;
Selflessness of the Ansar

Allah said,

﴿ وَيُؤۡثِرُونَ عَلَىٰٓ أَنفُسِہِمۡ وَلَوۡ كَانَ بِہِمۡ خَصَاصَةٌ۬‌ۚ

(and give them preference over themselves even though they were in need of that.) meaning, they preferred giving to the needy rather than attending to their own needs, and began by giving the people before their own selves, even though they too were in need. An authentic Hadith stated that the Messenger of Allah said,

« أَفْضَلُ الصَّدَقَةِ جُهْدُ الْمُقِل »

(The best charity is that given when one is in need and struggling.) This exalted rank is better than the rank of those whom Allah described in His statements,

﴿ وَيُطۡعِمُونَ ٱلطَّعَامَ عَلَىٰ حُبِّهِۦ

(And they give food, in spite of their love for it.)(76:8), and,

﴿ وَءَاتَى ٱلۡمَالَ عَلَىٰ حُبِّهِۦ

(And gives his wealth, in spite of love for it.)(2:177) The latter give charity even though they love the wealth they give, not that they really need it, nor that it is necessary for them to keep it. The former prefer others to themselves even though they are in need and have a necessity for what they spend in charity. Abu Bakr As-Siddiq gave away all his wealth in charity and Allah's Messenger asked him,

« مَا أَبْقَيْتَ لِأَهْلِكَ؟ »

(What did you keep for your family,) and he said, "I kept for them Allah and His Messenger.'' `Ikrimah (bin Abi Jahl) and two other wounded fighters were offered water when they were injured during the battle of Al-Yarmuk, and each one of them said that the sip of water should be given to another of the three wounded men. They did so even though they were badly injured and craving water. When the water reached the third man, he and the other two died and none of them drank any of the water! May Allah be pleased with them and make them pleased with Him. Al-Bukhari recorded that Abu Hurayrah said, "A man came to the Prophet and said, `O Allah's Messenger! Poverty has stuck me.' The Prophet sent a messenger to his wives (to bring something for that man to eat) but they said that they had nothing. Then Allah's Messenger said,

« أَلَا رَجُلٌ يُضَيِّفُ هَذَا، اللَّيْلَةَ، رَحِمَهُ الله »

(Who will invite this person or entertain him as a guest tonight; may Allah grant His mercy to him who does so) An Ansari man said, `I, O Allah's Messenger!' So he took him to his wife and said to her, `Entertain the guest of Allah's Messenger generously.' She said, `By Allah! We have nothing except the meal for my children.' He said, `Let your children sleep if they ask for supper. Then turn off the lamp and we go to bed tonight while hungry.' She did what he asked her to do. In the morning the Ansari went to Allah's Messenger who said,

« لَقَدْ عَجِبَ اللهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ أَوْ ضَحِكَ مِنْ فُلَانٍ وَفُلَانَة »

(Allah wondered (favorably) or laughed at the action of so-and-so and his wife.) Then Allah revealed,

﴿ وَيُؤۡثِرُونَ عَلَىٰٓ أَنفُسِہِمۡ وَلَوۡ كَانَ بِہِمۡ خَصَاصَةٌ۬‌ۚ

(and they give them preference over themselves even though they were in need of that). '' Al-Bukhari recorded this Hadith in another part of his Sahih. Muslim, At-Tirmidhi, An-Nasa'i collected this Hadith. In another narration for this Hadith, the Companion's name was mentioned, it was Abu Talhah Al-Ansari, (may Allah be pleased with him). Allah said,

﴿ وَمَن يُوقَ شُحَّ نَفۡسِهِۦ فَأُوْلَـٰٓٮِٕكَ هُمُ ٱلۡمُفۡلِحُونَ

(And whosoever is saved from his own greed, such are they who will be the successful.) indicating that those who are saved from being stingy, then they have earned success and a good achievement. Imam Ahmad recorded that Jabir bin `Abdullah said that the Messenger of Allah said,

« إِيَّاكُمْ وَالظُّلْمَ، فَإِنَّ الظُّلْمَ ظُلُمَاتٌ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ، وَاتَّقُوا الشُّحَّ، فَإِنَّ الشُّحَّ أَهْلَكَ مَنْ كَانَ قَبْلَكُمْ، حَمَلَهُمْ عَلى أَنْ سَفَكُوا دِمَاءَهُمْ وَاسْتَحَلُّوا مَحَارِمَهُم »

