Allah the Exalted said,
(Do you not see what you sow.) in reference to tilling the earth and planting seeds inside it,
(Is it you that make it grow,) `do you cause these seeds to grow inside the earth,'
(or are We the Grower) Allah says, `rather it is We Who cause the seeds to remain firmly and grow inside the earth.' Ibn Jarir recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said,
(Do not say, "Zara`tu (I made it grew),'' but say, "Harathtu (I sowed tilled).'') Abu Hurayrah added, "Have you not heard Allah's statement,
(Do you not see what you sow. Is it you that make it grow, or are We the Grower)'' Allah the Exalted said,
(Were it Our will, We could crumble it to dry pieces,) meaning, `We caused the seeds to grow with Our compassion and mercy and left them intact inside the earth as mercy for you. If We will, We would turn them dry before they ripen and get ready to be harvested,'
(and you would be Tafakkahun.) Allah explained this statement by saying,
((Saying:) "We are indeed Mughramun! Nay, but we are deprived!'') Allah says, `if We crumble the plants into dry pieces, you would be wondering regarding what happened, sometimes saying: we are indeed Mughramun, i.e., ruined.' Mujahid and `Ikrimah said that Mughramun means, being the subject of revenge. Qatadah commented, "You would say, `We were punished,' sometimes, and, `We were deprived,' some other times.'' `Ikrimah said that `You will be Tafakkahun' means `You will blame each other (and yourselves),' or, feel sorrow, according to Al-Hasan, Qatadah and As-Suddi. They will be feeling grief for what they spent or for the sins that they have committed in the past (which cost the destruction of their plants). Al-Kisa'i said, "Tafakkaha is both the synonym and the antonym.'' The Arabs say Tafakkahtu when they mean that they have enjoyed something or felt grief. Allah the Exalted said next,
(Do you not see the water that you drink. Is it you who cause it to come down from Al-Muzn,) meaning clouds, according to Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid and others. Allah said,
(or are We the Causer of it to come down) Allah is stating that indeed He is the One Who causes the rain to fall,
(If We willed, We verily could make it salty;) meaning salty, sour, undrinkable and unfit for growing plants,
(why then do you not give thanks) `why do you not appreciate the favor Allah does for you by sending down the rain fresh, ready to consume,'
(From it you drink and from it (grows) the vegetation on which you send your cattle to pasture. With it He causes to grow for you the crops, the olives, the date palms, the grapes, and every kind of fruit. Verily, in this is indeed an evident proof and a manifest sign for people who give thought.)(16:10-11) Allah said,
(Do you not see the fire which you kindle.) `and the fire you start with the use of trees,'
(Is it you who made the tree thereof to grow, or are We the Grower) meaning, `rather We have made kindling fire possible.' The Arabs had two kinds of trees called Al-Markh and Al-`Afar (that they used to ignite a fire). When they would rub a green branch from each of these two trees against each other, sparkles of fire would emit from them. Allah's statement,
(We have made it a Reminder,) of the Hellfire, according to Mujahid and Qatadah. Qatadah said, "We were told that the Messenger of Allah said,
(O people, this fire of yours that you kindle, is but one part out of seventy parts of the fire of Hell.) They said, "O Allah's Messenger! This fire alone is sufficiently hot.'' The Messenger said,
(It was submerged in the water twice so that the Children of `Adam would be able to benefit from it and draw closer to it.) This narration from Qatadah which is Mursal, was recorded by Imam Ahmad in his Musnad from Abu Hurayrah, from the Prophet ;
(Verily, this fire of yours is one part out of seventy parts of the fire of Hell. It was struck twice against the sea, otherwise, Allah would not have made benefit in it for anyone.) Imam Malik also recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that Allah's Messenger said,
