Allah the Exalted explained what He has revealed in the Scripture of Ibrahim and Musa,
(That no burdened person shall bear the burden of another.) Meaning, every soul shall carry its own injustices, whether disbelief or sin, and none else shall carry its burden of sin, as Allah states
(And if one heavily laden calls another to (bear) his load, nothing of it will be lifted even though he be near of kin.)(35:18) Allah said,
(And that man can have nothing but what he does.) So just as no soul shall carry the burden of any other, the soul shall only benefit from the good that one earns for himself. As for the Hadith recorded by Muslim in the Sahih, that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said,
(When a person dies, his deeds will cease except in three cases: from a righteous son who invokes Allah for him, or an ongoing charity after his death, or knowledge that people benefit from.) These three things are, in reality, a result of one's own deeds, efforts and actions. For example, a Hadith states,
(Verily, the best type of provision that one consumes is from what he himself has earned, and one's offspring are among what he has earned.) The ongoing charity that one leaves behind, like an endowment, for example, are among the traces of his own actions and deeds. Allah the Exalted said,
(Verily, We give life to the dead, and We record that which they send before (them) and their traces.)(36:12) The knowledge that one spreads among people which they are guided by is among his actions and deeds. A Hadith collected in the Sahih states,
(Whoever invites to guidance, he will earn as much reward as those who follow him, without decreasing anything out of their own rewards.) Allah said,
(And that his deeds will be seen.) meaning, on the Day of Resurrection,
(And say: "Do deeds! Allah will see your deeds, and (so will) His Messenger and the believers. And you will be brought back to the All-Knower of the unseen and the seen. Then He will inform you of what you used to do.'')(9:105), Then Allah will remind you of your actions and recompense you for them in the best manner, good for good and evil for evil. Allah's statement here,
(Then he will be recompensed with a full and the best recompense.)
(42. And that to your Lord is the End.) (43. And that it is He Who makes laugh, and makes weep.) (44. And that it is He Who causes death and gives life.) (45. And that He creates the pairs, male and female,) (46. From Nutfah when it is emitted.) (47. And that upon Him is another bringing forth (Resurrection).) (48. And that it is He Who Aghna and Aqna.) (49. And that He is the Lord of Ash-Shi`ra.) (50. And that it is He Who destroyed the former `Ad,) (51. And Thamud. He spared none of them.) (52. And the people of Nuh aforetime. Verily, they were more unjust and more rebellious and transgressing.) (53. And He destroyed the overthrown cities.) (54. So, there covered them that which did cover.) (55. Then which of the graces of your Lord will you doubt)
Allah the Exalted said,
(And that to your Lord is the End.) meaning, the return of everything on the Day of Resurrection. Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that `Amr bin Maymun Al-Awdi said, "Once, Mu`adh bin Jabal stood up among us and said, `O Children of Awd! I am the emissary of Allah's Messenger to you; know that the Return is to Allah, either to Paradise or the Fire.''' Allah's statement,
(And that it is He Who makes you laugh, and makes you weep.) means that He created in His creatures the ability to laugh or weep and the causes for each of these opposites,
(And that it is He Who causes death and gives life.) In a similar statement, Allah said,
(Who has created death and life.)(67:2) Allah said,
(And that He creates the pairs, male and female. From Nutfah when it is emitted.) as He said:
(Does man think that he will be left neglected Was he not a Nutfah Then he became an `Alaqah (something that clings); then (Allah) shaped and fashioned (him) in due proportion. And made of him two sexes, male and female. Is not He (Allah) able to give life to the dead) (75:36-40) Allah the Exalted said,
(And that upon Him is another bringing forth.) meaning, just as He first originated creation, He is able to bring it back to life, resurrecting it for the Day of Judgment,
(And that it is He Who Aghna (gives much) and Aqna (a little).) It is Allah Who gives wealth to His servants and this wealth remains with them. This means they are able to use it to their benefit, is this out of the completeness of His favor. Most of the statements of the scholars of Tafsir revolve around this meaning, such as those from Abu Salih, Ibn Jarir and others. Mujahid said that,
(Aghna) meaning: He gives wealth.
(Aqna) meaning: He gives servants. Similar was said by Qatadah. Ibn `Abbas and Mujahid said;
(Aghna) means: He granted; while,
(Aqna) means: He gave contentment.