(Be on your guard against committing oppression, for oppression is a darkness on the Day of Resurrection. Be on your guard against being stingy, for being stingy is what destroyed those who were before you. It made them shed blood and make lawful what was unlawful for them.) Muslim collected this Hadith. Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Al-Aswad bin Hilal said that a man said to `Abdullah (bin Mas`ud),"O Abu `Abdur-Rahman! I fear that I have earned destruction for myself.'' `Abdullah asked him what the matter was and he said, "I hear Allah's saying,

﴿ وَمَن يُوقَ شُحَّ نَفۡسِهِۦ فَأُوْلَـٰٓٮِٕكَ هُمُ ٱلۡمُفۡلِحُونَ

(And whosoever is saved from his own greed, such are they who will be the successful.) and I am somewhat a miser who barely gives away anything.'' `Abdullah said, "That is not the greed Allah mentioned in the Qur'an, which pertains to illegally consuming your brother's wealth. What you have is miserliness, and it is an evil thing indeed to be a miser.'' Allah said,

﴿ وَٱلَّذِينَ جَآءُو مِنۢ بَعۡدِهِمۡ يَقُولُونَ رَبَّنَا ٱغۡفِرۡ لَنَا وَلِإِخۡوَٲنِنَا ٱلَّذِينَ سَبَقُونَا بِٱلۡإِيمَـٰنِ وَلَا تَجۡعَلۡ فِى قُلُوبِنَا غِلاًّ۬ لِّلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ رَبَّنَآ إِنَّكَ رَءُوفٌ۬ رَّحِيمٌ

(And those who came after them say: "Our Lord! Forgive us and our brethren who have preceded us in faith, and put not in our hearts any hatred against those who have believed. Our Lord! You are indeed full of kindness, Most Merciful.) This is the third type of believers whose poor most deserve to receive a part of the Fai'. These three types are the Muhajirin, the Ansar and those who followed their righteous lead with excellence. Allah said in another Ayah,

﴿ وَٱلسَّـٰبِقُونَ ٱلۡأَوَّلُونَ مِنَ ٱلۡمُهَـٰجِرِينَ وَٱلۡأَنصَارِ وَٱلَّذِينَ ٱتَّبَعُوهُم بِإِحۡسَـٰنٍ۬ رَّضِىَ ٱللَّهُ عَنۡہُمۡ وَرَضُواْ عَنۡهُ

(And of the foremost to embrace Islam of the Muhajirin and the Ansar and also those who followed them exactly, Allah is well-pleased with them as they are well-pleased with Him.)(9:100) The third type are those who followed the Muhajirin and Ansar in their good works, beautiful attributes and who invoke Allah for them in public and secret. This is why Allah the Exalted said in this honorable Ayah,

﴿ وَٱلَّذِينَ جَآءُو مِنۢ بَعۡدِهِمۡ يَقُولُونَ

(And those who came after them say), meaning, the statement that they utter is,

﴿ رَبَّنَا ٱغۡفِرۡ لَنَا وَلِإِخۡوَٲنِنَا ٱلَّذِينَ سَبَقُونَا بِٱلۡإِيمَـٰنِ وَلَا تَجۡعَلۡ فِى قُلُوبِنَا غِلاًّ۬

(Our Lord! Forgive us and our brethren who have preceded us in faith, and put not in our hearts any hatred), meaning, rage or envy,

﴿ لِّلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ رَبَّنَآ إِنَّكَ رَءُوفٌ۬ رَّحِيمٌ

(against those who have believed. Our Lord! You are indeed full of kindness, Most Merciful.) Indeed, it is a beautiful way that Imam Malik used this honorable Ayah to declare that the Rafidah who curse the Companions do not have a share in the Fai' money, because they do not have the good quality of those whom Allah has described here that they say,

﴿ رَبَّنَا ٱغۡفِرۡ لَنَا وَلِإِخۡوَٲنِنَا ٱلَّذِينَ سَبَقُونَا بِٱلۡإِيمَـٰنِ وَلَا تَجۡعَلۡ فِى قُلُوبِنَا غِلاًّ۬ لِّلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ رَبَّنَآ إِنَّكَ رَءُوفٌ۬ رَّحِيمٌ

(Our Lord! Forgive us and our brethren who have preceded us in faith, and put not in our hearts any hatred against those who have believed. Our Lord! You are indeed full of kindness, Most Merciful.) Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that `A'ishah said, "They were commanded to invoke Allah to forgive them, but instead, they cursed them!'' She then recited this Ayah,

﴿ وَٱلَّذِينَ جَآءُو مِنۢ بَعۡدِهِمۡ يَقُولُونَ رَبَّنَا ٱغۡفِرۡ لَنَا وَلِإِخۡوَٲنِنَا ٱلَّذِينَ سَبَقُونَا بِٱلۡإِيمَـٰنِ

(And those who came after them say: "Our Lord! Forgive us and our brethren who have preceded us in faith, and put not in our hearts any hatred against those who have believed.'')

