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Chastising the Hypocrites

Allah chastises the hypocrites for secretly aiding and supporting the disbelievers even though, in reality, they were neither with the disbelievers nor with the Muslims. Allah the Exalted said in another Ayah,

﴿ مُّذَبۡذَبِينَ بَيۡنَ ذَٲلِكَ لَآ إِلَىٰ هَـٰٓؤُلَآءِ وَلَآ إِلَىٰ هَـٰٓؤُلَآءِ‌ۚ وَمَن يُضۡلِلِ ٱللَّهُ فَلَن تَجِدَ لَهُ ۥ سَبِيلاً۬

((They are) swaying between this and that, belonging neither to these nor to those; and he whom Allah sends astray, you will not find for him a way.)(4:143) Allah said here,

﴿ أَلَمۡ تَرَ إِلَى ٱلَّذِينَ تَوَلَّوۡاْ قَوۡمًا غَضِبَ ٱللَّهُ عَلَيۡہِم

(Have you not seen those who take as friends a people upon whom is the wrath of Allah) referring to the Jews with whom the hypocrites were allies in secret. Allah said,

﴿ مَّا هُم مِّنكُمۡ وَلَا مِنۡہُمۡ

(They are neither of you nor of them,) meaning, that these hypocrites are neither with the believers, nor with their allies the Jews,

﴿ وَيَحۡلِفُونَ عَلَى ٱلۡكَذِبِ وَهُمۡ يَعۡلَمُونَ

(and they swear to a lie while they know.) meaning, the hypocrites lie when they vow, knowing that they are lying, which is called the vow of Al-Ghamus. We seek refuge with Allah from their ways. When the hypocrites met the believers they said that they believed and when they went to the Messenger, they swore to him by Allah that they were believers. They knew that they were lying in their vow, and they knew that they did not declare their true creed. This is why Allah witnessed here that they lie in their vows and know that they are lying, even though their statement (about the Prophet being Allah's Prophet) is true in essence. Allah the Exalted said,

﴿ أَعَدَّ ٱللَّهُ لَهُمۡ عَذَابً۬ا شَدِيدًا‌ۖ إِنَّهُمۡ سَآءَ مَا كَانُواْ يَعۡمَلُونَ

(Allah has prepared for them a severe torment. Evil indeed is that which they used to do.) meaning, Allah has prepared a painful torment for the hypocrites on account of their evil deeds, their aid and support of the disbelievers and their deceit and betrayal of the believers. The statement of Allah the Exalted,

﴿ ٱتَّخَذُوٓاْ أَيۡمَـٰنَہُمۡ جُنَّةً۬ فَصَدُّواْ عَن سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِ

(They have made their oaths a screen. Thus they hinder (others) from the path of Allah,) meaning, the hypocrites pretended to be believers and concealed disbelief under the shield of their false oaths. Many were unaware of their true stance and were thus deceived by their oaths. Because of this, some people were hindered from the Path of Allah

﴿ فَلَهُمۡ عَذَابٌ۬ مُّهِينٌ۬

(so they shall have a humiliating torment.) meaning, as recompense for belittling the significance of swearing by the Mighty Name of Allah, while lying and concealing betrayal. Allah the Exalted said,

﴿ لَن تُغۡنِىَ عَنۡهُمۡ أَمۡوَٲلُهُمۡ وَلَآ أَوۡلَـٰدُهُم مِّنَ ٱللَّهِ شَيۡـًٔ۬ا‌ۖ

(Their children and their wealth will avail them nothing against Allah.) meaning, none of their possessions can avert the affliction when it is sent their way,

﴿ وَأُوْلَـٰٓٮِٕكَ أَصۡحَـٰبُ ٱلنَّارِ‌ۖ هُمۡ فِيهَا خَـٰلِدُونَ

(They will be the dwellers of the Fire to dwell therein forever.) Allah the Exalted said,

﴿ يَوۡمَ يَبۡعَثُهُمُ ٱللَّهُ جَمِيعً۬ا

(On the Day when Allah will resurrect them all together;) referring to the Day of Resurrection when He will gather them all together and leave none of them out,

