "They were performing Salah.'' Others said that they would stand in prayer during the night and delayed asking Allah for forgiveness until the latter hours before dawn. As Allah, the Exalted the Blessed, said;
(And those who seek forgiveness during the last hours of the night.)(3:17); This is because it is better if asking for forgiveness is done while praying. It is confirmed in the Sahih collections as well as others, from several Companions, that the Messenger of Allah said,
(Allah, the Most High, descends each night to the lowest heaven when the last third of the night remains. He says, "Is there anyone who is repenting so that I may accept his repentance Is there anyone seeking forgiveness, so that I may forgive him Is there anyone asking of Me, so that I may grant him his request'' until Fajr begins.) Many of the scholars of Tafsir said that when the Prophet Ya`qub said to his sons:
(I will ask my Lord for forgiveness for you)(12:98), he delayed doing so until the hours before dawn. Allah the Exalted and Most Honored said,
(And in their wealth there was the right of the Sa'il and the Mahrum.) After Allah mentioned their quality of performing prayer, He then mentioned their quality of spending in charity and acts of compassion and kindness,
(And in their wealth there was the right), a designated part which they dedicated to the Sa'il and Mahrum. The Sa'il is the poor who begs others, and he has a due right. As for the Mahrum, Ibn `Abbas and Mujahid said, "He is the poor person who does not receive a stipend.'' Meaning he does not receive a stipend from the Muslim treasury, nor does he have a means of income, nor a profession. The Mother of the faithful, `A'ishah (may Allah be pleased with her) said about the Mahrum, "He is the displaced, the one who does not have a profession to easily earn an income from.'' Qatadah and Az-Zuhri: "The Mahrum is the one who does not ask the people for anything.'' Az-Zuhri added that the Messenger of Allah said,
(The poor (Miskin) is not the one who goes round to the people and asks them for a mouthful or two or a date or two. But the poor is the one who does not have enough to satisfy his needs and whose condition is not known to others, so that others may give him something in charity.) This Hadith is recorded in the Two Sahihs using another chain of narration.
Allah the Exalted and the Blessed said next,
(And on the earth are signs for those who have faith with certainty.) Allah says that there are signs on earth that testify to the might of the Creator and His boundless ability. These signs include what Allah placed on the earth, the various plants, animals, valleys, mountains, deserts, rivers and oceans. He also created mankind with different languages, colors, intentions and abilities, and a variety among them, differences in the power of understanding and comprehension, their deeds, and ultimately earning happiness or misery. Allah put every organ in their bodies in its rightful place where they most need it to be. So He said
(And also in yourselves. Will you not then see) Qatadah commented, "He who thinks about his own creation will realize that he was created with flexible joints so that it is easy for him to perform acts of worship.'' Allah the Exalted said next,
(And in the heaven is your provision,) meaning, rain,
(and that which you are promised.) meaning Paradise. This was said by Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid and several others. Allah said:
(Then by the Lord of the heaven and the earth, it is the truth, just as you can speak.) Allah is swearing by His honorable Self, all of the matters of the Judgment, Resurrection, and Recompense that they have been promised shall certainly occur. Therefore, it is the truth, there being no doubt about it, so do not doubt its coming, just as you do not doubt that you can speak When he would talk to one of his friends, Mu`adh used to say: "What I am saying is as true as your being here.''
(24. Has the story reached you, of the honored guests of Ibrahim) (25. When they came in to him and said: "Salaman!'' He answered: "Salamun'' and said: "You are a people unknown to me.'') (26. Then he turned to his household, and brought out a roasted calf.) (27. And placed it before them (saying): "Will you not eat'') (28. Then he conceived fear of them (when they ate not). They said: "Fear not.'' And they gave him glad tidings of a son having knowledge.) (29. Then his wife came forward with a loud voice; she smote her face, and said: "A barren old woman!'') (30. They said: "Even so says your Lord. Verily, He is the All-Wise, the All-Knower.'')