﴿ أَلَمۡ تَرَ إِلَى ٱلَّذِينَ نَافَقُواْ يَقُولُونَ لِإِخۡوَٲنِهِمُ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ مِنۡ أَهۡلِ ٱلۡكِتَـٰبِ لَٮِٕنۡ أُخۡرِجۡتُمۡ لَنَخۡرُجَنَّ مَعَكُمۡ وَلَا نُطِيعُ فِيكُمۡ أَحَدًا أَبَدً۬ا وَإِن قُوتِلۡتُمۡ لَنَنصُرَنَّكُمۡ وَٱللَّهُ يَشۡہَدُ إِنَّہُمۡ لَكَـٰذِبُونَ لَٮِٕنۡ أُخۡرِجُواْ لَا يَخۡرُجُونَ مَعَهُمۡ وَلَٮِٕن قُوتِلُواْ لَا يَنصُرُونَہُمۡ وَلَٮِٕن نَّصَرُوهُمۡ لَيُوَلُّنَّ ٱلۡأَدۡبَـٰرَ ثُمَّ لَا يُنصَرُونَ لَأَنتُمۡ أَشَدُّ رَهۡبَةً۬ فِى صُدُورِهِم مِّنَ ٱللَّهِ‌ۚ ذَٲلِكَ بِأَنَّہُمۡ قَوۡمٌ۬ لَّا يَفۡقَهُونَ لَا يُقَـٰتِلُونَڪُمۡ جَمِيعًا إِلَّا فِى قُرً۬ى مُّحَصَّنَةٍ أَوۡ مِن وَرَآءِ جُدُرِۭ‌ۚ بَأۡسُهُم بَيۡنَهُمۡ شَدِيدٌ۬‌ۚ تَحۡسَبُهُمۡ جَمِيعً۬ا وَقُلُوبُهُمۡ شَتَّىٰ‌ۚ ذَٲلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمۡ قَوۡمٌ۬ لَّا يَعۡقِلُونَ كَمَثَلِ ٱلَّذِينَ مِن قَبۡلِهِمۡ قَرِيبً۬ا‌ۖ ذَاقُواْ وَبَالَ أَمۡرِهِمۡ وَلَهُمۡ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ۬ كَمَثَلِ ٱلشَّيۡطَـٰنِ إِذۡ قَالَ لِلۡإِنسَـٰنِ ٱڪۡفُرۡ فَلَمَّا كَفَرَ قَالَ إِنِّى بَرِىٓءٌ۬ مِّنكَ إِنِّىٓ أَخَافُ ٱللَّهَ رَبَّ ٱلۡعَـٰلَمِينَ فَكَانَ عَـٰقِبَتَہُمَآ أَنَّہُمَا فِى ٱلنَّارِ خَـٰلِدَيۡنِ فِيہَا‌ۚ وَذَٲلِكَ جَزَٲٓؤُاْ ٱلظَّـٰلِمِينَ

(11. Have you not observed the hypocrites who say to their disbelieving brethren among the People of the Scripture, "If you are expelled, we indeed will go out with you, and we shall never obey anyone against you; and if you are attacked, we shall indeed help you.'' But Allah is Witness that they verily are liars.) (12. Surely, if they (the Jews) are expelled, never will they (hypocrites) go out with them; and if they are attacked, they will never help them. And (even) if they do help them, they (hypocrites) will turn their backs, and they will not be victorious.) (13. Verily, you are more fearful in their breasts than Allah. That is because they are a people who comprehend not.) (14. They fight not against you even together, except in fortified townships, or from behind walls. Their enmity among themselves is very great. You would think they were united, but their hearts are divided. That is because they are a people who understand not.) (15. They are like their immediate predecessors; they tasted the evil result of their conduct, and for them a painful torment.) (16. Like Shaytan, when he says to man: "Disbelieve.'' But when he disbelieves, Shaytan says: "I am free of you, I fear Allah, the Lord of all that exists!'') (17. So, the end of both will be that they will be in the Fire, abiding therein. Such is the recompense of the wrongdoers.)