(The fire that the Children of `Adam kindle is one part out of seventy parts of the fire of Hell.) They said, "O Allah's Messenger! This fire alone is sufficiently hot.'' He said,
((The fire of Hell) was made sixty-nine times hotter.) Al-Bukhari collected this Hadith from Malik and Muslim from Abu Az-Zinad. Allah's statement,
(and an article of use for the Muqwin.) Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, Qatadah, Ad-Dahhak and An-Nadr bin `Arabi said, "The meaning of Al-Muqwin is travelers.'' This is also what Ibn Jarir chose, and he said, "From it comes the saying Aqwat Ad-Dar (the house has become empty), when its people traveled.'' `Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam said that here Al-Muqwi means the hungry. Layth bin Abi Sulaym reported that Mujahid said about the Ayah,
(and an article of use for the Muqwin.) "For those who are present at their homes and travelers, for every kind of food that requires cooking by fire.'' Ibn Abi Najih also reported that Mujahid said, "`For the Muqwin, means, all people who enjoy (eating food cooked by fire).'' Similar was mentioned from `Ikrimah, and this explanation is more general than the previous, since those who are in their own locale and traveling, whether rich or poor, all need fire for cooking, heating and lighting purposes. It is out of Allah's kindness that He has made the quality of kindling fire in some elements, such as stones, that people can use and take in the baggage for their journeys. When a traveler needs fire at his campsite for cooking and heating, he takes out these substances and uses them to kindle fire. He feels comfort next to the fire and he can use it for various needs that he has. Allah mentions this favor specifically in the case of travelers, even though everyone benefits from the fire. Allah's statement,
(Then glorify with praises the Name of your Lord, the Most Great.) meaning, the One by Whose ability these things opposites were created. He created the fresh tasty water, and had He willed, He would have created it salty like seawater. He also created the fire that burns, and made a benefit in it for the servants, suitable for their livelihood in this life and as a warning and a punishment for them in the Hereafter.
(75. Fala! I swear by the Mawaqi` of the stars.) (76. And verily that is indeed a great oath, if you but know.) (77. That (this) is indeed an honorable recitation.) (78. In a Book Maknun.) (79. Which none touches but the pure ones.) (80. A revelation from the Lord of all that exists.) (81. Is it such a talk that you are Mudhinun) (82. And you make your provision your denial!)
The usage of La (in Fala) is not an extra character without meaning, as some of the scholars of Tafsir say. Rather it is used at the beginning of an oath when the oath is a negation. This is like when `A'ishah (may Allah be pleased with her) said, "La by Allah! Allah's Messenger did not touch any woman's hand at all. So in this way, the meaning is, "No! I swear by the Mawaqi` of the stars. The matter is not as you people claim - about the Qur'an - that it is a result of magic or sorcery, rather it is an Honorable Qur'an.'' Ibn Jarir said, "Some of the scholars of the Arabic language said that the meaning of:
(Fala! I swear) is, `The matter is not as you people have claimed.' Then He renews the oath again by saying, `I swear.'''
(Fala! I swear by the Mawaqi` of the stars.) Mujahid said, "The setting positions of the stars in the sky,'' and he said that it refers to the rising and setting positions. This was said by Al-Hasan, Qatadah and preferred by Ibn Jarir. Qatadah also said that it means their positions. Allah said,
(And verily that is indeed a great oath, if you but know.) meaning, `this is a great vow that I -- Allah -- am making; if you knew the greatness of this vow, you will know the greatness of the subject of the vow,'
(That (this) is indeed an honorable recitation.) means, verily, this Qur'an that was revealed to Muhammad is a Glorious Book,
(In a Book Maknun.) meaning glorious; in a glorious, well-guarded, revered Book. Ibn Jarir narrated that Isma`il bin Musa said that Sharik reported from Hakim, that is Ibn Jubayr, from Sa`id bin Jubayr, from Ibn `Abbas that about:
