(Who is he that will lend Allah a handsome loan:) `Umar bin Al-Khattab said that this Ayah refers to spending in Allah's cause. It was also said that it pertains to spending on children. What is correct is that it is more general than that. So all those who spend in the cause of Allah with good intentions and a sincere heart, then they fall under the generality of this Ayah. This is why Allah the Exalted said in another Ayah:
(Who is he that will lend Allah handsome loan: then (Allah) will increase it manifold to his credit (in repaying),) and in another Ayah,
(many times) (2:245), meaning, being handsome reward and tremendous provisions: Paradise on the Day of Resurrection. Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that `Abdullah bin Mas`ud said, "When this Ayah,
(Who is he that will lend Allah handsome loan: then (Allah) will increase it manifold to his credit (in repaying),) was revealed, Abu Ad-Dahdah Al-Ansari said, `O Allah's Messenger! Does Allah ask us for a loan' The Prophet said,
(Yes, O Abu Ad-Dahdah.) He said, `Give me your hand, O Allah's Messenger,' and the Prophet placed his hand in his hand. Abu Ad-Dahdah said, `Verily, I have given my garden as a loan to my Lord.' He had a garden that contained six hundred date trees; his wife and children were living in that garden too. Abu Ad-Dahdah went to his wife and called her, `Umm Ad-Dahdah!' She said, `Here I am.' He said, `Leave the garden, because I have given it as a loan to my Lord, the Exalted and Most Honored.' She said, `That is a successful trade, O Abu Ad-Dahdah!' She then transferred her goods and children. The Messenger of Allah said,
(How plentiful are the sweet date clusters that Abu Ad-Dahdah has in Paradise!)'' In another narration, the Prophet said,
(How many a date tree that has lowered down its clusters, which are full of pearls and gems in Paradise for Abu Ad-Dahdah!)
(12. On the Day you shall see the believing men and the believing women -- their light running forward before them and in their right hands. Glad tidings for you this Day! Gardens under which rivers flow (Paradise), to dwell therein forever! Truly, this is the great success!) (13. On the Day when the hypocrites men and women will say to the believers: "Wait for us! Let us get something from your light!'' It will be said: "Go back to your rear! Then seek a light!'' So, a wall will be put up between them, with a gate therein. Inside it will be mercy, and outside it will be torment.) (14. (The hypocrites) will call the believers: "Were we not with you'' The believers will reply: "Yes! But you led yourselves into temptations, you looked forward to our destruction; and you doubted, and you were deceived by false hopes, till the command of Allah came to pass. And the deceiver deceived you in regard to Allah.'') (15. So, this Day no ransom shall be taken from you, nor of those who disbelieved. Your abode is the Fire. That is your protector, and worst indeed is that destination.)
Allah the Exalted states that the believers who spend in charity will come on the Day of Resurrection with their light preceding them in the area of the Gathering, according to the level of their good deeds. As reported from `Abdullah bin Mas`ud:
(their light running forward before them), he said, "They will pass over the Sirat according to their deeds. Some of them will have a light as large as a mountain, some as a date tree, some as big as a man in the standing position. The least among them has a light as big as his index finger, it is lit at times and extinguished at other times.'' Ibn Abi Hatim and Ibn Jarir collected this Hadith. Ad-Dahhak commented on the Ayah, "Everyone will be given a light on the Day of Resurrection. When they arrive at the Sirat, the light of the hypocrites will be extinguished. When the believers see this, they will be concerned that their light also will be extinguished, just as the light of the hypocrites was. This is when the believers will invoke Allah, `O our Lord! Perfect our light for us.''' Allah's statement,
(and in their right hands.) Ad-Dahhak said: "Their Books of Records.'' As Allah said:
(So whosoever is given his record in his right hand.)(17:71) Allah said,
(Glad tidings for you this Day! Gardens under which rivers flow,) meaning, it will be said to them, "Receive glad tidings this Day, of gardens beneath which rivers flow,
(to dwell therein forever!), you will remain therein forever,''
(Truly, this is the great success!)
(On the Day when the hypocrites men and women will say to the believers: "Wait for us! Let us get something from your light!'') Allah informs us in this Ayah of the terrible horrors, horrendous incidents and tremendous events that will take place on the Day of Resurrection in the Gathering Area. No one will be saved on that Day, except those who believed in Allah and His Messenger, obeyed Allah's commands and avoided His prohibitions. Al-`Awfi, Ad-Dahhak and others reported from Ibn `Abbas: "When the people are gathering in darkness, Allah will send light, and when the believers see the light they will march towards it. This light will be their guide from Allah to Paradise. When the hypocrites see the believers following the light, they will follow them. However, Allah will extinguish the light for the hypocrites and they will say (to the believers),
(Wait for us! Let us get something from your light.) The believers will reply by saying,
`(Go back to your rear!) to the dark area you were in, and look for a light there!''' Allah said,
(So, a wall will be put up between them, with a gate therein. Inside it will be mercy, and outside it will be torment.) Al-Hasan and Qatadah said that the wall mentioned here is located between Paradise and Hellfire. `Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam said that the wall mentioned in this Ayah is the wall that Allah described in His statement,
(And between them will be a (barrier) screen.)(7:46) Similar was reported from Mujahid and others, and it is correct. Allah said,
(Inside it will be mercy,) meaning, Paradise and all that is in it,
(and outside it will be torment.) meaning, the Hellfire, according to Qatadah, Ibn Zayd and others. Allah said,
((The hypocrites) will call the believers: "Were we not with you'') meaning, the hypocrites will call out to the believers saying, "Were we not with you in the life of the world, attending Friday prayers and congregational prayers Did we not stand with you on Mount `Arafah (during Hajj), participate in battle by your side and perform all types of acts of worship with you''
(The believers will reply: "Yes!...'') The believers will answer the hypocrites by saying, "Yes, you were with us,
(But you led yourselves into temptations, you looked forward to our destruction; and you doubted (in faith) and you were deceived by false hopes,) '' Qatadah said,
(you looked forward to destruction), "Of the truth and its people.''
