;
Mankind is surrounded by Allah's Favors

Allah said,

﴿ فَبِأَىِّ ءَالَآءِ رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ

(Then which of the blessings of your Lord will you both deny) meaning, "O mankind and Jinn, which of the favors that Allah has given to you do you deny'' Mujahid and others said this, and it is apparent when one reads what comes after it. Meaning the favors that are obvious to you while you are surrounded by them, you cannot deny or reject them. So we say, just as the believers among the Jinns said, "O Allah! None of Your favors do we deny. All praise is due to You.'' Ibn `Abbas used to say, "Nay, our Lord!'' meaning, "None of Your favors do we deny.''

﴿ خَلَقَ ٱلۡإِنسَـٰنَ مِن صَلۡصَـٰلٍ۬ كَٱلۡفَخَّارِ وَخَلَقَ ٱلۡجَآنَّ مِن مَّارِجٍ۬ مِّن نَّارٍ۬ فَبِأَىِّ ءَالَآءِ رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ رَبُّ ٱلۡمَشۡرِقَيۡنِ وَرَبُّ ٱلۡمَغۡرِبَيۡنِ فَبِأَىِّ ءَالَآءِ رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ مَرَجَ ٱلۡبَحۡرَيۡنِ يَلۡتَقِيَانِ بَيۡنَہُمَا بَرۡزَخٌ۬ لَّا يَبۡغِيَانِ فَبِأَىِّ ءَالَآءِ رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ يَخۡرُجُ مِنۡہُمَا ٱللُّؤۡلُؤُ وَٱلۡمَرۡجَانُ فَبِأَىِّ ءَالَآءِ رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ وَلَهُ ٱلۡجَوَارِ ٱلۡمُنشَـَٔاتُ فِى ٱلۡبَحۡرِ كَٱلۡأَعۡلَـٰمِ فَبِأَىِّ ءَالَآءِ رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ

(14. He created man from sounding clay like the clay of pottery.) (15. And the Jinn He created from a smokeless flame of fire.) (16. Then which of the blessings of your Lord will you both deny) (17. The Lord of the two easts and the Lord of the two wests.) (18. Then which of the blessings of your Lord will you both deny) (19. He has Maraja the two seas meeting together.) (20. Between them is a barrier which none of them can transgress.) (21. Then which of the blessings of your Lord will you both deny) (22. Out of them both come out pearls and Al-Marjan.) (23. Then which of the blessings of your Lord will you both deny) (24. And His are Al-Jawar Al-Munsha'at, in the seas like A`lam.) (25. Then which of the blessings of your Lord will you both deny)

The Creation of Humans and Jinns

Allah mentions that He created mankind from clay, like that used in pottery, and created the Jinns from the tip of the flame of a smokeless fire. This was said by Ad-Dahhak from Ibn `Abbas. It was also said by `Ikrimah, Mujahid, Al-Hasan and Ibn Zayd. Al-`Awfi reported from Ibn `Abbas, "From the best part of the fire, from its smokeless flame.'' Imam Ahmad recorded that `A'ishah said that Allah's Messenger said,

« خُلِقَتِ الْمَلَائِكَةُ مِنْ نُورٍ، وَخُلِقَ الْجَانُّ مِنْ مَارِجٍ مِنْ نَارٍ، وَخُلِقَ آدَمُ مِمَّا وُصِفَ لَكُم »

(The angels were created from light, the Jinns from a smokeless flame of fire, and `Adam from what was described to you.) Muslim also collected this Hadith. Allah's statement:

﴿ فَبِأَىِّ ءَالَآءِ رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ

(Then which of the blessings of your Lord will you both deny) was explained above.