(Which none touches but the pure ones.) he said, "The Book that is in heaven.'' Al-`Awfi reported from Ibn `Abbas about:
(Which none touches but the pure ones.) that `the pure ones' means: "The angels.'' Similar was said by Anas, Mujahid, `Ikrimah, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Ad-Dahhak, Abu Ash-Sha`tha' Jabir bin Zayd, Abu Nahik, As-Suddi, `Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam and others. Ibn Jarir narrated that Ibn `Abdul-A`la said that Ibn Thawr said that Ma`mar said from Qatadah about:
(Which none touches but the pure ones.) that he said, "None can touch it, with Allah, except the pure ones. However, in this life, the impure Zoroastrian and the filthy hypocrite touch it.'' And he said, "In the recitation of Ibn Mas`ud it is: (مَا يَمَسُّهُ إِلَّا الْمُطَهَّرُونَ) (It is not touched, except by the pure ones.) Abu Al-`Aliyah said:
(Which none touches but the pure ones.) "It does not refer to you, because you are sinners!'' Ibn Zayd said, "The Quraysh disbelievers claimed that the devils brought down the Qur'an. Allah the Exalted stated that only the pure ones touch the Qur'an, as He said:
(And it is not the Shayatin who have brought it down. Neither would it suit them nor they can (produce it). Verily, they have been removed far from hearing it.)(26:210-212)'' This saying is a good saying, and does not contradict those before it. Allah said,
(A revelation from the Lord of all that exists. ) meaning this Qur'an is a revelation from the Lord of all that exists, not as they say that it is magic, sorcery or poetry. Rather it is the truth, no doubt about it; there is none beyond it of useful truth. Allah's statement,
(Is it such a talk that you are Mudhinun) Al-`Awfi reported from Ibn `Abbas that Mudhinun means, "You do not believe in and deny.'' Similar to this was said by Ad-Dahhak, Abu Hazrah and As-Suddi. Mujahid said,
(Mudhinun) means "You want to fill yourselves with and rely upon.''
(And you make your provision your denial!) some of them said that provision here has the meaning of gratitude, meaning: you deny without any gratitude. `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported from Ibn `Abbas that he recited it as: (وَتَجْعَلُونَ شُكْرَكُمْ أَنَّكُمْ تُكَذِّبُونَ) (And your show of your gratitude by denying!) Ibn Jarir narrated from Muhammad bin Bashshar, who narrated from Muhammad bin Ja`far, who narrated from Shu`bah, from Abu Bishr, from Sa`id bin Jubayr who said that Ibn `Abbas said, "It has never rained upon a people except that some of them became disbelievers by saying, `Such and such position of a star sent rain!''' And Ibn `Abbas recited: (وَتَجْعَلُونَ شُكْرَكُمْ أَنَّكُمْ تُكَذِّبُونَ) (And you show of your gratitude by denying.) This chain of narration is Sahih to Ibn `Abbas. In his Muwatta', Malik reported from Salih bin Kaysan, from `Ubaydullah bin `Abdullah bin `Utbah bin Mas`ud, from Zayd bin Khalid Al-Juhani who said, "The Prophet led us in the Subh (dawn) prayer at Al-Hudaybiyah after a rainy night. On completion of the prayer, he faced the congregation and said,
(Do you know what your Lord has said (revealed)) Those present replied, `Allah and His Messenger know best.' He said,
(Allah has said, "During this morning some of my servants remained as true believers in Me and some became disbelievers. Whoever said that the rain was due to the blessings and the mercy of Allah, had belief in Me, and he disbelieves in the stars; and whoever said that it rained because of a particular star, had no belief in Me, but believes in that star.'')'' This Hadith is recorded in the Two Sahihs, Abu Dawud and An-Nasa'i, all using a chain of narration in which Imam Malik was included. Qatadah said, "Al-Hasan used to say, `How evil is that all that some people have earned for themselves from the Book of Allah, is denying it!''' Al-Hasan's statement means that such people gained no benefit from the Book of Allah because they denied it, as Allah said:
(Is it such a talk that you Mudhinun And you make your provision that you deny!)