The False Promise of Support the Hypocrites gave to the Jews

Allah states that the hypocrites, `Abdullah bin Ubayy and his like, sent a messenger to Bani An-Nadir promising them help. Allah the Exalted said,

﴿ أَلَمۡ تَرَ إِلَى ٱلَّذِينَ نَافَقُواْ يَقُولُونَ لِإِخۡوَٲنِهِمُ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ مِنۡ أَهۡلِ ٱلۡكِتَـٰبِ لَٮِٕنۡ أُخۡرِجۡتُمۡ لَنَخۡرُجَنَّ مَعَكُمۡ وَلَا نُطِيعُ فِيكُمۡ أَحَدًا أَبَدً۬ا وَإِن قُوتِلۡتُمۡ لَنَنصُرَنَّكُمۡ

(Have you not observed the hypocrites who say to their friends among the People of the Scripture who disbelieve: "If you are expelled, we indeed will go out with you, and we shall never obey anyone against you; and if you are attacked, we shall indeed help you.'') Allah then said,

﴿ وَٱللَّهُ يَشۡہَدُ إِنَّہُمۡ لَكَـٰذِبُونَ

(But Allah is Witness that they verily are liars.) meaning, the hypocrites lied when they issued this promise, because it was just words that they did not intend to fulfill. Also, what they said they would do, would never have been fulfilled by them, and this is why Allah said,

﴿ وَلَٮِٕن قُوتِلُواْ لَا يَنصُرُونَہُمۡ

(and if they are attacked, they will never help them.) meaning, the hypocrites will not fight along with the Jews,

﴿ وَلَٮِٕن نَّصَرُوهُمۡ

(And (even) if they do help them, ) and even if the hypocrites did fight along their side,

﴿ لَيُوَلُّنَّ ٱلۡأَدۡبَـٰرَ ثُمَّ لَا يُنصَرُونَ

(they will turn their backs, and they will not be victorious.) This Ayah contains good news, just as the good news that this following Ayah conveys,

﴿ لَأَنتُمۡ أَشَدُّ رَهۡبَةً۬ فِى صُدُورِهِم مِّنَ ٱللَّهِ‌ۚ

(Verily, you are more fearful in their breasts than Allah.) meaning, the hypocrites fear you more than they fear Allah, as He says;

﴿ إِذَا فَرِيقٌ۬ مِّنۡہُمۡ يَخۡشَوۡنَ ٱلنَّاسَ كَخَشۡيَةِ ٱللَّهِ أَوۡ أَشَدَّ خَشۡيَةً۬‌ۚ

(Behold! a section of them fear men as they fear Allah or even more.)(4:77) This is why Allah said,

﴿ ذَٲلِكَ بِأَنَّہُمۡ قَوۡمٌ۬ لَّا يَفۡقَهُونَ

(That is because they are a people who comprehend not.) Allah then said,

﴿ لَا يُقَـٰتِلُونَڪُمۡ جَمِيعًا إِلَّا فِى قُرً۬ى مُّحَصَّنَةٍ أَوۡ مِن وَرَآءِ جُدُرِۭ‌ۚ

(They fight not against you even together, except in fortified townships, or from behind walls.) meaning, they will not fight Muslims except from behind besieged fortified forts, because of their cowardice and fear of Muslims. They only fight when they have to defend themselves (even though they threaten Muslims of reprisals). Allah the Exalted said,

﴿ بَأۡسُهُم بَيۡنَهُمۡ شَدِيدٌ۬‌ۚ

(Their enmity among themselves is very great.) meaning, the enmity they feel against each other is intense,

﴿ وَيُذِيقَ بَعۡضَكُم بَأۡسَ بَعۡضٍ‌ۗ

(And make you to taste the violence of one another.)(6:65) Allah said in the Ayah,

﴿ تَحۡسَبُهُمۡ جَمِيعً۬ا وَقُلُوبُهُمۡ شَتَّىٰ‌ۚ

(You would think they were united, but their hearts are divided.) meaning, even though one might see them combining forces and think that these forces are harmonious, yet in reality, they are divided severely. Ibrahim An-Nakha`i said that this Ayah refers to the hypocrites and the People of the Scriptures,

﴿ ذَٲلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمۡ قَوۡمٌ۬ لَّا يَعۡقِلُونَ

(That is because they are a people who understand not.) Allah said,

﴿ كَمَثَلِ ٱلَّذِينَ مِن قَبۡلِهِمۡ قَرِيبً۬ا‌ۖ ذَاقُواْ وَبَالَ أَمۡرِهِمۡ وَلَهُمۡ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ۬

(They are like their immediate predecessors; they tasted the evil result of their conduct, and for them a painful torment.) referring to the Jewish tribe of Bani Qaynuqa`, according to Ibn `Abbas, Qatadah and Muhammad bin Ishaq.

