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The Story of Fir`awn and His People

Allah the Exalted narrates to us the story of Fir`awn and his people. A Messenger came to them from Allah, Musa supported by his brother Harun. Their Messengers delivered good news if they believe, and a warning if they rejected the Message. Allah supported Musa and Harun with tremendous miracles and great signs, but Fir`awn and his people rejected all of them. Allah took them the way the All-Mighty, the All-Capable would; He destroyed them all leaving none surviving to tell the story of what happened to them. Advising and Threatening the Quraysh Allah said,

﴿ أَكُفَّارُكُمۡ

(Are your disbelievers) meaning, `O idolaters of the Quraysh,'

﴿ خَيۡرٌ۬ مِّنۡ أُوْلَـٰٓٮِٕكُمۡ

(better than these) meaning better than the nations that were mentioned here, who were destroyed on account of their disbelief in the Messengers and rejecting the Scriptures. `Are you better than these?'

﴿ أَمۡ لَكُم بَرَآءَةٌ۬ فِى ٱلزُّبُرِ

(Or have you immunity in the Divine Scriptures), `do you have immunity from Allah that the torment and punishment will not touch you' Allah said about the Quraysh,

﴿ أَمۡ يَقُولُونَ نَحۡنُ جَمِيعٌ۬ مُّنتَصِرٌ۬

(Or say they: "We are a great multitude, victorious'') stating that they believed they will support each other and their great gathering will avail them against those who intend to harm them. Allah the Exalted responded,

﴿ سَيُہۡزَمُ ٱلۡجَمۡعُ وَيُوَلُّونَ ٱلدُّبُرَ

(Their multitude will be put to flight, and they will show their backs.) affirming that their gathering shall scatter, and they shall be defeated. Al-Bukhari recorded that Ibn `Abbas said, "The Prophet, while in a dome-shaped tent on the day of the battle of Badr, said,

« أَنْشُدُكَ عَهْدَكَ وَوَعْدَكَ، اللْهُمَّ إِنْ شِئْتَ لَمْ تُعْبَدْ بَعْدَ الْيَوْمِ فِي الْأَرْضِ أَبَدًا »

(O Allah! I ask you for the fulfillment of Your covenant and promise. O Allah! If You wish (to destroy the believers), You will never be worshipped on the earth after today.) Abu Bakr caught him by the hand and said, `This is sufficient, O Allah's Messenger! You have sufficiently asked and petitioned Allah.' The Prophet was clad in his armor at that time and went out, saying,

﴿ سَيُہۡزَمُ ٱلۡجَمۡعُ وَيُوَلُّونَ ٱلدُّبُرَ بَلِ ٱلسَّاعَةُ مَوۡعِدُهُمۡ وَٱلسَّاعَةُ أَدۡهَىٰ وَأَمَرُّ

(Their multitude will be put to flight and they will show their backs. Nay, but the Hour is their appointed time and that Hour will be more grievous and more bitter.)'' Al-Bukhari also recorded that Yusuf bin Mahak said, "I was with the Mother of the faithful, `A'ishah, when she said, `When I was still a young playful girl in Makkah, this Ayah was revealed to Muhammad,

﴿ بَلِ ٱلسَّاعَةُ مَوۡعِدُهُمۡ وَٱلسَّاعَةُ أَدۡهَىٰ وَأَمَرُّ

(Nay, but the Hour is their appointed time and that Hour will be more grievous and more bitter.)'' This is the abridged narration that Al-Bukhari collected, but he also collected a longer narration of it in the Book of the Virtues of the Qur'an. Muslim did not collect this Hadith.

﴿ إِنَّ ٱلۡمُجۡرِمِينَ فِى ضَلَـٰلٍ۬ وَسُعُرٍ۬ يَوۡمَ يُسۡحَبُونَ فِى ٱلنَّارِ عَلَىٰ وُجُوهِهِمۡ ذُوقُواْ مَسَّ سَقَرَ
﴿ إِنَّا كُلَّ شَىۡءٍ خَلَقۡنَـٰهُ بِقَدَرٍ۬ وَمَآ أَمۡرُنَآ إِلَّا وَٲحِدَةٌ۬ كَلَمۡحِۭ بِٱلۡبَصَرِ وَلَقَدۡ أَهۡلَكۡنَآ أَشۡيَاعَكُمۡ فَهَلۡ مِن مُّدَّڪِرٍ۬ وَكُلُّ شَىۡءٍ۬ فَعَلُوهُ فِى ٱلزُّبُرِ وَكُلُّ صَغِيرٍ۬ وَكَبِيرٍ۬ مُّسۡتَطَرٌ إِنَّ ٱلۡمُتَّقِينَ فِى جَنَّـٰتٍ۬ وَنَہَرٍ۬ فِى مَقۡعَدِ صِدۡقٍ عِندَ مَلِيكٍ۬ مُّقۡتَدِرِۭ