(83. Then why do you not (intervene) when it reaches Al-Hulqum) (84. And you at the moment are looking,) (85. But We are nearer to him than you, but you see not,) (86. Then why do you not -- if you are not Madinin) (87. Return the soul, if you are truthful)
Allah the Exalted said,
(Then why do you not (intervene) when it reaches), in reference to the soul,
(Al-Hulqum), i.e., the throat, at the time of death. Allah the Exalted said in other Ayat,
(Nay, when (the soul) reaches to the collar bone, and it will be said: "Who can cure him (and save him from death)'' And he will conclude that it was (the time) of parting (death); And one leg will be joined with another leg (shrouded). The drive will be on that Day to your Lord (Allah).)(75:26-30) Allah said here,
(And you at the moment are looking,) at the dying person and witnessing the stupor of death that he is experiencing,
(But We are nearer to him than you, ) with Our angels,
(but you see not.) you cannot see the angels. Allah the Exalted said in another Ayah,
(He is the Irresistible over His servants, and He sends guardians (angels) over you, until when death approaches one of you, Our messengers (angel of death and his assistants) take his soul, and they never neglect their duty. Then they are returned to Allah, their true Protector. Surely, for Him is the judgment and He is the swiftest in taking account.)(6:61-62) Allah's statement,
(Then why do you not -- if you are not Madinin -- return the soul,) means, `Will you not return this soul, that has reached the throat, to its body as it used to be, if you are exempt from the reckoning and recompense' Sa`id bin Jubayr and Al-Hasan Al-Basri said:
(Then why do you not -- if you are not Madinin. ..), "If you do not believe that you will be reckoned, recompensed, resurrected and punished, then why do you not return this soul to its body'' Mujahid said that,
(...if you are not Madinin), means, "if you are not certain.''
(88. Then, if he be of the Muqarrabin,) (89. Then Rawh, Rayhan and a Garden of Delights.) (90. And if he be of those on the right,) (91. Then Salam (peace) to you from those on the right.) (92. But if he be of the denying, the erring,) (93. Then for him is an entertainment with Hamim.) (94. And entry in Hellfire.) (95. Verily, this! This is an absolute truth with certainty.) (96. So, glorify with praises the Name of your Lord, the Most Great.)
These are the three types of conditions that people face upon their death. Either they are among the near believers or those below their rank on the right, or those who denied the truth, were led astray from the guidance and were ignorant about Allah. Allah said,
(Then if he), in reference to the dying person,
(be of the Muqarrabun) who fulfilled the obligations and the recommended acts of worship and avoided the forbidden and disliked matters and even some of the allowed,
(then for him Rawh, Rayhan and a Garden of Delights.) Theirs will be Rawh and Rayhan; and the glad tidings of these traits will be conveyed to them by the angels at the time of death. We mentioned before the Prophet's Hadith narrated from Al-Bara' in which the angels of mercy say (to a dying, believing person),
(O good soul in the good body that you inhabited, come to Rawh, Rayhan and a Lord Who is not angry.) `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported from Ibn `Abbas, "Rawh means rest, and Rayhan means place of rest.'' Mujahid said similarly that Rawh means rest. Abu Hazrah said that Rawh means: "Rest from the world.'' Sa`id bin Jubayr and As-Suddi said that it means to rejoice. And from Mujahid:
(Rawh and Rayhan) means: "Paradise and delights.'' Qatadah said that Rawh means mercy. Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid and Sa`id bin Jubayr said that Rayhan means provisions. All of these explanations are correct and similar in meaning. The near believers who die will earn all of these; mercy, rest, provision, joy, happiness and good delights,
(and a Garden of Delights.) Abu Al-`Aliyah said, "None of the near believers will depart (this life) until after he is brought a branch of the Rayhan of Paradise and his soul is captured in it.'' Muhammad bin Ka`b said, "Every person who dies will know upon his death if he is among the people of Paradise or the people of the Fire.'' In the Sahih, it is recorded that the Messenger of Allah said,
(The souls of the martyrs live in the bodies of green birds flying wherever they wish in the Gardens of Paradise, and then rest to their nests in chandeliers hung from the Throne of the Almighty....) Imam Ahmad recorded that `Ata' bin As-Sa'ib said, "The first day I saw `Abdur-Rahman bin Abi Layla, I saw an old man whose hair had become white on his head and beard. He was riding his donkey and following a funeral. I heard him say, `So-and-so narrated to me that he heard the Messenger of Allah say,
