Malik narrated that Jubayr bin Mut`im said, "I heard the Prophet reciting Surat At-Tur while praying Maghrib. Surely, I have never heard a more beautiful voice or recitation than his recitation.'' This Hadith is recorded in the Two Sahihs using a chain of narration that includes Malik. Al-Bukhari recorded that Umm Salamah said, "I complained of being ill to the Messenger of Allah, and he said,
(Perform Tawaf (of the Ka`bah) behind the crowd, while you are riding.) So, I performed Tawaf while the Messenger of Allah was praying beside the House, reciting At-Tur.''
In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.
(1. By the Tur) (2. And the Book inscribed) (3. In parchment unrolled.) (4. And by Al-Bayt Al-Ma`mur.) (5. And the roof raised high.) (6. And by the sea that is Masjur.) (7. Verily, the torment of your Lord will surely come to pass.) (8. There is none that can avert it.) (9. On the Day when Tamur the heaven Mawr,) (10. And Tasir the mountains Sayr.) (11. Then woe that Day to those who denied.) (12. Those who were, in their falsehood, playing.) (13. The Day when they will be pushed down by force to the fire of Hell, with a horrible, forceful pushing.) (14. This is the Fire which you used to deny.) (15. Is this magic or do you not see) (16. Enter therein and whether you are patient of it or impatient of it, it is all the same. You are only being requited for what you used to do.)
Allah swears by His creation, a testimony to His great ability, that His torment will surely befall His enemies; they will have no way of escaping it. At-Tur is the mount that has trees, similar to the mount where Allah spoke to Musa, while Musa was on it, and the mount on which Allah started the prophethood of `Isa. A mount that does not have trees is called Jabal, not Tur. Allah said,
(And by the Book inscribed), it is said that it means Al-Lawh Al-Mahfuz, (the Preserved Table). It is also said that is refers to the divinely revealed inscribed Books that people recite, and this is why Allah said,
(In parchment unrolled. And by Al-Bayt Al-Ma`mur.) In the Two Sahihs it is confirmed that the Messenger of Allah said in the Hadith about Al-Isra', after ascending to the seventh heaven:
(Then, I was taken to Al-Bayt Al-Ma`mur. It is visited every day by seventy thousand angels who will not come back to visit it again.) The angels worship Allah in Al-Bayt Al-Ma`mur and perform Tawaf around it just as the people of the earth perform Tawaf around the Ka`bah. Al-Bayt Al-Ma`mur is the Ka`bah of those who reside in the seventh heaven. During the Isra' journey, the Prophet saw Ibrahim Al-Khalil, who was reclining with his back on Al-Bayt Al-Ma`mur. It was Ibrahim who built the Ka`bah on earth, and surely, the reward is compatible with the action. Al-Bayt Al-Ma`mur is parallel to the Ka`bah; every heaven has its own house of worship, which is also the direction of prayer for its residents. The house that is located in the lower heaven, is called Bayt Al-`Izzah. And Allah knows best. The statement of Allah the Exalted,
(And by the roof raised high.) Sufyan Ath-Thawri, Shu`bah, and Abu Al-Ahwas, all narrated from Simak, from Khalid bin `Ar`arah, from `Ali bin Abi Talib:
(And by the roof raised high) "Meaning the heaven.'' Sufyan added, "Then `Ali recited,
(And We have made the heaven a roof, safe and well-guarded. Yet they turn away from its signs.)(21:32)'' Similar was said by Mujahid, Qatadah, As-Suddi, Ibn Jurayj, Ibn Zayd and preferred by Ibn Jarir. The statement of Allah the Exalted,
(And by the sea that is Masjur.) The majority say it refers to the oceans of the earth. Masjur, means, the sea will be kindled with fire on the Day of Resurrection just as Allah said in another Ayah,