(47. Verily, the criminals are in error and will burn.) (48. The Day they will be dragged on their faces into the Fire (it will be said to them): "Taste you the touch of Hell!'') (49. Verily, We have created all things with Qadar.) (50. And Our commandment is but one as the twinkling of an eye.) (51. And indeed, We have destroyed your likes; then is there any that will remember) (52. And everything they have done is noted in Az-Zubur.) (53. And everything, small and large, is written down.) (54. Verily, those who have Taqwa, will be in the midst of Gardens and Rivers.) (55. In a seat of truth, near the Muqtadir King.)

The Destination of the Criminals

Allah the Exalted states that the criminals are misguided away from the truth and engulfed in confusion, because of the doubts and uncertainty they are in. This description befits every disbeliever and innovator of all types and forms of sects. Allah the Exalted said,

﴿ يَوۡمَ يُسۡحَبُونَ فِى ٱلنَّارِ عَلَىٰ وُجُوهِهِمۡ

(The Day they will be dragged on their faces into the Fire), meaning, just as they were consumed in doubt, suspicion and hesitation, they ended up in the Fire. And just as they were misguided, they will end up being dragged on their faces, unaware of where they will be taken. They will be admonished and criticized,

﴿ ذُوقُواْ مَسَّ سَقَرَ

("Taste you the touch of Hell!'')

Everything was created with Qadar

Allah's statement,

﴿ إِنَّا كُلَّ شَىۡءٍ خَلَقۡنَـٰهُ بِقَدَرٍ۬

(Verily, We have created all things with Qadar.) is similar to several other Ayat,

﴿ وَخَلَقَ ڪُلَّ شَىۡءٍ۬ فَقَدَّرَهُ ۥ تَقۡدِيرً۬ا

(He has created everything, and has measured it exactly according to its due measurements (Faqaddarahu Taqdir).) (25:2) and,

﴿ سَبِّحِ ٱسۡمَ رَبِّكَ ٱلۡأَعۡلَى ٱلَّذِى خَلَقَ فَسَوَّىٰ وَٱلَّذِى قَدَّرَ فَهَدَىٰ

(Glorify the Name of your Lord, the Most High. Who has created (everything), and then proportioned it. And Who has measured (Qaddara) and then guided.)(87:1-3), i.e., He measured out the total sum (Qadar) of everything and then guided the creation to it. The Imams of the Sunnah relied on this honorable Ayah as evidence that Allah created the creation with destined limits before they were created. He knew everything that will occur before it occurred and recorded everything that will occur, before they occurred. They used this Ayah and similar Ayat and Hadiths to refute the Qadariyyah sect, who started their sect during the latter time of the Companions. I mentioned this subject in detail in my explanation on the chapter on faith of Sahih Al-Bukhari. I will mention here some Hadiths pertaining to this honorable Ayah. Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Hurayrah said, "The idolaters of the Quraysh came to the Messenger of Allah arguing with him and discounting the Qadar. This Ayah was revealed,

﴿ يَوۡمَ يُسۡحَبُونَ فِى ٱلنَّارِ عَلَىٰ وُجُوهِهِمۡ ذُوقُواْ مَسَّ سَقَرَ إِنَّا كُلَّ شَىۡءٍ خَلَقۡنَـٰهُ بِقَدَرٍ۬

(The Day they will be dragged on their faces into the Fire: "Taste you the touch of Hell!'' Verily, We have created all things with Qadar.)'' Muslim, At-Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah collected this Hadith. Al-Bazzar recorded that `Amr bin Shu`ayb said that his father narrated that his grandfather said, "These Ayat were revealed about those who deny Al-Qadar,