﴿ فَيَحۡلِفُونَ لَهُ ۥ كَمَا يَحۡلِفُونَ لَكُمۡ‌ۖ وَيَحۡسَبُونَ أَنَّہُمۡ عَلَىٰ شَىۡءٍ‌ۚ

(then they will swear to Him as they swear to you. And they think that they have something.) meaning, they will swear to Allah the Exalted and Most Honored that they were following the guidance and the correct path, just as they used to swear to the believers in this worldly life. Verily, those who live following on a certain path will most likely die while on it. Thus, they will be resurrected upon their path. The hypocrites will think that their vows will help them with Allah, just as they helped with the people, who were obliged to treat them as they pretended to be, Muslim. This is why Allah said,

﴿ وَيَحۡسَبُونَ أَنَّہُمۡ عَلَىٰ شَىۡءٍ‌ۚ

(And they think that they have something) meaning, on account of swearing to their Lord (that they used to be believers). Allah rebukes this idea of theirs;

﴿ أَلَآ إِنَّہُمۡ هُمُ ٱلۡكَـٰذِبُونَ

(Verily, they are liars!) stressing that they are lying, Allah then said;

﴿ ٱسۡتَحۡوَذَ عَلَيۡهِمُ ٱلشَّيۡطَـٰنُ فَأَنسَٮٰهُمۡ ذِكۡرَ ٱللَّهِ‌ۚ

(The Shaytan has overpowered them. So he has made them forget the remembrance of Allah.) meaning, Shaytan has taken over their hearts to the point that he made them forget Allah the Exalted and Most Honored. This is what the devil does to those whom he controls. Abu Dawud recorded that Abu Ad-Darda' said that he heard the Messenger of Allah say,

« مَا مِنْ ثَلَاثَةٍ فِي قَرْيَةٍ وَلَا بَدْوٍ، لَا تُقَامُ فِيهِمُ الصَّلَاةُ إِلَّا قَدِ اسْتَحْوَذَ عَلَيْهِمُ الشَّيْطَانُ، فَعَلَيْكَ بِالْجَمَاعَةِ، فَإِنَّمَا يَأْكُلُ الذِّئْبُ الْقَاصِيَة »

(Any three in a village or desert among whom the Salah is not called for, will have the Shaytan control them. Therefore, adhere to the Jama`ah, for the wolf eats from the strayed sheep.) Za'idah added that As-Sa'ib said that Jama`ah, refers to, "Praying in congregation.'' Allah the Exalted said,

﴿ أُوْلَـٰٓٮِٕكَ حِزۡبُ ٱلشَّيۡطَـٰنِ‌ۚ

(They are the party of Shaytan.) referring to those who are controlled by the devil and, as a result, forgot the remembrance of Allah,

﴿ أَلَآ إِنَّ حِزۡبَ ٱلشَّيۡطَـٰنِ هُمُ ٱلۡخَـٰسِرُونَ

(Verily, it is the party of Shaytan that will be the losers!)

﴿ إِنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ يُحَآدُّونَ ٱللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ ۥۤ أُوْلَـٰٓٮِٕكَ فِى ٱلۡأَذَلِّينَ ڪَتَبَ ٱللَّهُ لَأَغۡلِبَنَّ أَنَا۟ وَرُسُلِىٓ‌ۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ قَوِىٌّ عَزِيزٌ۬ لَّا تَجِدُ قَوۡمً۬ا يُؤۡمِنُونَ بِٱللَّهِ وَٱلۡيَوۡمِ ٱلۡأَخِرِ يُوَآدُّونَ مَنۡ حَآدَّ ٱللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ ۥ وَلَوۡ ڪَانُوٓاْ ءَابَآءَهُمۡ أَوۡ أَبۡنَآءَهُمۡ أَوۡ إِخۡوَٲنَهُمۡ أَوۡ عَشِيرَتَہُمۡ‌ۚ أُوْلَـٰٓٮِٕكَ ڪَتَبَ فِى قُلُوبِہِمُ ٱلۡإِيمَـٰنَ وَأَيَّدَهُم بِرُوحٍ۬ مِّنۡهُ‌ۖ وَيُدۡخِلُهُمۡ جَنَّـٰتٍ۬ تَجۡرِى مِن تَحۡتِہَا ٱلۡأَنۡهَـٰرُ خَـٰلِدِينَ فِيهَا‌ۚ رَضِىَ ٱللَّهُ عَنۡہُمۡ وَرَضُواْ عَنۡهُ‌ۚ أُوْلَـٰٓٮِٕكَ حِزۡبُ ٱللَّهِ‌ۚ أَلَآ إِنَّ حِزۡبَ ٱللَّهِ هُمُ ٱلۡمُفۡلِحُونَ