(And that He is the Lord of Ash-Shi`ra.) Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, Qatadah and Ibn Zayd said about Ash-Shi`ra that it is the bright star, named Mirzam Al-Jawza' (Sirius), which a group of Arabs used to worship.
(And that it is He Who destroyed the former `Ad) the people of Hud. They are the descendants of `Ad, son of Iram, son of Sam, son of Nuh. As Allah the Exalted said,
(Saw you not how your Lord dealt with `Ad. Of Iram, with the lofty pillars, the like of which were not created in the land) (89:6-8) The people of `Ad were among the strongest, fiercest people and the most rebellious against Allah the Exalted and His Messenger. Allah destroyed them,
(By a furious violent wind! Which Allah imposed in them for seven nights and eight days in succession.)(69:6-7) Allah's statement,
(And Thamud. He spared none), declares that He destroyed them all and spared none of them,
(And the people of Nuh aforetime.) before `Ad and Thamud,
(Verily, they were more unjust and more rebellious and transgressing.) more unjust in disobeying Allah than those who came after them,
(And He destroyed the overthrown cities.) meaning, the cities (of Sodom and Gomorrah) to which Prophet Lut was sent. Allah turned their cities upside down over them and sent on them stones of Sijjil. Allah's statement that whatever has covered it, has covered it, is like the case with the stones of Sijjil that He sent on them,
(And We rained on them a rain (of torment). And how evil was the rain of those who had been warned!)(26:173) Allah said,
(Then which of the graces of your Lord will you doubt) meaning, `which of Allah's favors for you, O man, do you doubt,' according to Qatadah. Ibn Jurayj said that the Ayah,
(Then which of the graces of your Lord will you doubt), is directed towards the Prophet saying: "O Muhammad!'' However, the first explanation is better, and it is the meaning that Ibn Jarir preferred.
(56. This is a warner from the warners of old.) (57. The Azifah draws near.) (58. None besides Allah can avert it.) (59. Do you then wonder at this recitation) (60. And you laugh at it and weep not,) (61. While you are Samidun.) (62. So fall you down in prostration to Allah and worship Him.)
(This is a warner) in reference to Muhammad,
(from the warners of old.) means, just like the warners of old, he was sent as a Messenger as they were sent as Messengers. Allah the Exalted said,
(Say: "I am not a new thing among the Messengers.'')(46:9) Allah said;
(The Azifah draws near.) that which is near, the Day of Resurrection, has drawn nearer,
(None besides Allah can avert it.) no one besides Allah can prevent it from coming, nor does anyone know when it will come, except Him. The warner is eager to convey his knowledge of the imminence of a calamity, so that it does not befall those to whom he is a warner. As He said;
(He is only a warner to you in face of a severe torment.) (34:46) And in the Hadith:
(I am the naked warner,) meaning, I was in such a hurry to warn against the evil I saw coming, that I did not wear anything. In this case, one rushes to warn his people in such haste that he will be naked. This meaning befits the meaning of the Ayah,
(the Azifah draws near.), in reference to the nearing Day of Resurrection. Allah said in the beginning of the Surah:
(The Hour has drawn near.)(54:1) Imam Ahmad recorded that Sahl bin Sa`d said that the Messenger of Allah said,
(Beware of small sins! The example of the effect of small sin is that of people who settled near the bottom of a valley. One of them brought a piece of wood, and another brought another piece of wood, until they cooked their bread! Verily, small sins will destroy its companion, if one is held accountable for them.) Allah the Exalted admonishes the idolaters because they hear the Qur'an, yet they turn away from it in heedless play,
(wonder) doubting that it is true.