﴿ إِنَّ ٱلۡمُجۡرِمِينَ فِى ضَلَـٰلٍ۬ وَسُعُرٍ۬ يَوۡمَ يُسۡحَبُونَ فِى ٱلنَّارِ عَلَىٰ وُجُوهِهِمۡ ذُوقُواْ مَسَّ سَقَرَ
﴿ إِنَّا كُلَّ شَىۡءٍ خَلَقۡنَـٰهُ بِقَدَرٍ۬

(Verily, the criminals are in error and will burn. The Day they will be dragged on their faces into the Fire: "Taste you the touch of Hell!'' Verily, We have created all things with Qadar.)'' Ibn Abi Hatim also recorded that Zurarah said that his father said that the Prophet recited this Ayah,

﴿ يَوۡمَ يُسۡحَبُونَ فِى ٱلنَّارِ عَلَىٰ وُجُوهِهِمۡ ذُوقُواْ مَسَّ سَقَرَ إِنَّا كُلَّ شَىۡءٍ خَلَقۡنَـٰهُ بِقَدَرٍ۬

("Taste you the touch of Hell!'' Verily, We have created all things with Qadar.) and then said,

« نَزَلَتْ فِي أُنَاسٍ مِنْ أُمَّتِي يَكُونُونَ فِي آخِرِ الزَّمَانِ يُكَذِّبُونَ بِقَدَرِ الله »

(These Ayat were revealed about some members of my Ummah. They will come before the end of time and deny Al-Qadar.) Ata' bin Abi Rabah said, "I went to Ibn `Abbas and found him drawing water from the well of Zamzam. The bottom of his clothes were wet with the water of Zamzam and I said to him, `They talked about Al-Qadar (some denied it).' He asked, `Have they done this' I said, `Yes.' He said, `By Allah! This Ayah was revealed only about them,

﴿ يَوۡمَ يُسۡحَبُونَ فِى ٱلنَّارِ عَلَىٰ وُجُوهِهِمۡ ذُوقُواْ مَسَّ سَقَرَ إِنَّا كُلَّ شَىۡءٍ خَلَقۡنَـٰهُ بِقَدَرٍ۬

("Taste you the touch of Hell!'' Verily, We have created all things with Qadar.) They are the worst members of this Ummah. Do not visit those who fall ill among them or pray the Funeral prayer for those among them who die. If I saw one of them, I would pluck out his eyes with these two fingers of mine.''' Imam Ahmad recorded that Nafi` said, " `Abdullah bin `Umar had a friend in the area of Ash-Sham who used to write to him. `Abdullah bin `Umar wrote to him, `I was told that you started talking about Al-Qadar. Therefore, do not dare write to me any more. I heard the Messenger of Allah say,

« سَيَكُونُ فِي أُمَّتِي أَقْوَامٌ يُكَذِّبُونَ بِالْقَدَر »

(There will be some members of my Ummah who will deny Al-Qadar.)'' Abu Dawud collected this Hadith from Ahmad bin Hanbal. Imam Ahmad recorded that `Abdullah bin `Umar said that the Messenger of Allah said,

« كُلُّ شَيْءٍ بِقَدَرٍ حَتْى الْعَجْزُ وَالْكَيْس »

(Every thing is predetermined, even laziness and intelligence.) Muslim collected this Hadith using a chain of narration through Imam Malik. There is also an authentic Hadith, in which the Messenger of Allah said,

« اسْتَعِنْ بِاللهِ وَلَا تَعْجَزْ، فَإِنْ أَصَابَكَ أَمْرٌ فَقُلْ: قَدَّرَ اللهُ وَمَا شَاءَ فَعَلَ، وَلَا تَقُلْ: لَوْ أَنِّي فَعَلْتُ كَذَا لَكَانَ كَذَا، فَإِنَّ لَوْ تَفْتَحُ عَمَلَ الشَّيْطَان »

(Seek the help of Allah and do not succumb to feebleness. And when an affliction strikes you, say, "Allah has decreed this, and He does as He wills.'' Do not say, "Had I done this or that, this or that would have happened, because "if'' opens the door wide for the work of Ash-Shaytan.)'' In a Hadith from `Abbas, the Messenger of Allah said to him,