(20. Those who oppose Allah and His Messenger, they will be among those most humiliated.) (21. Allah has decreed: "Verily, I and My Messengers shall be the victorious.'' Verily, Allah is All-Powerful, Almighty.) (22. You will not find any people who believe in Allah and the Last Day, making friendship with those who oppose Allah and His Messenger, even though they were their fathers or their sons or their brothers or their kindred. For such He has written faith in their hearts, and strengthened them with Ruh from Himself. And He will admit them to Gardens under which rivers flow, to dwell therein (forever). Allah is well pleased with them, and they are well pleased with Him. They are the party of Allah. Verily, the party of Allah will be the successful.)

The Opponents of Allah and His Messenger are the Losers;

Allah and His Messenger shall prevail Allah the Exalted asserts that the rebellious and stubborn disbelievers who defy Him and His Messenger , those who do not embrace the religion and stay away from Truth, are in one area, while the guidance is in another area,

﴿ أُوْلَـٰٓٮِٕكَ فِى ٱلۡأَذَلِّينَ

(They will be among those most humiliated.) they are among the miserable, the cast out, banished from goodness; they are the humiliated ones in this life and the Hereafter. Allah said,

﴿ ڪَتَبَ ٱللَّهُ لَأَغۡلِبَنَّ أَنَا۟ وَرُسُلِىٓ‌ۚ

(Allah has decreed: "Verily, I and My Messengers shall be the victorious.'') meaning, He has decreed, written in the First Book, and decided in the decree that He has willed -- which can never be resisted, changed or prevented -- that final victory is for Him, His Book, His Messengers and the faithful believers, in this life and the Hereafter:

﴿ إِنَّ ٱلۡعَـٰقِبَةَ لِلۡمُتَّقِينَ

(Surely, the (good) end is for those who have Taqwa.)(11:49),

﴿ إِنَّا لَنَنصُرُ رُسُلَنَا وَٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ فِى ٱلۡحَيَوٰةِ ٱلدُّنۡيَا وَيَوۡمَ يَقُومُ ٱلۡأَشۡهَـٰدُ يَوۡمَ لَا يَنفَعُ ٱلظَّـٰلِمِينَ مَعۡذِرَتُہُمۡۖ وَلَهُمُ ٱللَّعۡنَةُ وَلَهُمۡ سُوٓءُ ٱلدَّارِ

(Verily, We will indeed make victorious Our Messengers and those who believe in the life of this world and on the Day when the witnesses will stand forth, the Day when their excuses will be of no profit to the wrongdoers. Theirs will be the curse, and theirs will be the evil abode.)(40:51-52) Allah said here,

﴿ ڪَتَبَ ٱللَّهُ لَأَغۡلِبَنَّ أَنَا۟ وَرُسُلِىٓ‌ۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ قَوِىٌّ عَزِيزٌ۬ َ

(Allah has decreed: "Verily, I and My Messengers shall be the victorious.'' Verily, Allah is All-Powerful, Almighty.) meaning, the Almighty, All-Powerful has decreed that He shall prevail over His enemies. Indeed, this is the final judgment and a matter ordained; the final triumph and victory are for the believers in this life and the Hereafter