The Parable of the Hypocrites and the Jews

Allah said,

﴿ كَمَثَلِ ٱلشَّيۡطَـٰنِ إِذۡ قَالَ لِلۡإِنسَـٰنِ ٱڪۡفُرۡ فَلَمَّا كَفَرَ قَالَ إِنِّى بَرِىٓءٌ۬ مِّنكَ

(Like Shaytan, when he says to man: "Disbelieve.'' But when (man) disbelieves, Shaytan says: "I am free of you...'') meaning, the example of the Jews being deceived by the promises of the hypocrites, who said that they will help them if Muslims fight them, is that of the devil. When matters got serious and the Jews were besieged, the hypocrites betrayed them and abandoned them to taste utter defeat. Likewise, the devil lures mankind into disbelief and when they obey him, he disowns them and declares himself free of their actions, saying,

﴿ إِنِّىٓ أَخَافُ ٱللَّهَ رَبَّ ٱلۡعَـٰلَمِينَ

(I fear Allah, the Lord of all that exists!) Allah said,

﴿ فَكَانَ عَـٰقِبَتَہُمَآ أَنَّہُمَا فِى ٱلنَّارِ خَـٰلِدَيۡنِ فِيہَا‌ۚ

(So, the end of both will be that they will be in the Fire, abiding therein.) meaning, the end of both he, Shaytan, who commanded that disbelief be committed, and those who accepted his call, was in the fire of Hell forever,

﴿ وَذَٲلِكَ جَزَٲٓؤُاْ ٱلظَّـٰلِمِينَ

(Such is the recompense of the wrongdoers. ) means, this is the recompense of every unjust person.

﴿ يَـٰٓأَيُّہَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ ٱتَّقُواْ ٱللَّهَ وَلۡتَنظُرۡ نَفۡسٌ۬ مَّا قَدَّمَتۡ لِغَدٍ۬‌ۖ وَٱتَّقُواْ ٱللَّهَ‌ۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ خَبِيرُۢ بِمَا تَعۡمَلُونَ وَلَا تَكُونُواْ كَٱلَّذِينَ نَسُواْ ٱللَّهَ فَأَنسَٮٰهُمۡ أَنفُسَہُمۡ‌ۚ أُوْلَـٰٓٮِٕكَ هُمُ ٱلۡفَـٰسِقُونَ لَا يَسۡتَوِىٓ أَصۡحَـٰبُ ٱلنَّارِ وَأَصۡحَـٰبُ ٱلۡجَنَّةِ‌ۚ أَصۡحَـٰبُ ٱلۡجَنَّةِ هُمُ ٱلۡفَآٮِٕزُونَ

(18. O you who believe! Have Taqwa of Allah and let every person look to what he has sent forth for tomorrow, and fear Allah. Verily, Allah is All-Aware of what you do.) (19. And be not like those who forgot Allah, and He caused them to forget themselves. Those are the rebellious.) (20. Not equal are the dwellers of the Fire and the dwellers of the Paradise. It is the dwellers of Paradise that will be successful.)

The Command to have Taqwa and to prepare for the Day of Resurrection

Imam Ahmad recorded that Al-Mundhir bin Jarir narrated that his father said, "While we were in the company of the Messenger of Allah in the early hours of the morning, some people came there who were barefooted, naked, wearing striped woolen clothes, or cloaks, with their swords hung (around their necks). Most of them, nay, all of them, belonged to the tribe of Mudar. The color of the face of the Messenger of Allah underwent a change when he saw them in poverty. He then entered (his house) and came out and commanded Bilal to pronounce Adhan. Bilal pronounced Adhan and Iqamah, and the Prophet led the prayer. He then addressed them, first reciting,

﴿ يَـٰٓأَيُّہَا ٱلنَّاسُ ٱتَّقُواْ رَبَّكُمُ ٱلَّذِى خَلَقَكُم مِّن نَّفۡسٍ۬ وَٲحِدَةٍ۬

(O mankind! Have Taqwa of your Lord, Who created you from a single person... ) (4:1), until the end of the Ayah. Then he recited the Ayah that is in Surat Al-Hashr:

﴿ وَلۡتَنظُرۡ نَفۡسٌ۬ مَّا قَدَّمَتۡ لِغَدٍ۬‌ۖ

(and let every person look to what he has sent forth for tomorrow,'') He then said, "A man donated his Dinar, his Dirham, from his clothes, from his Sa` of wheat, from his Sa` of dates'' -- until he said -- "even if it was half a date.'' Then a person among the Ansar came there with a moneybag, which his hands could scarcely lift; in fact, his hands could not lift it. Then the people followed continuously, until I saw two heaps of eatables and clothes. I saw the face of the Messenger radiate with pleasure, like gold. The Messenger of Allah said,