« وَاعْلَمْ أَنَّ الْأُمَّةَ لَوِ اجْتَمَعُوا عَلَى أَنْ يَنْفَعُوكَ بِشَيْءٍ، لَمْ يَكْتُبْهُ اللهُ لَكَ لَمْ يَنْفَعُوكَ، وَلَوِ اجْتَمَعُوا عَلَى أَنْ يَضُرُّوكَ بِشَيْءٍ، لَمْ يَكْتُبْهُ اللهُ عَلَيْكَ لَمْ يَضُرُّوكَ، جَفَّتِ الْأَقْلَامُ وَطُوِيَتِ الصُّحُف »

(Know that if the Ummah were to all gather their strength to cause you some benefit that Allah has not decreed for you, they will never be able to bring you that benefit. And if they gather their strength to bring a harm to you that Allah has not written on you, they will never be able to harm you. The pens have gone dry and the Books of Record have been closed.) Imam Ahmad recorded that Ubadah bin Al-Walid bin Ubadah said that his father said to him, "I went to `Ubadah when he was ill, and I thought that he was going to die. So I said, `O my father, advise us and make the best effort in this regard.' He said, `Help me sit up,' and when he was helped up, he said, `O my son! Know that you will not taste the delight of Faith or earn true knowledge in Allah until you believe in Al-Qadar, the good and the not so good parts of it.' I asked, `O my father! How can I know (or believe in) Al-Qadar, the good and the not so good parts of it' He said, `When you know that what has missed you, would never have come to you and what has befallen you would never have missed you. O my son! I heard the Messenger of Allah say,

« إِنَّ أَوَّلَ مَا خَلَقَ اللهُ الْقَلَمُ، ثُمَّ قَالَ لَهُ: اكْتُبْ، فَجَرَى فِي تِلْكَ السَّاعَةِ بِمَا هُوَ كَائِنٌ إِلَى يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَة »

(The first thing Allah created was the Pen, right after that commanded it, `Record!' and the Pen recorded everything that will occur until the Day of Resurrection.) O my son! If you die not having this belief, you will enter the Hellfire.''' At-Tirmidhi also recorded it and said: "Hasan Sahih Gharib.'' It is confirmed in Sahih Muslim from `Abdullah bin `Amr that the Messenger of Allah said,

« إِنَّ اللهَ كَتَبَ مَقَادِيرَ الْخَلْقِ قَبْلَ أَنْ يَخْلُقَ السَّموَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ بِخَمْسِينَ أَلْفَ سَنَة »

(Verily, Allah recorded the measurements for the creatures fifty thousand years before He created the heavens and earth.) Ibn Wahb added,

﴿ وَڪَانَ عَرۡشُهُ ۥ عَلَى ٱلۡمَآءِ

(And His Throne was over the water.)(11:7) At-Tirmidhi also recorded it, and he said: "Hasan, Sahih Gharib.''

A Warning to beware of Allah's Threats

Allah said,

﴿ وَمَآ أَمۡرُنَآ إِلَّا وَٲحِدَةٌ۬ كَلَمۡحِۭ بِٱلۡبَصَرِ

(And Our commandment is but one as the twinkling of an eye.) This is information about the execution of His will in His creation, just as He informed us the execution of His decree in them,

﴿ وَمَآ أَمۡرُنَآ إِلَّا وَٲحِدَةٌ۬

(And Our commandment is but one) meaning, `We only command a thing once, without needing to repeat the command; and whatever We command comes to existence faster than the blinking of an eye without any delay, not even for an instant.' Allah said,

﴿ وَلَقَدۡ أَهۡلَكۡنَآ أَشۡيَاعَكُمۡ

(And indeed, We have destroyed your likes), i.e. the earlier nations who denied their Messengers,

﴿ فَهَلۡ مِن مُّدَّكِرٍ۬

(then is there any that will remember) meaning, is there any that will receive admonition by remembering the humiliation and torment that Allah decreed for them

﴿ وَحِيلَ بَيۡنَہُمۡ وَبَيۡنَ مَا يَشۡتَہُونَ كَمَا فُعِلَ بِأَشۡيَاعِهِم مِّن قَبۡلُۚ

(And a barrier will be set between them and that which they desire, as was done in the past with the people of their kind.)(34:54) Allah's statement,