Allah is the Lord of the Two Easts and the Two Wests

Allah said,

﴿ رَبُّ ٱلۡمَشۡرِقَيۡنِ وَرَبُّ ٱلۡمَغۡرِبَيۡنِ

((He is) the Lord of the two easts and the Lord of the two wests.) meaning the sunrise of summer and winter and the sunset of summer and winter. Allah said in another Ayah,

﴿ فَلَآ أُقۡسِمُ بِرَبِّ ٱلۡمَشَـٰرِقِ وَٱلۡمَغَـٰرِبِ

(So, I swear by the Lord of all the points of sunrise and sunset in the east and the west.)(70:40), referring to the different places from which the sun rises and then sets on people every day. Allah said in another Ayah,

﴿ رَّبُّ ٱلۡمَشۡرِقِ وَٱلۡمَغۡرِبِ لَآ إِلَـٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ فَٱتَّخِذۡهُ وَكِيلاً۬

(The Lord of the east and the west; none has the right to be worshipped but He. So take Him alone as a trustee.)(73:9), referring to the different places of sunrise and sunset and the benefits that this variation brings to the created, mankind and Jinns,

﴿ فَبِأَىِّ ءَالَآءِ رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ

(Then which of the blessings of your Lord will you both deny)

Allah created Different Types of Water

Allah said,

﴿ مَرَجَ ٱلۡبَحۡرَيۡنِ يَلۡتَقِيَانِ

(He has Maraja the two seas), or let them loose, according to Ibn `Abbas. Allah's statement,

﴿ يَلۡتَقِيَانِ

(meeting together.) Ibn Zayd said, "He prevents them from meeting by the dividing barrier He placed between them to separate them.'' The two seas are the fresh and salty waters, the former coming from running rivers. We discussed this topic in Surat Al-Furqan when explaining Allah's statement;

﴿ وَهُوَ ٱلَّذِى مَرَجَ ٱلۡبَحۡرَيۡنِ هَـٰذَا عَذۡبٌ۬ فُرَاتٌ۬ وَهَـٰذَا مِلۡحٌ أُجَاجٌ۬ وَجَعَلَ بَيۡنَہُمَا بَرۡزَخً۬ا وَحِجۡرً۬ا مَّحۡجُورً۬ا

(And it is He Who has let free the two seas: one palatable and sweet, and the other salty and bitter; and He has set a barrier and a complete partition between them.)(25:53) Allah said,

﴿ بَيۡنَہُمَا بَرۡزَخٌ۬ لَّا يَبۡغِيَانِ

(Between them is a barrier which none of them can transgress.) meaning, He has placed a barrier of land between these two types of waters, so that they do not transgress upon each other, which would spoil the characteristics they were created with. Allah said,

﴿ يَخۡرُجُ مِنۡہُمَا ٱللُّؤۡلُؤُ وَٱلۡمَرۡجَانُ

(Out of them both come out pearls and Al-Marjan.) pearls are well-known. As for Marjan they say it means small pearls. Mujahid, Qatadah, Abu Ruzayn, Ad-Dahhak said it, and it has also been reported from `Ali. It was also said that it means large, precious pearls, this was mentioned by Ibn Jarir from some of the Salaf. Ibn Abi Hatim recorded from Ibn `Abbas who said, "When it rains, the oysters in the sea open their mouths. What falls in them, the drops, turns into pearls.'' Its chain of narrators is Sahih. Since this type of adornment is a favor from Allah to the people of earth, He reminded them of it,

﴿ فَبِأَىِّ ءَالَآءِ رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ

(Then which of the blessings of your Lord will you both deny) Allah said,

﴿ وَلَهُ ٱلۡجَوَارِ ٱلۡمُنشَـَٔاتُ

(And His are Al-Jawar Al-Munsha'at), meaning the ships that float,

﴿ فِى ٱلۡبَحۡرِ

(in the seas), Mujahid said, "Whatever ship hoists a sail, it is from Munsha'at, if it does not hoist a sail, it is not from the Munsha'at.'' Qatadah said, "Al-Munsha'at means created.'' Others said that it is Al-Munshi'at meaning, "launched.''