« مَنْ سَنَّ فِي الْإِسْلَامِ سُنَّةً حَسَنَةً فَلَهُ أَجْرُهَا وَأَجْرُ مَنْ عَمِلَ بِهَا بَعْدَهُ، مِنْ غَيْرِ أَنْ يُنْقَصَ مِنْ أُجُورِهِمْ شَيْءٌ، وَمَنْ سَنَّ فِي الْإِسْلَامِ سُنَّةً سَيِّئَةً كَانَ عَلَيْهِ وِزْرُهَا وَوِزْرُ مَنْ عَمِلَ بِهَا، مِنْ غَيْرِ أَنْ يُنْقَصَ مِنْ أَوْزَارِهِمْ شَيْء »

(He who sets a good example in Islam, there is a reward for him for this (act of goodness) and reward of that also who acted according to it subsequently, without any deduction from their rewards. Whoever sets in Islam an evil example, there is upon him the burden of that evil and the burden of him also who acted upon it subsequently, without any deduction from their burden.)'' Muslim recorded this Hadith via the chain of Shu`bah. Therefore, Allah's statement,

﴿ يَـٰٓأَيُّہَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ ٱتَّقُواْ ٱللَّهَ

(O you who believe! Have Taqwa of Allah), ordains the Taqwa of Allah which pertains to obeying what He ordered and staying away from what He forbade. Allah said,

﴿ وَلۡتَنظُرۡ نَفۡسٌ۬ مَّا قَدَّمَتۡ لِغَدٍ۬‌ۖ

(and let every person look to what he has sent forth for tomorrow,) meaning, hold yourselves accountable before you are recompensed, and contemplate what you have kept for yourselves of good deeds for the Day of your return and being paraded before your Lord,

﴿ وَٱتَّقُواْ ٱللَّهَ‌ۚ

(Have Taqwa of Allah), again ordering Taqwa,

﴿ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ خَبِيرُۢ بِمَا تَعۡمَلُونَ

(Verily, Allah is All-Aware of what you do.) Allah asserts that surely, He knows all of your deeds -- O mankind -- and actions. Nothing that pertains to you ever escapes His observation, nor any matter of yours, whether major or minor, is ever beyond His knowledge,

﴿ وَلَا تَكُونُواْ كَٱلَّذِينَ نَسُواْ ٱللَّهَ فَأَنسَٮٰهُمۡ أَنفُسَہُمۡ‌ۚ

(And be not like those who forgot Allah, and He caused them to forget themselves.) meaning, do not forget the remembrance of Allah, the Exalted, otherwise, He will make you forget to perform the good deeds that benefit you in your return, because the recompense is equated with the action. This is why Allah the Exalted said,

﴿ أُوْلَـٰٓٮِٕكَ هُمُ ٱلۡفَـٰسِقُونَ

(Those are the rebellious.) referring to those who rebel against obedience to Allah, who will earn destruction on the Day of Resurrection and failure upon their return,

﴿ يَـٰٓأَيُّہَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ لَا تُلۡهِكُمۡ أَمۡوَٲلُكُمۡ وَلَآ أَوۡلَـٰدُڪُمۡ عَن ذِڪۡرِ ٱللَّهِ‌ۚ وَمَن يَفۡعَلۡ ذَٲلِكَ فَأُوْلَـٰٓٮِٕكَ هُمُ ٱلۡخَـٰسِرُونَ

(O you who believe! Let not your properties or your children divert you from the remembrance of Allah. And whosoever does that, then they are the losers.)(63:9)

The Residents of Paradise and the Residents of Hell are never Equal

Allah said,

﴿ لَا يَسۡتَوِىٓ أَصۡحَـٰبُ ٱلنَّارِ وَأَصۡحَـٰبُ ٱلۡجَنَّةِ‌ۚ

(Not equal are the dwellers of the Fire and the dwellers of the Paradise.) meaning, these two categories of people are never the same with regards to the judgment of Allah, the Exalted, on the Day of Resurrection. Allah said in other Ayat,

﴿ أَمۡ حَسِبَ ٱلَّذِينَ ٱجۡتَرَحُواْ ٱلسَّيِّـَٔاتِ أَن نَّجۡعَلَهُمۡ كَٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ وَعَمِلُواْ ٱلصَّـٰلِحَـٰتِ سَوَآءً۬ مَّحۡيَاهُمۡ وَمَمَاتُہُمۡ‌ۚ سَآءَ مَا يَحۡكُمُونَ

(Or do those who earn evil deeds think that We shall hold them equal with those who believe and do righteous good deeds, in their present life and after their death Worst is the judgment that they make.)(45:21),

﴿ وَمَا يَسۡتَوِى ٱلۡأَعۡمَىٰ وَٱلۡبَصِيرُ وَٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ وَعَمِلُواْ ٱلصَّـٰلِحَـٰتِ وَلَا ٱلۡمُسِىٓءُۚ قَلِيلاً۬ مَّا تَتَذَكَّرُونَ