The Believers do not befriend the Disbelievers

Allah the Exalted said,

﴿ لَّا تَجِدُ قَوۡمً۬ا يُؤۡمِنُونَ بِٱللَّهِ وَٱلۡيَوۡمِ ٱلۡأَخِرِ يُوَآدُّونَ مَنۡ حَآدَّ ٱللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ ۥ وَلَوۡ ڪَانُوٓاْ ءَابَآءَهُمۡ أَوۡ أَبۡنَآءَهُمۡ أَوۡ إِخۡوَٲنَهُمۡ أَوۡ عَشِيرَتَہُمۡ‌ۚ

(You will not find any people who believe in Allah and the Last Day, making friendship with those who oppose Allah and His Messenger, even though they were their fathers or their sons or their brothers or their kindred.) Meaning, do not befriend the deniers, even if they are among the closest relatives. Allah said,

﴿ لَّا يَتَّخِذِ ٱلۡمُؤۡمِنُونَ ٱلۡكَـٰفِرِينَ أَوۡلِيَآءَ مِن دُونِ ٱلۡمُؤۡمِنِينَ‌ۖ وَمَن يَفۡعَلۡ ذَٲلِكَ فَلَيۡسَ مِنَ ٱللَّهِ فِى شَىۡءٍ إِلَّآ أَن تَتَّقُواْ مِنۡهُمۡ تُقَٮٰةً۬‌ۗ وَيُحَذِّرُڪُمُ ٱللَّهُ نَفۡسَهُ ۥ‌ۗ

(Let not the believers take the disbelievers as friends instead of the believers, and whoever does that will never be helped by Allah in any way, except if you indeed fear a danger from them. And Allah warns you against Himself.) (3:28), and,

﴿ قُلۡ إِن كَانَ ءَابَآؤُكُمۡ وَأَبۡنَآؤُڪُمۡ وَإِخۡوَٲنُكُمۡ وَأَزۡوَٲجُكُمۡ وَعَشِيرَتُكُمۡ وَأَمۡوَٲلٌ ٱقۡتَرَفۡتُمُوهَا وَتِجَـٰرَةٌ۬ تَخۡشَوۡنَ كَسَادَهَا وَمَسَـٰكِنُ تَرۡضَوۡنَهَآ أَحَبَّ إِلَيۡڪُم مِّنَ ٱللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِۦ وَجِهَادٍ۬ فِى سَبِيلِهِۦ فَتَرَبَّصُواْ حَتَّىٰ يَأۡتِىَ ٱللَّهُ بِأَمۡرِهِۦ‌ۗ وَٱللَّهُ لَا يَہۡدِى ٱلۡقَوۡمَ ٱلۡفَـٰسِقِينَ

(Say: If your fathers, your sons, your brothers, your wives, your kindred, the wealth that you have gained, the commerce in which you fear a decline, and the dwellings in which you delight are dearer to you than Allah and His Messenger, and striving hard and fighting in His cause, then wait until Allah brings about His decision (torment). And Allah guides not the people who are the rebellious.)(9:24) Sa`id bin `Abdul-`Aziz and others said that this Ayah,

﴿ لَّا تَجِدُ قَوۡمً۬ا يُؤۡمِنُونَ بِٱللَّهِ وَٱلۡيَوۡمِ ٱلۡأَخِرِ

(You will not find any people who believe in Allah and the Last Day...) was revealed in the case of Abu `Ubaydah `Amir bin `Abdullah bin Al-Jarrah when he killed his disbelieving father, during the battle of Badr. This is why when `Umar bin Al-Khattab placed the matter of Khilafah in the consultation of six men after him, he said; "If Abu `Ubaydah were alive, I would have appointed him the Khalifah.'' It was also said that the Ayah,

﴿ وَلَوۡ ڪَانُوٓاْ ءَابَآءَهُمۡ

(even though they were their fathers), was revealed in the case of Abu `Ubaydah, when he killed his father during the battle of Badr, while the Ayah,

﴿ أَوۡ أَبۡنَآءَهُمۡ

(or their sons) was revealed in the case of Abu Bakr As-Siddiq when he intended to kill his (disbelieving) son, `Abdur-Rahman, (during Badr), while the Ayah,