﴿ كَٱلۡأَعۡلَـٰمِ

(like A`lam.) This means, they are like mountains with their great size, and it also refers to the trade and commercial services they make possible, transporting cargo from one area to another and from one province to another. Ships provide various benefits for people, including transporting different types of goods they need. Therefore,

﴿ فَبِأَىِّ ءَالَآءِ رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ

(Then which of the blessings of your Lord will you both deny)

﴿ كُلُّ مَنۡ عَلَيۡہَا فَانٍ۬ وَيَبۡقَىٰ وَجۡهُ رَبِّكَ ذُو ٱلۡجَلَـٰلِ وَٱلۡإِكۡرَامِ فَبِأَىِّ ءَالَآءِ رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ
﴿ يَسۡـَٔلُهُ ۥ مَن فِى ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِ‌ۚ كُلَّ يَوۡمٍ هُوَ فِى شَأۡنٍ۬ فَبِأَىِّ ءَالَآءِ رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ

(26. Whatsoever is on it (the earth) will perish.) (27. And the Face of your Lord Dhul-Jalal wal-Ikram will remain forever.) (28. Then which of the blessings of your Lord will you both deny) (29. Whosoever is in the heavens and on the earth begs of Him. Every day He is (engaged) in some affair!) (30. Then which of the blessings of your Lord will you both deny)

Allah is the Ever Living, Free of all Need

Allah states that all the residents of earth will perish and die. The residents of the heavens will die, except whomever Allah wills. Only Allah's Honorable Face will remain, because our Lord, the Exalted, the Blessed, is the Ever Living Who never dies. Qatadah said, "First, Allah mentioned His creatures and then He said that all of this will perish.'' And in the reported supplication: `O You the Ever Living Who sustains all that exists! O You Who created the heavens and the earth without precedence. O You, Who Owns the glory and the honor, none has the right to be worshipped except You. We seek refuge with Your mercy. Grant Us success in all of our matters. Please, do not abandon us to rely on ourselves even for an instant nor on any of Your creation.'' Ash-Sha`bi said, "When you have recited,

﴿ كُلُّ مَنۡ عَلَيۡہَا فَانٍ۬

(Whatsoever is on it (the earth) will perish.) do not stop, continue reading,

﴿ وَيَبۡقَىٰ وَجۡهُ رَبِّكَ ذُو ٱلۡجَلَـٰلِ وَٱلۡإِكۡرَامِ

(And the Face of your Lord Dhul-Jalal wal-Ikram will remain forever.)'' This Ayah is similar to Allah's statement,

﴿ كُلُّ شَىۡءٍ هَالِكٌ إِلَّا وَجۡهَهُ ۥ‌ۚ

(Everything will perish save His Face.)(28:88) In this Ayah, Allah describes His Noble Face as being Dhul-Jalal wal-Ikram, indicating that He is Worthy of being revered, and thus, never defied; and obeyed, and thus, never disobeyed,

﴿ وَٱصۡبِرۡ نَفۡسَكَ مَعَ ٱلَّذِينَ يَدۡعُونَ رَبَّہُم بِٱلۡغَدَوٰةِ وَٱلۡعَشِىِّ يُرِيدُونَ وَجۡهَهُ ۥ‌ۖ

(And keep yourself patiently with those who call on their Lord morning and afternoon, seeking His Face.)(18:28), And as He said about those giving charity:

﴿ إِنَّمَا نُطۡعِمُكُمۡ لِوَجۡهِ ٱللَّهِ

(We feed you seeking Allah's Face only.)(76:9) Ibn `Abbas commented on the meaning of Dhul-Jalal wal-Ikram, by saying, "Owner of greatness and pride.'' After Allah stated that all of the inhabitants of the earth will die and end up in the Hereafter when He, Dhul-Jalal wal-Ikram, will judge them by His fair judgment, He said,

﴿ فَبِأَىِّ ءَالَآءِ رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ

(Then which of the blessings of your Lord will you both deny) Allah said,

﴿ يَسۡـَٔلُهُ ۥ مَن فِى ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِ‌ۚ كُلَّ يَوۡمٍ هُوَ فِى شَأۡنٍ۬

(Whosoever is in the heavens and on the earth begs of Him. Every day He is (engaged) in some affair.) In this Ayah, Allah affirms that He is Rich, Free of all wants for anyone else and that all creatures stand in need of Him, in all conditions and situations. They all seek His help willingly or unwillingly. Everyday, He is engaged in some affair. Al-A`mash reported from Mujahid, from `Ubayd bin `Umayr,

﴿ كُلَّ يَوۡمٍ هُوَ فِى شَأۡنٍ۬

(Every day He is (engaged) in some affair.) He said, "Of His affairs is that He answers the supplicant, or gives to the one requesting, or removing adversity, or cures the one seeking to be cured.''