(And not equal are the blind and those who see; nor are those who believe and do righteous good deeds and those who do evil. Little do you remember!)(40:58), and,

﴿ أَمۡ نَجۡعَلُ ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ وَعَمِلُواْ ٱلصَّـٰلِحَـٰتِ كَٱلۡمُفۡسِدِينَ فِى ٱلۡأَرۡضِ أَمۡ نَجۡعَلُ ٱلۡمُتَّقِينَ كَٱلۡفُجَّارِ

(Shall We treat those who believe and do righteous good deeds as corrupters on earth Or shall We treat those who have Taqwa as the wicked)(38:28) Therefore, Allah asserts that He will honor the righteous and humiliate the sinners, and this is why He said here,

﴿ أَصۡحَـٰبُ ٱلۡجَنَّةِ هُمُ ٱلۡفَآٮِٕزُونَ

(It is the dwellers of Paradise that will be successful.) that is, they are those who will earn safety and deliverance from the torment of Allah the Exalted and Most Honored.

﴿ لَوۡ أَنزَلۡنَا هَـٰذَا ٱلۡقُرۡءَانَ عَلَىٰ جَبَلٍ۬ لَّرَأَيۡتَهُ ۥ خَـٰشِعً۬ا مُّتَصَدِّعً۬ا مِّنۡ خَشۡيَةِ ٱللَّهِ‌ۚ وَتِلۡكَ ٱلۡأَمۡثَـٰلُ نَضۡرِبُہَا لِلنَّاسِ لَعَلَّهُمۡ يَتَفَكَّرُونَ هُوَ ٱللَّهُ ٱلَّذِى لَآ إِلَـٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ‌ۖ عَـٰلِمُ ٱلۡغَيۡبِ وَٱلشَّهَـٰدَةِ‌ۖ هُوَ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنُ ٱلرَّحِيمُ هُوَ ٱللَّهُ ٱلَّذِى لَآ إِلَـٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ ٱلۡمَلِكُ ٱلۡقُدُّوسُ ٱلسَّلَـٰمُ ٱلۡمُؤۡمِنُ ٱلۡمُهَيۡمِنُ ٱلۡعَزِيزُ ٱلۡجَبَّارُ ٱلۡمُتَڪَبِّرُ‌ۚ سُبۡحَـٰنَ ٱللَّهِ عَمَّا يُشۡرِڪُونَ هُوَ ٱللَّهُ ٱلۡخَـٰلِقُ ٱلۡبَارِئُ ٱلۡمُصَوِّرُ‌ۖ لَهُ ٱلۡأَسۡمَآءُ ٱلۡحُسۡنَىٰ‌ۚ يُسَبِّحُ لَهُ ۥ مَا فِى ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِ‌ۖ وَهُوَ ٱلۡعَزِيزُ ٱلۡحَكِيمُ

(21. Had We sent down this Qur'an on a mountain, you would surely have seen it humbling itself and rent asunder by the fear of Allah. Such are the parables which We put forward to mankind that they may reflect.) (22. He is Allah, beside Whom La ilaha illa Huwa, the All-Knower of the unseen and the seen. He is the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.) (23. He is Allah, beside Whom La ilaha illa Huwa, Al-Malik, Al-Quddus, As-Salam, Al-Mu`min, Al-Muhaymin, Al-`Aziz, Al-Jabbar, Al-Mutakabbir. Glory be to Allah! Above all that they associate as partners with Him.) (24. He is Allah, Al-Khaliq, Al-Bari, Al-Musawwir. To Him belong the Best Names. All that is in the heavens and the earth glorify Him. And He is the Almighty, the All-Wise.)

Asserting the Greatness of the Qur'an

Allah the Exalted emphasizes the greatness of the Qur'an, its high status and of being worthy of making hearts humble and rent asunder upon hearing it, because of the true promises and sure threats that it contains,

﴿ لَوۡ أَنزَلۡنَا هَـٰذَا ٱلۡقُرۡءَانَ عَلَىٰ جَبَلٍ۬ لَّرَأَيۡتَهُ ۥ خَـٰشِعً۬ا مُّتَصَدِّعً۬ا مِّنۡ خَشۡيَةِ ٱللَّهِ‌ۚ

(Had We sent down this Qur'an on a mountain, you would surely have seen it humbling itself and rent asunder by the fear of Allah.) If this is the case with a mountain which is hard and huge, that if it was made able to comprehend and understand this Qur'an, will feel humble and crumble from fear of Allah the Exalted, then what about you -- O mankind Why do your hearts not feel softness and humbleness from the fear of Allah, even though you understand Allah's command and comprehend His Book This is why Allah said,