(And when the seas become as blazing fire.)(81:6) i.e., it will be kindled with fire and become a raging fire that surrounds the people in the gathering area, this was reported by Sa`id bin Al-Musayyib from `Ali bin Abi Talib. It was also reported from Ibn `Abbas, and it is the view of Sa`id bin Jubayr, Mujahid, `Abdullah bin `Ubayd bin `Umayr and others. Qatadah said, "Masjur is the `filled sea.''' Ibn Jarir preferred this explanation saying, "The sea is not lit with fire now, so it is filled.'' Allah's statement;
(Verily, the torment of your Lord will surely come to pass.) contains the subject of the vow, indicating that His torment will surely strike the disbelievers, as Allah stated in another Ayah;
(There is none that can avert it.) indicating that when Allah decides to send the torment upon them, none can prevent it or stop it from striking them. Al-Hafiz Abu Bakr Ibn Abi Ad-Dunya recorded that Ja`far bin Zayd Al-`Abdi said, "One night, in Al-Madinah, `Umar went out investigating the welfare of Muslims and passed by the house of a man who was standing in voluntary prayer. `Umar stood quietly, listening to his recitation; the man was reciting,
(By At-Tur), until he reached the Ayah,
(Verily, the torment of your Lord will surely come to pass. There is none that can avert it.) `Umar said, `By the Lord of the Ka`bah, this is a true vow.' `Umar dismounted his donkey and sat next to a wall for a while. He then went back to his house and fell ill for a month. During his illness, the people would visit him, not knowing what caused his illness.'' May Allah be pleased with `Umar.
(On the Day when Tamur the heaven Mawr) Ibn `Abbas and Qatadah said: "Shaking violently.'' Also from Ibn `Abbas, "Split.'' Mujahid said: "Spin violently.'' Ad-Dahhak commented on the Ayah, saying, "The earth will violently spin and move by the command of Allah, and its areas will violently move towards each other.'' This was preferred by Ibn Jarir, because of the meaning of the word, Mawra, which denotes meanings of spinning and shaking. Allah said,
(And Tasir the mountains will Sayr.) will fade away and become scattered particles of dust blown away by the wind,
(Then woe that Day to those who denied), woe to them that Day as a result of Allah's torment, punishment and affliction that He will direct at them,
(Those who were in their falsehood, playing.) meaning, they live in this life in falsehood and make the religion the subject of their mockery and jest,
(The Day when they will be pushed down by force) meaning, they will be violently driven and shoved,
(to the fire of Hell, with a horrible, forceful pushing.) Mujahid, Ash-Sha`bi, Muhammad bin Ka`b, Ad-Dahhak, As-Suddi and Ath-Thawri said that this Ayah means, "They will be violently shoved into the Fire.'' Allah said,
(This is the Fire, which you used to deny.) meaning, the angels of punishment will say these words to them, while admonishing and chastising them,
(Is this magic or do you not see Enter therein) meaning, enter the Fire, `which will encircle you from every direction,'
(and whether you are patient of it or impatient of it, it is all the same.) `whether you endure its torment and afflictions or not, you will never avert it or be saved from it,'
(You are only being requited for what you used to do.) and surely, Allah is never unjust with anyone. Most certainly, Allah recompenses each according to their deeds.
(17. Verily, those who have Taqwa will be in Gardens and Delight.) (18. Enjoying in that which their Lord has bestowed on them, and (the fact that) their Lord saved them from the torment of the blazing Fire.) (19. "Eat and drink with happiness because of what you used to do.'') (20. They will recline on thrones Masfufah. And We shall marry them to Hur (fair females) with wide lovely eyes.)