﴿ سَنَفۡرُغُ لَكُمۡ أَيُّهَ ٱلثَّقَلَانِ فَبِأَىِّ ءَالَآءِ رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ يَـٰمَعۡشَرَ ٱلۡجِنِّ وَٱلۡإِنسِ إِنِ ٱسۡتَطَعۡتُمۡ أَن تَنفُذُواْ مِنۡ أَقۡطَارِ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِ فَٱنفُذُواْ‌ۚ لَا تَنفُذُونَ إِلَّا بِسُلۡطَـٰنٍ۬ فَبِأَىِّ ءَالَآءِ رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ يُرۡسَلُ عَلَيۡكُمَا شُوَاظٌ۬ مِّن نَّارٍ۬ وَنُحَاسٌ۬ فَلَا تَنتَصِرَانِ فَبِأَىِّ ءَالَآءِ رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ

(31. We shall attend to you, O Thaqalan!) (32. Then which of the blessings of your Lord will you both deny) (33. O assembly of Jinn and men! If you are able to pass beyond the zones of the heavens and the earth, then pass beyond (them)! But you will never be able to pass them, except with authority (from Allah)!) (34. Then which of the blessings of your Lord will you both deny) (35. There will be sent against you both, Shuwaz of fire and Nuhas, and you will not be able to defend yourselves.) (36. Then which of the blessings of your Lord will you both deny)

A Warning for Humans and Jinn

Ibn Jurayj said that the Ayah,

﴿ سَنَفۡرُغُ لَكُمۡ

(We shall attend to you,) means, `We shall judge you,' while Al-Bukhari said that it means, "We shall recompense you. Surely, nothing will busy Allah from attending to anything else.'' This type of speech pattern is common in the Arabic language. For example, one would say, "I will attend to you,'' even when one is not busy with anything else. Allah's saying;

﴿ أَيُّهَ ٱلثَّقَلَانِ

(O you Thaqalan!) refers to the humans and the Jinns, as in the Hadith;

« يَسْمَعُهَا كُلُّ شَيْءٍ إِلَّا الثَّقَلَيْن »

(Everyone will be able to hear it, except the Thaqalayn.) In another narration that explains it, the Prophet said,

« إِلَّا الْإِنْسَ وَالْجِن »

(...except mankind and the Jinns.) Allah said,

﴿ فَبِأَىِّ ءَالَآءِ رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ

(Then which of the blessings of your Lord will you both deny), then,

﴿ يَـٰمَعۡشَرَ ٱلۡجِنِّ وَٱلۡإِنسِ إِنِ ٱسۡتَطَعۡتُمۡ أَن تَنفُذُواْ مِنۡ أَقۡطَارِ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِ فَٱنفُذُواْ‌ۚ لَا تَنفُذُونَ إِلَّا بِسُلۡطَـٰنٍ۬

(O assembly of Jinn and men! If you are able to pass beyond the zones of the heavens and the earth, then pass beyond (them)! But you will never be able to pass them, except with authority (from Allah)!) meaning, `you will never be able to escape Allah's orders and decrees, because it encompasses you. You will never be able to avoid or avert His rule and judgment over you, you are surrounded by it wherever you may be.' This is also about the Gathering when the angels, comprising seven lines in every direction, will surround the creatures. None of the creatures will be able to escape on that Day,

﴿ إِلَّا بِسُلۡطَـٰنٍ۬

(except with authority) meaning, except with the commandment from Allah,

﴿ يَقُولُ ٱلۡإِنسَـٰنُ يَوۡمَٮِٕذٍ أَيۡنَ ٱلۡمَفَرُّ كَلَّا لَا وَزَرَ إِلَىٰ رَبِّكَ يَوۡمَٮِٕذٍ ٱلۡمُسۡتَقَرُّ

(On that Day man will say: "Where (is the refuge) to flee'' No! There is no refuge! Unto your Lord will be the place of rest that Day.)(75:10-12),