﴿ أَوۡ إِخۡوَٲنَهُمۡ

(or their brothers) was revealed about the case of Mus`ab bin `Umayr, who killed his brother, `Ubayd bin `Umayr, during Badr, and that the Ayah,

﴿ أَوۡ عَشِيرَتَہُمۡ‌ۚ

(or their kindred) was revealed about the case of `Umar, who killed one of his relatives during Badr, and also that this Ayah was revealed in the case of Hamzah, `Ali and Ubaydah bin Al-Harith. They killed their close relatives `Utbah, Shaybah and Al-Walid bin `Utbah that day. Allah knows best. A similar matter is when Allah's Messenger consulted with his Companions about what should be done with the captives of Badr. Abu Bakr As-Siddiq thought that they should accept ransom for them so the Muslims could use the money to strengthen themselves. He mentioned the fact that the captured were the cousins and the kindred, and that they might embrace Islam later on, by Allah's help. `Umar said, "But I have a different opinion, O Allah's Messenger! Let me kill so-and-so, my relative, and let `Ali kill `Aqil (`Ali's brother), and so-and-so kill so-and-so. Let us make it known to Allah that we have no mercy in our hearts for the idolaters.'' Allah said,

﴿ أُوْلَـٰٓٮِٕكَ ڪَتَبَ فِى قُلُوبِہِمُ ٱلۡإِيمَـٰنَ وَأَيَّدَهُم بِرُوحٍ۬ مِّنۡهُ‌ۖ

(For such He has written faith in their hearts, and strengthened them with Ruh from Himself.) means, those who have the quality of not befriending those who oppose Allah and His Messenger , even if they are their fathers or brothers, are those whom Allah has decreed faith, meaning, happiness, in their hearts and made faith dear to their hearts and happiness reside therein. As-Suddi said that the Ayah,

﴿ ڪَتَبَ فِى قُلُوبِہِمُ ٱلۡإِيمَـٰنَ

(He has written faith in their hearts,) means, "He has placed faith in their hearts.'' Ibn `Abbas said that,

﴿ وَأَيَّدَهُم بِرُوحٍ۬ مِّنۡهُ‌ۖ

(and strengthened them with Ruh from Himself.) means, "He gave them strengths.'' Allah's statement,

﴿ وَيُدۡخِلُهُمۡ جَنَّـٰتٍ۬ تَجۡرِى مِن تَحۡتِہَا ٱلۡأَنۡهَـٰرُ خَـٰلِدِينَ فِيهَا‌ۚ رَضِىَ ٱللَّهُ عَنۡہُمۡ وَرَضُواْ عَنۡهُ‌ۚ

(And He will admit them to Gardens under which rivers flow, to dwell therein. Allah is well pleased with them, and they are well pleased with Him.) was explained several times before. Allah's statement,

﴿ رَضِىَ ٱللَّهُ عَنۡہُمۡ وَرَضُواْ عَنۡهُ‌ۚ

(Allah is well pleased with them, and they are well pleased with Him.) contains a beautiful secret. When the believers became enraged against their relatives and kindred in Allah's cause, He compensated them by being pleased with them and making them pleased with Him from what He has granted them of eternal delight, ultimate victory and encompassing favor. Allah's statement,

﴿ أُوْلَـٰٓٮِٕكَ حِزۡبُ ٱللَّهِ‌ۚ أَلَآ إِنَّ حِزۡبَ ٱللَّهِ هُمُ ٱلۡمُفۡلِحُونَ

(They are the party of Allah. Verily, the party of Allah will be the successful.) indicates that they are the party of Allah, meaning, His servants who are worthy of earning His honor. Allah's statement,

﴿ أَلَآ إِنَّ حِزۡبَ ٱللَّهِ هُمُ ٱلۡمُفۡلِحُونَ

(Verily, the party of Allah will be the successful.) asserts their success, happiness and triumph in this life and the Hereafter, in contrast to those, who are the party of the devil,

﴿ أَلَآ إِنَّ حِزۡبَ ٱلشَّيۡطَـٰنِ هُمُ ٱلۡخَـٰسِرُونَ

(Verily, the party of Shaytan will be the losers!) This is the end of the Tafsir of Surat Al-Mujadilah. All praise and thanks are due to Allah.