(And you laugh) in jest and mock at it,
(and weep not,) just as those who believe in it weep,
(And they fall down on their faces weeping and it increases their humility.)(17:109) Allah said;
(While you are Samidun.) Sufyan Ath-Thawri reported that his father narrated that Ibn `Abbas said about Samidun, "Singing; in Yemenite dialect `Ismid for us' means `Sing for us.''' `Ikrimah said something similar. In another narration from Ibn `Abbas, he said that,
(Samidun) means, "Turning away.'' Similar was reported from Mujahid and `Ikrimah. Allah the Exalted ordered His servants to prostrate to Him, worship Him according to the way of His Messenger, and to fulfill the requirement of Tawhid and sincerity,
(So fall you down in prostration to Allah and worship Him.) meaning, with submission, sincerity, and Tawhid. Al-Bukhari recorded that Abu Ma`mar said that `Abdul-Warith said that Ayyub said that `Ikrimah said that, Ibn `Abbas said, "The Prophet prostrated upon reciting An-Najm and the Muslims, idolaters, Jinns and mankind who were present prostrated along with him.'' Only Muslim collected this Hadith. Imam Ahmad recorded that Al-Muttalib bin Abi Wada`ah said, "While in Makkah, the Messenger of Allah once recited Surat An-Najm, then prostrated along with all those who were with him at the time. I raised my head, however, and I refused to prostrate.'' Al-Muttalib had not embraced Islam yet, but ever since he became Muslim, he would never hear anyone recite this Surah until the end, without prostrating with whomever was prostrating after reciting it. An-Nasa'i also collected this Hadith in the Book of Al-Bukhari, excluding prayer in his Sunan. This is the end of the Tafsir of Surat An-Najm. All praise and thanks are due to Allah.
The Hadith of Abu Waqid preceded, in which it is mentioned that the Messenger of Allah would recite Surah Qaf (chapter 53) and Iqtarabat As-Sa`ah (Al-Qamar, chapter 54), during (the `Id Prayers of) Al-Adha and Al-Fitr. The Prophet used to recite these two Surahs during major gatherings and occasions because they contain Allah's promises and warnings, and information about the origin of creation, Resurrection, Tawhid, the affirmation of prophethood, and so forth among the great objectives.
In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.
(1. The Hour has drawn near, and the moon has been cleft asunder.) (2. And if they see an Ayah, they turn away and say: "This is magic, Mustamir.'') (3. They denied and followed their own lusts. And every matter will be settled.) (4. And indeed there has come to them news wherein there is Muzdajar.) (5. Perfect wisdom, but warners benefit them not.)
Allah informs about the approach of the Last Hour and the imminent end and demise of the world,
(The Event ordained by Allah will come to pass, so seek not to hasten it.)(16:1),
(Draws near for mankind their reckoning, while they turn away in heedlessness.)(21:1)
There are several Hadiths with this meaning. Al-Hafiz Abu Bakr Al-Bazzar recorded that Anas said that one day, when the sun was about to set, the Messenger of Allah gave a speech to his Companions, saying,
(By He in Whose Hand is my soul! Not much of this world is left compared to what has already passed of it, except as much as what is left in this day of yours compared to what has already passed of it.) Anas said, "We could only see a small part of the setting sun at the time.'' Another Hadith that supports and explains the above Hadith is recorded by Imam Ahmad that `Abdullah bin `Umar said, "We were sitting with the Prophet while the sun was rising above Qu`ayqa`an, after `Asr. He said,
(What remains of your time, compared to what has passed, is as long as what remains of this day compared to what has passed of it.)'' Imam Ahmad recorded that Sahl bin Sa`d said that he heard the Messenger of Allah say,
(I was sent like this with the Last Hour.) and he pointed with his middle and index finger. The Two Sahihs also recorded this Hadith. Imam Ahmad recorded that Wahb As-Suwa'i said that the Messenger of Allah said,
(I was sent just before the Last Hour, like the distance between this and this; the latter almost overtook the former.) Al-A`mash joined between his index and middle fingers while narrating this Hadith. Imam Ahmad recorded that Al-Awza`i said that Isma`il bin `Ubaydullah said, "Anas bin Malik went to Al-Walid bin `Abdul-Malik who asked him about what he heard from the Messenger of Allah about the Last Hour. Anas said, `I heard the Messenger of Allah say,
(You and the Last Hour are as close as these two (fingers).)''' Only Imam Ahmad collected this Hadith. There is proof to support these Hadiths in the Sahih listing, Al-Hashir (literally the Gatherer), among the names of the Messenger of Allah; he is the first to be gathered, and all people will be gathered thereafter (for the Day of Judgment). Allah's statement,
(and the moon has been cleft asunder.) It occurred during the time of Allah's Messenger, according to the authentic Mutawatir Hadiths the scholars agree that the moon was cleft asunder during the lifetime of the Prophet, and it was among the clear miracles that Allah gave him. Hadiths mentioning that the Moon was split
Imam Ahmad recorded that Anas bin Malik said, "The people of Makkah asked the Prophet for a miracle and the moon was split into two parts in Makkah. Allah said,
(The Hour has drawn near, and the moon has been cleft asunder.)'' Muslim also collected this Hadith. Al-Bukhari recorded that Anas bin Malik said, "The people of Makkah asked the Messenger of Allah to produce a miracle, and he showed them the splitting of the moon into two parts, until they saw (the mount of) Hira' between them.'' This Hadith is recorded in the Two Sahihs with various chains of narration.