﴿ وَٱلَّذِينَ كَسَبُواْ ٱلسَّيِّـَٔاتِ جَزَآءُ سَيِّئَةِۭ بِمِثۡلِهَا وَتَرۡهَقُهُمۡ ذِلَّةٌ۬‌ۖ مَّا لَهُم مِّنَ ٱللَّهِ مِنۡ عَاصِمٍ۬‌ۖ كَأَنَّمَآ أُغۡشِيَتۡ وُجُوهُهُمۡ قِطَعً۬ا مِّنَ ٱلَّيۡلِ مُظۡلِمًا‌ۚ أُوْلَـٰٓٮِٕكَ أَصۡحَـٰبُ ٱلنَّارِ‌ۖ هُمۡ فِيہَا خَـٰلِدُونَ

(And those who earned evil deeds, the recompense of an evil deed is the like thereof, and humiliating disgrace will cover them. No defender will they have from Allah. Their faces will be covered as it were with pieces from the darkness of night. They are the dwellers of Fire, they will abide therein forever.)(10:27) Allah's statement,

﴿ يُرۡسَلُ عَلَيۡكُمَا شُوَاظٌ۬ مِّن نَّارٍ۬ وَنُحَاسٌ۬ فَلَا تَنتَصِرَانِ

(There will be sent against you both, Shuwaz of fire and Nuhas, and you will not be able to defend yourselves.) `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported from Ibn `Abbas that Shuwaz is the flame of fire. Abu Salih said, "It is the flame above the fire below the smoke.'' Ad-Dahhak said,

﴿ شُوَاظٌ۬ مِّن نَّارٍ۬

(Shuwaz of fire) "A flood of fire.'' Allah said;

﴿ وَنُحَاسٌ۬

(and Nuhas) `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported from Ibn `Abbas; "The smoke of the fire.'' Similar was reported from Abu Salih, Sa`id bin Jubayr and Abu Sinan. Ibn Jarir said that the Arabs used to call the smoke of the fire, Nuhas and Nihas. But he said that the scholars of Qur'anic recitation said that in this Ayah, the word recited is Nuhas. Mujahid said, "Molten brass poured over their heads.'' Qatadah held the same view. Ad-Dahhak said, "Nuhas is liquid copper.'' The Ayah means, `if you, mankind and the Jinns, try to escape on the Day of Resurrection, then the angels, including those among them who guard Hellfire, will bring you back by directing smoke of fire and molten brass on you.' Allah's statement,

﴿ فَلَا تَنتَصِرَانِ فَبِأَىِّ ءَالَآءِ رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ

(and you will not be able to defend yourselves. Then which of the blessings of your Lord will you both deny)

﴿ فَإِذَا ٱنشَقَّتِ ٱلسَّمَآءُ فَكَانَتۡ وَرۡدَةً۬ كَٱلدِّهَانِ فَبِأَىِّ ءَالَآءِ رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ
﴿ فَيَوۡمَٮِٕذٍ۬ لَّا يُسۡـَٔلُ عَن ذَنۢبِهِۦۤ إِنسٌ۬ وَلَا جَآنٌّ۬ فَبِأَىِّ ءَالَآءِ رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ يُعۡرَفُ ٱلۡمُجۡرِمُونَ بِسِيمَـٰهُمۡ فَيُؤۡخَذُ بِٱلنَّوَٲصِى وَٱلۡأَقۡدَامِ فَبِأَىِّ ءَالَآءِ رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ هَـٰذِهِۦ جَهَنَّمُ ٱلَّتِى يُكَذِّبُ بِہَا ٱلۡمُجۡرِمُونَ يَطُوفُونَ بَيۡنَہَا وَبَيۡنَ حَمِيمٍ ءَانٍ۬ فَبِأَىِّ ءَالَآءِ رَبِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ

(37. Then when the heaven is rent asunder, and it becomes Wardah like Dihan.) (38. Then which of the blessings of your Lord will you both deny) (39. So, on that Day he will not be questioned about his sin, (neither) human nor Jinn.) (40. Then which of the blessings of your Lord will you both deny) (41. The criminals will be known by their marks, and they will be seized by their foreheads and feet.) (42. Then which of the blessings of your Lord will you both deny) (43. This is the Hell which the criminals denied.) (44. They will go between it and Hamim An!) (45. Then which of the blessings of your Lord will you both deny)