﴿ وَكُلُّ شَىۡءٍ۬ فَعَلُوهُ فِى ٱلزُّبُرِ

(And everything they have done is noted in Az-Zubur.) meaning, everything they did is recorded in the Books of Record entrusted to the angels, peace be upon them,

﴿ وَكُلُّ صَغِيرٍ۬ وَكَبِيرٍ۬

(And everything, small and large,) meaning, of their actions,

﴿ مُّسۡتَطَرٌ

(is written down.) everything that they do is recorded and written in their Record of deeds, which leave nothing, whether large or small, but it is recorded and counted. Imam Ahmad recorded that `A'ishah said that the Messenger of Allah said,

« يَا عَائِشَةُ إِيَّاكِ وَمُحَقَّرَاتِ الذُّنُوبِ، فَإِنَّ لَهَا مِنَ اللهِ طَالِبًا »

(O `A'ishah! Beware of small sins, because there is someone assigned by Allah who records them.) An-Nasa'i and Ibn Majah also collected this Hadith.

The Good End for Those with Taqwa

Allah said,

﴿ إِنَّ ٱلۡمُتَّقِينَ فِى جَنَّـٰتٍ۬ وَنَہَرٍ۬

(Verily, those who have Taqwa, will be in the midst of Gardens and Rivers.), unlike the end that the miserable are facing, loss, confusion and being dragged in the Fire on their faces, as well as being disgraced, punished and threatened. Allah said,

﴿ فِى مَقۡعَدِ صِدۡقٍ

(In a seat of truth,) in the Dwelling of Allah's honor, encompassed by His pleasure, favors, bounties, generosity and compassion,

﴿ عِندَ مَلِيكٍ۬ مُّقۡتَدِرِۭ

(near the Muqtadir King.) meaning with the Magnificent King Who created everything and measured its destiny; He is able to grant them whatever they wish and ask for. Imam Ahmad recorded that `Abdullah bin `Amr said that the Prophet said,

« الْمُقْسِطُونَ عِنْدَ اللهِ عَلَى مَنَابِرَ مِنْ نُورٍ عَنْ يَمِينِ الرَّحْمنِ وَكِلْتَا يَدَيْهِ يَمِينٌ، الَّذِينَ يَعْدِلُونَ فِي حُكْمِهِمْ وَأَهْلِيهِمْ وَمَا وَلُوا »

(Verily, the just will be with Allah on podiums of light, to the right of Ar-Rahman, and both of His Hands are right. They are those who are just and fair in their Judgment and with their families and those whom they are responsible for.) Muslim and An-Nasa'i also recorded this Hadith.

This is the end of the Tafsir of Surah Iqtarabat (Al-Qamar). All praise and thanks are due to Allah, and success and immunity from error come from Him.

The Introduction to Surat Ar-Rahman

Imam Ahmad recorded that Zirr said that a man said [to Ibn Mas`ud]: "How is this recited: "Ma'in Ghayri Yasin or Asin'' He asked him, "Are you that proficient in reciting the whole Qur'an'' He replied, "I recite the Mufassal section in one Rak`ah.'' So he said, "Woe to you! Do you recite the Qur'an in haste, as if it is poetry I know that the Prophet used to recite two Surahs from the beginning of the Mufassal section (in one Rak`ah).'' And Ibn Mas`ud considered Surat Ar-Rahman to be the beginning of the Mufassal section. Abu `Isa At-Tirmidhi recorded that Jabir said, "The Messenger of Allah went to his Companions and recited Surat Ar-Rahman from beginning to end for them, but they did not say anything. The Prophet said,

«لَقَدْ قَرَأْتُهَا عَلَى الْجِنِّ لَيْلَةَ الْجِنِّ فَكَانُوا أَحْسَنَ مَرْدُودًا مِنْكُمْ، كُنْتُ كُلَّمَا أَتَيْتُ عَلَى قَوْلِهِ:
﴿ فَبِأَىِّ ءَالَآءِ رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ
قَالُوا: لَا بِشَيْءٍ مِنْ نِعَمِكَ رَبَّنَا نُكَذِّبُ فَلَكَ الْحَمْد»