Allah the Exalted described the destination of the happy ones,
(Verily, those who have Taqwa will be in Gardens and Delight.) in contrast to the torment and punishment of the miserable;
(Enjoying in that which their Lord has bestowed on them,) meaning, enjoying the various types of delight that Allah has granted them therein, such as various types of foods, drinks, clothes, dwelling places, mounts, and so forth,
(and (the fact that) their Lord saved them from the torment of the blazing Fire.) He saved them from the torment of the Fire, which is a bounty itself. Added to this blessing is the fact that they were entered into Paradise, which has delights that no eye has ever seen, no ear has ever heard, nor has a heart ever imagined. The statement of Allah the Exalted,
("Eat and drink with happiness because of what you used to do'') is similar to another of His statements,
(Eat and drink at ease for that which you have sent on before you in days past!)(69:24) meaning this is the just reward for your deeds; surely, all this is a favor from Allah and a reward from Him. Allah the Exalted said,
(They will recline (with ease) on thrones Masfufah.) Ath-Thawri reported from Husayn, from Mujahid, from Ibn `Abbas: "Thrones in howdahs.'' And the meaning of, (Masfufah) is they will be facing each other,
(Facing one another on thrones.)(37:44) Allah said next,
(And We shall marry them to Hur (fair females) with wide lovely eyes.) We made for them righteous spouses, beautiful wives from Al-Hur Al-`Ayn. We mentioned the description of Al-Hur Al-`Ayn in several other places in this Tafsir, and therefore, it is not necessary to repeat their description here.
(21. And those who believe and whose offspring follow them in faith, -- to them shall We join their offspring, and We shall not decrease the reward of their deeds in anything. Every person is a pledge for that which he has earned.) (22. And We shall provide them with fruit and meat such as they desire.) (23. There they shall pass from hand to hand a cup, free from any idle talk, and free from sin.) (24. And there will go round boy-servants of theirs, to serve them as if they were preserved pearls.) (25. And some of them draw near to others, questioning.) (26. Saying: "A foretime, we were afraid in the midst of our families.'') (27. "So Allah has been gracious to us, and has saved us from the torment of the Fire.'') (28. "Verily, We used to invoke Him before. Verily, He is the Most Subtle, the Most Merciful.'')
In this Ayah, Allah the Exalted affirms His favor, generosity, graciousness, compassion and beneficence towards His creation. When the offspring of the righteous believers imitate their parents regarding faith, Allah will elevate the latter to the ranks of the former, even though the latter did not perform deeds as goodly as their parents. Allah will comfort the eyes of the parents by seeing their offspring elevated to their grades. Surely, Allah will gather them together in the best manner, and He will not decrease the reward or the grades of those higher in rank for joining them together, hence His statement,
(to them shall We join their offspring, and We shall not decrease the reward of their deeds in anything.) Ath-Thawri reported that Ibn `Abbas said, "Verily, Allah elevates the ranks of the believers' offspring to rank of their parents, even though the latter have not performed as well as the former, so that the eyes of the parents are comforted.'' Ibn `Abbas then recited this Ayah,
(And those who believe and whose offspring follow them in faith, -- to them shall We join their offspring, and We shall not decrease the reward of their deeds in anything.) Ibn Jarir and Ibn Abi Hatim recorded this statement from Sufyan Ath-Thawri from Ibn `Abbas. Ibn Abi Hatim also recorded that Ibn `Abbas commented on Allah's statement,
(And those who believe and whose offspring follow them in faith, -- to them shall We join their offspring.) saying, "They are the offspring of the believers who died on the faith. If the ranks of their parents are higher than their ranks, they will be joined with their parents. No part of the reward their parents received for their good deeds will be reduced for them.'' `Abdullah, son of Imam Ahmad, recorded that `Ali said, "Khadijah asked the Prophet about two of her children who died during the time of Jahiliyyah, and the Messenger of Allah said;
(They are both in the Fire.) When he saw sadness on her face, he said,
(If you saw their dwelling place, you would hate them.) She said, `O Allah's Messenger! What about my children with you.' He said,
(They are in Paradise.) The Messenger of Allah said,
(Verily, the believers and their offspring will dwell in Paradise, while the idolaters and their offspring will dwell in the Hellfire.) The Prophet then recited the Ayah,
(And those who believe and whose offspring follow them in faith...)'' Certainly, it is Allah's grace and favor that He grants the children this blessing because of the good deeds of their parents. He also grants His favor to parents on account of their offspring invoking Allah for them. Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Hurayrah, (may Allah be pleased with him) said that the Messenger of Allah said,
(Verily, Allah shall elevate the grade of a righteous servant in Paradise, who will ask, "O Lord! How did I earn this'' Allah will reply, "Through your son's invoking Me to forgive you.'') This Hadith has an authentic chain of narration, but it was not recorded in the Sahih this way. However, there is a witnessing narration for it in Sahih Muslim, from the Hadith of Abu Hurayrah, who said that the Messenger of Allah said,
(When the Son of Adam dies, his record of deeds will cease except in three cases: an ongoing charity, knowledge that people are benefiting from and a righteous son who invokes Allah for him.)