Imam Ahmad recorded that Jubayr bin Mut`im said, "The moon was split into two pieces during the time of Allah's Prophet; a part of the moon was over one mountain and another part over another mountain. So they said, `Muhammad has taken us by his magic.' They then said, `If he was able to take us by magic, he will not be able to do so with all people.''' Only Imam Ahmad recorded this Hadith with this chain of narration. Al-Bayhaqi used another chain of narration in a similar Hadith he collected in Ad-Dala'il.
Al-Bukhari recorded that Ibn `Abbas said, "The moon was split during the time of the Prophet .'' Al-Bukhari and Muslim collected this Hadith. Ibn Jarir recorded that Ibn `Abbas commented on Allah's saying:
(The Hour has drawn near, and the moon has been cleft asunder. And if they see a sign, they turn away and say: "This is magic, Mustamir.'') "This occurred before the Hijrah; the moon was split and they saw it in two parts.''
Al-Bayhaqi recorded that `Abdullah bin `Umar commented on Allah's statement:
(The Hour has drawn near, and the moon has been cleft asunder.) "This occurred during the time of Allah's Messenger; the moon was split in two parts. A part of it was before the mount and a part on the other side. The Prophet said,
(O Allah! Be witness.)'' This is the narration that Muslim and At-Tirmidhi collected. At-Tirmidhi said, "Hasan Sahih.''
Imam Ahmad recorded that Ibn Mas`ud said, "The moon was split in two parts during the time of Allah's Messenger, and they saw its two parts. Allah's Messenger said,
(Be witnesses.)'' Al-Bukhari and Muslim collected this Hadith. Ibn Jarir recorded that `Abdullah (Ibn Mas`ud) said, "I saw the mountain between the two parts of the moon when it was split.'' Imam Ahmad recorded that `Abdullah said, "The moon was split during the time of Allah's Messenger and I saw the mount between its two parts.
(And if they see an Ayah), if they see proof, evidence and a sign,
(they turn away), they do not believe in it. Rather, they turn away from it, abandoning it behind their backs,
(and say: "This is magic, Mustamir.'') They say, `the sign that we saw was magic, which was cast on us.' Mustamir, means, `will soon go away', according to Mujahid, Qatadah and several others. The Quraysh said that the cleaving of the moon was false and will soon diminish and fade away,
(They denied and followed their own lusts.), they rejected the truth when it came to them, following the ignorance and foolishness that their lusts and desires called them to. Allah's statement,
(And every matter will be settled.) means, the good deeds will take their doers to all that is good and righteous, and similarly evil deeds will take their doers to all that is evil, according to Qatadah, while Ibn Jurayj said, "will settle according to its people.'' Mujahid commented on the meaning of,
(And every matter will be settled.) by saying, "On the Day of Resurrection.'' Allah's statement,
(And indeed there has come to them news); in this Qur'an, there has come to them the news of the earlier nations that disbelieved in their Messengers and the torment, punishment and affliction that befell them,
(wherein there is Muzdajar), wherein there are warnings and lessons to stop them from idolatry and persisting in denial,
(Perfect wisdom,) in that Allah guides whomever He wills and misguides whomever He wills,
(but warners benefit them not.) but the preaching of warnings does not benefit those upon whom Allah has written misery and sealed their hearts. Who can guide such people after Allah This Ayah is similar to Allah's statements,
(Say: "With Allah is the perfect proof and argument; had He so willed, He would indeed have guided you all.'')(6:149) and,
(But neither Ayat nor warners benefit those who believe not.)(10:101)
(6. So withdraw from them. The Day that the caller will call (them) to a terrible thing.) (7. They will come forth, with humbled eyes from (their) graves as if they were locusts spread abroad,) (8. Hastening towards the caller. The disbelievers will say: "This is a hard Day.'')