(I recited it to the Jinns, on the night of the Jinns and their response was better than yours! Whenever I recited Allah's statement: (Then which of the blessings of your Lord will you both deny) (They said, "None of Your favors do we deny, our Lord! All praise is due to you.'') At-Tirmidhi recorded it and he said, "This Hadith is Gharib.'' Al-Hafiz Abu Bakr Al-Bazzar also collected this Hadith. Abu Ja`far Ibn Jarir recorded that `Abdullah bin `Umar said that the Messenger of Allah recited Surat Ar-Rahman, or it was recited before him, and he said,

«مَا لِيَ أَسْمَعُ الْجِنَّ أَحْسَنَ جَوَابًا لِرَبِّهَا مِنْكُمْ؟»

(Why do I hear the Jinn giving a better response to their Lord than you) They said, "Why is that, O Allah's Messenger'' He said,

«مَا أَتَيْتُ عَلَى قَوْلِ اللهِ تَعَالَى:
﴿ فَبِأَىِّ ءَالَآءِ رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ
إِلَّا قَالَتِ الْجِنُّ: لَا بِشَيْءٍ مِنْ نِعَمِ رَبِّنَا نُكَذِّب»

(Whenever I recited the statement of Allah the Exalted, (Then which of the blessings of your Lord will you both deny) (The Jinn responded by saying, "None of the favors of our Lord do we deny.'')'' Al-Hafiz Al-Bazzar also collected this Hadith.

﴿ بِسۡمِ ٱللَّهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

﴿ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنُ عَلَّمَ ٱلۡقُرۡءَانَ خَلَقَ ٱلۡإِنسَـٰنَ عَلَّمَهُ ٱلۡبَيَانَ ٱلشَّمۡسُ وَٱلۡقَمَرُ بِحُسۡبَانٍ۬ وَٱلنَّجۡمُ وَٱلشَّجَرُ يَسۡجُدَانِ وَٱلسَّمَآءَ رَفَعَهَا وَوَضَعَ ٱلۡمِيزَانَ أَلَّا تَطۡغَوۡاْ فِى ٱلۡمِيزَانِ وَأَقِيمُواْ ٱلۡوَزۡنَ بِٱلۡقِسۡطِ وَلَا تُخۡسِرُواْ ٱلۡمِيزَانَ وَٱلۡأَرۡضَ وَضَعَهَا لِلۡأَنَامِ فِيہَا فَـٰكِهَةٌ۬ وَٱلنَّخۡلُ ذَاتُ ٱلۡأَكۡمَامِ وَٱلۡحَبُّ ذُو ٱلۡعَصۡفِ وَٱلرَّيۡحَانُ فَبِأَىِّ ءَالَآءِ رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ

(1. Ar-Rahman!) (2. He has taught the Qur'an.) (3. He created man.) (4. He taught him Al-Bayan.) (5. The sun and the moon (run) on fixed courses.) (6. And the Najm and the trees prostrating.) (7. And the heaven He has raised high, and He has set up the balance.) (8. In order that you may not transgress the balance.) (9. And observe the weight with equity and do not make the balance deficient.) (10. And the earth He has put down (laid) for Al-An'am.) (11. Therein are fruits, date palms producing Akmam.) (12. And also corn, with (its) `Asf, and Rayhan.) (13. Then which of the blessings of your Lord will you both deny)

Ar-Rahman revealed and taught the Qur'an

Allah informs of His favors and His mercy for His creatures, for He revealed the Qur'an to His servants, He made memorizing and understanding of it easy for those on whom He has bestowed His mercy,

﴿ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنُ عَلَّمَ ٱلۡقُرۡءَانَ خَلَقَ ٱلۡإِنسَـٰنَ عَلَّمَهُ ٱلۡبَيَانَ

(Ar-Rahman! He has taught the Qur'an. He created man. He taught him Al-Bayan.) Al-Hasan said: "Eloquent speech.'' This refers to Allah teaching the Qur'an, that is, teaching the servants how to recite it by making it easy for them to speak and pronounce letters with the various parts of the mouth, such as the alveolar bridge, the tongue and the lips

Among Allah's Signs: the Sun, the Moon, the Sky and the Earth

Allah said,

﴿ ٱلشَّمۡسُ وَٱلۡقَمَرُ بِحُسۡبَانٍ۬

(The sun and the moon (run) on fixed courses.) They move in their orbit in perfect succession, according to precise calculation that is never delayed nor disturbed,