(He who likes to meet Allah, Allah likes to meet him, and he who hates to meet Allah, Allah hates to meet him.) The people around him started weeping, and he asked them why they wept. They said, `All of us hate death.' He said,
(It does not mean that. When one dies: (Then, if he be of the near believers, then for him are Rawh, Rayhan, and a Garden of Delights.)( and when this good news is conveyed to him, he likes to meet Allah the Exalted and Most Honored and Allah the Exalted and Most Honored likes, even more, to meet him, (But if he be of the denying, the erring, then for him is an entertainment with Hamim. And entry in Hellfire.)( and when this news is conveyed to him, he hates to meet Allah and Allah hates, even more, to meet him.)'' This is the narration that Imam Ahmad collected; and in the Sahih, there is a Hadith with this meaning collected from `A'ishah. Allah's statement,
(And if he be of those on the right,) means, if he, the dying person, is among those on the right,
(Then Salam (peace) to you from those on the right) meaning, the angels will deliver the good news to them by saying, "Peace be upon you,'' i.e., be calm, you will be led to safety, you are among those on the right, as `Ikrimah said, "The angels will greet him with the Salam and convey to him the news that he is among those on the right. '' This is a good explanation, and it conforms with Allah's statement,
(Verily, those who say: "Our Lord is Allah.'' and then they stand firm, on them the angles will descend (at the time of their death) (saying): "Fear not, nor grieve! But receive the glad tidings of Paradise which you have been promised! We have been your friends in the life of this world and are (so) in the Hereafter. Therein you shall have (all) that your souls desire, and therein you shall have (all) for which you ask. An entertainment from the Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.'') (41:30-32). Allah's statement,
(But if he be of the denying, the erring, then for him is an entertainment with Hamim (boiling water) and entry in Hellfire.) meaning, if the dying person is one of those who denied the truth, who were led astray from guidance,
(then for him is an entertainment,) meaning, as a guest
(with Hamim) that dissolves his intestines and skin,
(And entry in Hellfire.) he will reside in Hellfire, which will engulf him from every direction. Allah the Exalted said, next,
(Verily, this! This is an absolute truth with certainty.) meaning, this news is the truth; there is no doubt about it, nor escape from it for anyone,
(So, glorify with praises the Name of your Lord, the Most Great.) Jabir narrated that the Messenger of Allah said,
(He who says, "Glory be to Allah the Magnificent and with His praise!'' then a date tree will be planted for him in Paradise.) This Hadith was collected by At-Tirmidhi and An-Nasa'i; At-Tirmidhi said, "Hasan Gharib.'' Al-Bukhari recorded in his book (Sahih) that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said,
((There are) two statements that are light on the tongue, but heavy on the Balance, and most beloved to Ar-Rahman: "Glory be to Allah and with His praise, glory be to Allah the Magnificent.'') The Group, with the exception of Abu Dawud, collected this. This is the end of the Tafsir of Surat Al-Waqi`ah, all praise and thanks are due to Allah and all the favors come from Him.
Imam Ahmad recorded that `Irbad bin Sariyah said that the Messenger of Allah used to recite Al-Musabbihat before he went to sleep, saying,
(In them there is an Ayah that is better than a thousand Ayat.) Abu Dawud, At-Tirmidhi and An-Nasa'i collected this Hadith; At-Tirmidhi said, "Hasan Gharib.'' The Ayah referred to in this Hadith is -- and Allah knows best --
(He is Al-Awwal and Al-Akhir, Az-Zahir and Al-Batin. And He is the All-Knower of everything.)(57:3) Allah willing, we will again mention this subject. Upon Allah we trust and our total reliance and dependence are on Him, and sufficient He is to us as Supporter and Helper.
In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.
(1. Whatever is in the heavens and the earth glorifies Allah -- and He is the Almighty, All-Wise.) (2. His is the kingdom of the heavens and the earth. It is He Who gives life and causes death; and He is Able to do all things.) (3. He is Al-Awwal and Al-Akhir, Az-Zahir and Al-Batin. And He is the All-Knower of everything.)