(and you doubted,) that Resurrection occurs after death,
(and you were deceived by false hopes,) meaning: you said that you will be forgiven your sins; or, they say it means: this life deceived you;
(till the command of Allah came to pass.) meaning: you remained on this path until death came to you,
(And the deceiver deceived you in regard to Allah.) `the deceiver' being Shaytan. Qatadah said, "They were deceived by Ash-Shaytan. By Allah! They remained deceived until Allah cast them into Hellfire.'' The meaning here is that the believers will answer the hypocrites by saying, "You were with us in bodies which were heartless and devoid of intentions. You were cast in doubt and suspicion. You were showing off for people and remembered Allah, little.'' Mujahid commented, "The hypocrites were with the believers in this life, marrying from among each other, yet betraying them even when they were associating with them. They were dead. They will both be given a light on the Day of Resurrection, but the light of the hypocrites will be extinguished when they reach the wall; this is when the two camps separate and part!'' Allah's statement,
(Your abode is the Fire.) means, the Fire is your final destination and to it will be your return for residence,
(That is your protector,) meaning, it is the worthy shelter for you rather than any other residence, because of your disbelief and doubt, and how evil is the Fire for Final Destination.
(16. Has not the time yet come for the believers that their hearts should be humble for the remembrance of Allah And that which has been revealed of the truth, lest they become as those who received the Scripture before, and the term was prolonged for them and so their hearts were hardened And many of them were rebellious.) (17. Know that Allah gives life to the earth after its death! Indeed We have made clear the Ayat to you, if you but understand.)
Allah asks, `Has not the time come for the believers to feel humility in their hearts by the remembrance of Allah and hearing subtle advice and the recitation of the Qur'an, so that they may comprehend the Qur'an, abide by it, and hear and obey Muslim recorded that `Abdullah bin Mas`ud said, "Only four years separated our acceptance of Islam and the revelation of this Ayah, in which Allah subtly admonished us,
(Has not the time yet come for the believers that their hearts should be humble for the remembrance of Allah)'' This is the narration Muslim collected, just before the end of his book. An-Nasa'i also collected this Hadith in the Tafsir of this Ayah. Allah's statement,
(Lest they become as those who received the Scripture before, and the term was prolonged for them and so their hearts were hardened) Allah is prohibiting the believers from imitating those who were given the Scriptures before them, the Jews and Christians. As time passed, they changed the Book of Allah that they had, and sold it for a small, miserable price. They also abandoned Allah's Book behind their back and were impressed and consumed by various opinions and false creeds. They imitated the way others behaved with the religion of Allah, making their rabbis and priests into gods beside Allah. Consequently, their hearts became hard and they would not accept advice; their hearts did not feel humbled by Allah's promises or threats,
(And many of them were rebellious.) meaning, in action; therefore, their hearts are corrupt and their actions are invalid, just as Allah the Exalted said,
(So, because of their breach of their covenant, We cursed them and made their hearts grow hard. They changed the words from their (right) places and have abandoned a good part of the Message that was sent to them.)(5:13) meaning, their hearts became corrupt and they hardened, and they acquired the behavior of changing Allah's Speech from their appropriate places and meanings. They abandoned acts of worship that they were commanded to perform and committed what they were prohibited to do. This is why Allah forbade the believers from imitating them in any way, be it basic or detailed matters. Allah the Exalted said,
(Know that Allah gives life to the earth after its death! Indeed We have made clear the Ayat to you, if you but understand.) This Ayah indicates that He brings subtleness to hearts after they have become hard, guides the confused after they were led astray, and relieves hardships after they have intensified. And just as Allah brings life back to the dead and dry earth by sending the needed abundant rain, He also guides the hardened hearts with the proofs and evidences of the Qur'an. The light (of faith) would have access to the hearts once again, after they were closed and, as a consequence, no guidance was able to reach them. All praise is due to Him Who guides whomever He wills after they were misguided, Who misguides those who were led aright before. Surely, it is He Who does what He wills and He is the All-Wise, the Most Just in all that He does, the Most Subtle, the Most Aware, the Most High, the Proud.
(18. Verily, those who give Sadaqat, men and women, and lend Allah handsome loan, it shall be increased manifold (to their credit), and theirs shall be an honorable good reward.) (19. And those who believe in Allah and His Messengers. they are the Siddiqun (true believers) and the martyrs with their Lord. They shall have their reward and their light. But those who disbelieve and deny Our Ayat -- they shall be the dwellers of the blazing Fire.)