﴿ لَا ٱلشَّمۡسُ يَنۢبَغِى لَهَآ أَن تُدۡرِكَ ٱلۡقَمَرَ وَلَا ٱلَّيۡلُ سَابِقُ ٱلنَّہَارِ‌ۚ وَكُلٌّ۬ فِى فَلَكٍ۬ يَسۡبَحُونَ

(It is not for the sun to overtake the moon, nor does the night outstrip the day. They all float, each in an orbit.)(36:40),

﴿ فَالِقُ ٱلۡإِصۡبَاحِ وَجَعَلَ ٱلَّيۡلَ سَكَنً۬ا وَٱلشَّمۡسَ وَٱلۡقَمَرَ حُسۡبَانً۬ا‌ۚ ذَٲلِكَ تَقۡدِيرُ ٱلۡعَزِيزِ ٱلۡعَلِيمِ

((He is the) Cleaver of the daybreak. He has appointed the night for resting, and the sun and the moon for calculating. Such is the measuring of the Almighty, the All-Knowing.) (6:96), Allah said,

﴿ وَٱلنَّجۡمُ وَٱلشَّجَرُ يَسۡجُدَانِ

(And the Najm and the trees prostrating.) Ibn Jarir commented, "Scholars of Tafsir disagreed over the meaning of Allah's statement, `And the Najm.' They agreed, however, that the trees mentioned here are those that stand on trunks.'' `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas said, "An-Najm refers to the plants that lay on the ground.'' Similar was said by Sa`id bin Jubayr, As-Suddi and Sufyan Ath-Thawri. This is what Ibn Jarir preferred, may Allah have mercy upon him. Mujahid said, "An-Najm (the star); the one that is in the sky.'' Al-Hasan and Qatadah said similarly. This is the saying that is the most obvious, and Allah knows best, for Allah the Exalted said,

﴿ أَلَمۡ تَرَ أَنَّ ٱللَّهَ يَسۡجُدُ لَهُ ۥ مَن فِى ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَمَن فِى ٱلۡأَرۡضِ وَٱلشَّمۡسُ وَٱلۡقَمَرُ وَٱلنُّجُومُ وَٱلۡجِبَالُ وَٱلشَّجَرُ وَٱلدَّوَآبُّ وَڪَثِيرٌ۬ مِّنَ ٱلنَّاسِ‌ۖ

(See you not that whoever is in the heavens and whoever is on the earth, and the sun, and the moon, and the stars, and the mountains, and the trees, and the moving creatures, and many of mankind prostrate themselves to Allah.)(22:18) Allah's statement,

﴿ وَٱلسَّمَآءَ رَفَعَهَا وَوَضَعَ ٱلۡمِيزَانَ

(And the heaven He has raised high, and He has set up the balance.) meaning the justice, as He said in another Ayah,

﴿ لَقَدۡ أَرۡسَلۡنَا رُسُلَنَا بِٱلۡبَيِّنَـٰتِ وَأَنزَلۡنَا مَعَهُمُ ٱلۡكِتَـٰبَ وَٱلۡمِيزَانَ لِيَقُومَ ٱلنَّاسُ بِٱلۡقِسۡطِ‌ۖ

(Indeed, We have sent Our Messengers with clear proofs, and sent down with them the Book and the balance that mankind may keep up equity.)(57:25) Allah said here,

﴿ أَلَّا تَطۡغَوۡاْ فِى ٱلۡمِيزَانِ

(In order that you may not transgress the balance.) meaning, He created the heavens and earth in justice and truth so that everything is founded on, and observing, justice and truth. Allah's statement,

﴿ وَأَقِيمُواْ ٱلۡوَزۡنَ بِٱلۡقِسۡطِ وَلَا تُخۡسِرُواْ ٱلۡمِيزَانَ

(And observe the weight with equity and do not make the balance deficient.) meaning, do not cheat in the weights and measures, but rather observe justice and fairness,

﴿ وَزِنُواْ بِٱلۡقِسۡطَاسِ ٱلۡمُسۡتَقِيمِ

(And weigh with the true and straight balance.)(26:182) Allah said,

﴿ وَٱلۡأَرۡضَ وَضَعَهَا لِلۡأَنَامِ

(And the earth He has put down (laid) for Al-Ana'm.) Allah raised the heavens and put down, or laid, the earth and balanced it with firm mountains, so that it would be stable for its residents that live on it, i.e. the various types and kinds of creatures, different in species, shape, color and language. Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, Qatadah and Ibn Zayd said that Al-An'am means the creatures.