Which was revealed in Al-Madinah

Ibn `Abbas used to call this chapter, `Surah Bani An-Nadir.' Sa`id bin Mansur recorded that Sa`id bin Jubayr said, "I asked Ibn `Abbas about Surat Al-Hashr and he said, `It was revealed about Bani An-Nadir.''' Al-Bukhari and Muslim recorded it using another chain of narration from Ibn `Abbas. Al-Bukhari also recorded it from Abu `Awanah, from Abu Bishr from Sa`id bin Jubayr, who said, "I asked Ibn `Abbas, `Surat Al-Hashr' He said, `Surah Bani An-Nadir.'''

﴿ بِسۡمِ ٱللَّهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

﴿ سَبَّحَ لِلَّهِ مَا فِى ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَمَا فِى ٱلۡأَرۡضِ‌ۖ وَهُوَ ٱلۡعَزِيزُ ٱلۡحَكِيمُ هُوَ ٱلَّذِىٓ أَخۡرَجَ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ مِنۡ أَهۡلِ ٱلۡكِتَـٰبِ مِن دِيَـٰرِهِمۡ لِأَوَّلِ ٱلۡحَشۡرِ‌ۚ مَا ظَنَنتُمۡ أَن يَخۡرُجُواْ‌ۖ وَظَنُّوٓاْ أَنَّهُم مَّانِعَتُهُمۡ حُصُونُہُم مِّنَ ٱللَّهِ فَأَتَٮٰهُمُ ٱللَّهُ مِنۡ حَيۡثُ لَمۡ يَحۡتَسِبُواْ‌ۖ وَقَذَفَ فِى قُلُوبِہِمُ ٱلرُّعۡبَ‌ۚ يُخۡرِبُونَ بُيُوتَہُم بِأَيۡدِيہِمۡ وَأَيۡدِى ٱلۡمُؤۡمِنِينَ فَٱعۡتَبِرُواْ يَـٰٓأُوْلِى ٱلۡأَبۡصَـٰرِ وَلَوۡلَآ أَن كَتَبَ ٱللَّهُ عَلَيۡهِمُ ٱلۡجَلَآءَ لَعَذَّبَہُمۡ فِى ٱلدُّنۡيَا‌ۖ وَلَهُمۡ فِى ٱلۡأَخِرَةِ عَذَابُ ٱلنَّارِ ذَٲلِكَ بِأَنَّہُمۡ شَآقُّواْ ٱللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ ۥ‌ۖ وَمَن يُشَآقِّ ٱللَّهَ فَإِنَّ ٱللَّهَ شَدِيدُ ٱلۡعِقَابِ مَا قَطَعۡتُم مِّن لِّينَةٍ أَوۡ تَرَڪۡتُمُوهَا قَآٮِٕمَةً عَلَىٰٓ أُصُولِهَا فَبِإِذۡنِ ٱللَّهِ وَلِيُخۡزِىَ ٱلۡفَـٰسِقِينَ

(1. Whatsoever is in the heavens and whatsoever is on the earth glorifies Allah. And He is the Almighty, the All-Wise.) (2. He it is Who drove out the disbelievers among the People of the Scripture from their homes at the first gathering. You did not think that they would get out. And they thought that their fortresses would defend them from Allah! But Allah reached them from a place whereof they expected it not, and He cast terror into their hearts so that they demolished their own dwellings with their own hands and the hands of the believers. Then take admonition, O you with eyes.) (3. And had it not been that Allah had decreed exile for them, He would certainly have punished them in this world; and in the Hereafter theirs shall be the torment of the Fire.) (4. That is because they opposed Allah and His Messenger. And whosoever opposes Allah, then verily, Allah is Severe in punishment.) (5. What you cut down of the Linah, or you left them standing on their stems, it was by leave of Allah, and in order that He might disgrace the rebellious.)