Allah the Exalted said,
(Every person is a pledge for that which he has earned.) After Allah mentioned His favor of elevating the offspring to the ranks of their parents, even though the deeds of the former did not qualify them, He affirmed His fairness in that, He does not punish anyone for the mistakes of others,
(Every person is a pledge for that which he has earned.) Therefore, every person will be responsible for his actions. No sin committed by others shall ever be added to one's load, even if committed by his or her parents or offspring. Allah the Exalted said,
(Every person is a pledge for what he has earned, except those on the Right. In Gardens, they will ask one another about the criminals.)(74:38-41)
(And We shall provide them with fruit and meat such as they desire.) meaning, `We shall provide them with various types and kinds of fruits and meat, whatever they wish for and desire,'
(There they shall pass from hand to hand a cup,) meaning, of wine, according to Ad-Dahhak,
(free from any Laghw, and free from Ta'thim) meaning, when they drink, they do not say any idle, vain words or utter dirty, sinful speech like the drunken people in this life do. Ibn `Abbas said that Laghw means `falsehood' while Ta'thim means `lying'. Mujahid said, "They do not curse each other nor sin.'' Qatadah said, "These were the consequences of drinking in this life, and Shaytan helped in this regard. Allah purified the wine of the Hereafter from the ills and harm caused by the wine of this life.'' Therefore, Allah has purified the wine of the Hereafter from causing headaches, stomachaches and intoxication like the wine of this life. Allah stated that wine of the Hereafter shall not cause those who drink it to utter false, vain words that carry no benefit, full of foolishness and evil. Allah also described the wine of the Hereafter as beautiful in appearance, tasty and fruitful,
(White, delicious to the drinkers. Neither will they have Ghawl from that nor will they suffer intoxication therefrom.)(37:46-47) and,
(Wherefrom they will get neither nay aching of the head nor any intoxication.)(56:19) Allah the Exalted said here,
(There they shall pass from hand to hand a (wine) cup, free from any Laghw, and free from sin.) Allah said,
(And there will go round boy-servants of theirs to serve them as if they were preserved pearls.) This is a description of the servants and aids, the believers will have in Paradise. Their servants will be beautiful, graceful in appearance, clean and neat as well-preserved pearls,
(Immortal boys will go around them with cups, and jugs, and a glass of flowing wine.)(56:17-18) Allah the Exalted said,
(And some of them draw near to others, questioning.) meaning, the believers will draw near to each other talking and remembering their actions and conditions in this life, just as people in this life talk while drinking, especially when they become intoxicated,
(Saying: "Aforetime, we were afraid in the midst of our families.'') meaning, `in the life of world and in the midst of our families, we were afraid of our Lord and fearful of His torment and punishment,'
(So Allah has been gracious to us, and has saved us from the torment of the Fire.) meaning, `He has granted us a favor and saved us from what we feared,'
(Verily, We used to invoke Him before.) meaning, `we used to invoke Him with submission and humility, and He accepted our invocation and gave us what we wished,'
(Verily, He is the Most Subtle, the Most Merciful.)
(29. Therefore, remind. By the grace of Allah, you are neither a Kahin nor a madman.) (30. Or do they say: "A poet! We await for him some calamity by time!'') (31. Say: "Wait! I am with you among those who wait!'') (32. Or do their minds command them this or are they people transgressing all bounds) (33. Or do they say: "He has forged it'' Nay! They believe not!) (34. Let them then produce a recitation like unto it if they are truthful.)