﴿ فِيہَا فَـٰكِهَةٌ۬

(Therein are fruits,) of various colors, taste and scent,

﴿ وَٱلنَّخۡلُ ذَاتُ ٱلۡأَكۡمَامِ

(and date palms producing Akmam.) Allah mentioned the date tree here specifically because of its benefit, both fresh and dry. Ibn Jurayj reported that Ibn `Abbas said Al-Akmam, means sheathed fruit stalks. Similar was said by more than one of the scholars of Tafsir, it refers to the stalks that the seeds grow in to become a cluster of dates, unripe green dates then they ripen and ripen more. Allah said,

﴿ وَٱلۡحَبُّ ذُو ٱلۡعَصۡفِ وَٱلرَّيۡحَانُ

(And also corn, with (its) `Asf, and Rayhan.) `Ali bin Abi Talhah said that Ibn `Abbas said that in,

﴿ وَٱلۡحَبُّ ذُو ٱلۡعَصۡفِ

(And also corn, with (its) `Asf), `Asf means straw.'' Al-`Awfi reported from Ibn `Abbas, "`Asf is green leaves cut from the stem, so it is called `Asf when it dries out.'' Similarly, Qatadah, Ad-Dahhak and Abu Malik said that `Asf means straw. Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid and others said that Rayhan means leaves, while Al-Hasan said that it means sweet-scented plants. `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas said that Rayhan means green leaves. The meanings here, and Allah knows best, are the various crops that produce straw, such as wheat and barley, and Rayhan are the leaves that grow on the stems.

Mankind is surrounded by Allah's Favors

Allah said,

﴿ فَبِأَىِّ ءَالَآءِ رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ

(Then which of the blessings of your Lord will you both deny) meaning, "O mankind and Jinn, which of the favors that Allah has given to you do you deny'' Mujahid and others said this, and it is apparent when one reads what comes after it. Meaning the favors that are obvious to you while you are surrounded by them, you cannot deny or reject them. So we say, just as the believers among the Jinns said, "O Allah! None of Your favors do we deny. All praise is due to You.'' Ibn `Abbas used to say, "Nay, our Lord!'' meaning, "None of Your favors do we deny.''

﴿ خَلَقَ ٱلۡإِنسَـٰنَ مِن صَلۡصَـٰلٍ۬ كَٱلۡفَخَّارِ وَخَلَقَ ٱلۡجَآنَّ مِن مَّارِجٍ۬ مِّن نَّارٍ۬ فَبِأَىِّ ءَالَآءِ رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ رَبُّ ٱلۡمَشۡرِقَيۡنِ وَرَبُّ ٱلۡمَغۡرِبَيۡنِ فَبِأَىِّ ءَالَآءِ رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ مَرَجَ ٱلۡبَحۡرَيۡنِ يَلۡتَقِيَانِ بَيۡنَہُمَا بَرۡزَخٌ۬ لَّا يَبۡغِيَانِ فَبِأَىِّ ءَالَآءِ رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ يَخۡرُجُ مِنۡہُمَا ٱللُّؤۡلُؤُ وَٱلۡمَرۡجَانُ فَبِأَىِّ ءَالَآءِ رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ وَلَهُ ٱلۡجَوَارِ ٱلۡمُنشَـَٔاتُ فِى ٱلۡبَحۡرِ كَٱلۡأَعۡلَـٰمِ فَبِأَىِّ ءَالَآءِ رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ

(14. He created man from sounding clay like the clay of pottery.) (15. And the Jinn He created from a smokeless flame of fire.) (16. Then which of the blessings of your Lord will you both deny) (17. The Lord of the two easts and the Lord of the two wests.) (18. Then which of the blessings of your Lord will you both deny) (19. He has Maraja the two seas meeting together.) (20. Between them is a barrier which none of them can transgress.) (21. Then which of the blessings of your Lord will you both deny) (22. Out of them both come out pearls and Al-Marjan.) (23. Then which of the blessings of your Lord will you both deny) (24. And His are Al-Jawar Al-Munsha'at, in the seas like A`lam.) (25. Then which of the blessings of your Lord will you both deny)