﴿ وَتِلۡكَ ٱلۡأَمۡثَـٰلُ نَضۡرِبُہَا لِلنَّاسِ لَعَلَّهُمۡ يَتَفَكَّرُونَ

(Such are the parables which We put forward to mankind that they may reflect.) There is a Hadith of the Mutawatir grade that states that the Messenger of Allah had someone make him a Minbar. Before that, he used to stand next to a tree trunk in the Masjid to deliver speeches. So, when the Minbar was made and placed in the Masjid, the Prophet came to deliver a speech and passed the tree trunk, headed towards the Minbar, the tree trunk started weeping, just like an infant. The tree trunk missed hearing the remembrance of Allah and the revelation that were being recited next to it. In one of the narrations for this Hadith, Al-Hasan Al-Basri said after narrating the Hadith, "You - mankind -- are more worthy to miss the Messenger of Allah than the tree trunk!'' Likewise, this honorable Ayah asks that if the solid mountains feel humble and are rent asunder from the fear of Allah, if it heard Allah's Speech and comprehended it, what about you -- O mankind -- who heard the Qur'an and understood it Allah the Exalted said in another Ayah,

﴿ وَلَوۡ أَنَّ قُرۡءَانً۬ا سُيِّرَتۡ بِهِ ٱلۡجِبَالُ أَوۡ قُطِّعَتۡ بِهِ ٱلۡأَرۡضُ أَوۡ كُلِّمَ بِهِ ٱلۡمَوۡتَىٰ‌ۗ

(And if there had been a Qur'an with which mountains could be moved, or the earth could be cloven asunder, or the dead could be made to speak.)(13:31) We mentioned the meaning of this Ayah as stating that, if there were a Qur'an that has these qualities, it would be this Qur'an. Allah the Exalted said in another Ayah,

﴿ وَإِنَّ مِنَ ٱلۡحِجَارَةِ لَمَا يَتَفَجَّرُ مِنۡهُ ٱلۡأَنۡهَـٰرُ‌ۚ وَإِنَّ مِنۡہَا لَمَا يَشَّقَّقُ فَيَخۡرُجُ مِنۡهُ ٱلۡمَآءُ‌ۚ وَإِنَّ مِنۡہَا لَمَا يَہۡبِطُ مِنۡ خَشۡيَةِ ٱللَّهِ‌ۗ

(And indeed, there are stones out of which rivers gush forth, and indeed, there are of them (stones) which split asunder so that water flows from them, and indeed, there are of them which fall down for fear of Allah.)(2:74)

Glorifying Allah the Exalted by mentioning His Names and Attributes

Allah the Exalted said,

﴿ هُوَ ٱللَّهُ ٱلَّذِى لَآ إِلَـٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ‌ۖ عَـٰلِمُ ٱلۡغَيۡبِ وَٱلشَّهَـٰدَةِ‌ۖ هُوَ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنُ ٱلرَّحِيمُ

(He is Allah, beside Whom La ilaha illa Huwa, the All-Knower of the unseen and the seen. He is the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.) Allah states that He Alone is worthy of worship, there is no Lord or God for the existence, except Him. All that is being worshipped instead of Allah are false deities. Allah is the All-Knower in the unseen and the seen, He knows all that pertains to the creations that we see, and those we cannot see. Nothing in heaven or on earth ever escapes His knowledge, no matter how great or insignificant, big or small, including ants in darkness. Allah's statement,

﴿ هُوَ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنُ ٱلرَّحِيمُ

(He is the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.) was duly explained before at the very beginning of this Tafsir, so it is not necessary to repeat it here, and it asserts that Allah is the Owner of the wide encompassing mercy that entails all of His creation. He is Ar-Rahman and Ar-Rahim of this life and the Hereafter. Allah the Exalted said in other Ayat,

﴿ وَرَحۡمَتِى وَسِعَتۡ كُلَّ شَىۡءٍ۬‌ۚ

(And My mercy embraces all things.)(7:156),

﴿ كَتَبَ رَبُّكُمۡ عَلَىٰ نَفۡسِهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَةَ‌ۖ

(Your Lord has written (prescribed) mercy for Himself.)(6:54), and,

﴿ قُلۡ بِفَضۡلِ ٱللَّهِ وَبِرَحۡمَتِهِۦ فَبِذَٲلِكَ فَلۡيَفۡرَحُواْ هُوَ خَيۡرٌ۬ مِّمَّا يَجۡمَعُونَ

(Say: "In the bounty of Allah, and in His mercy; -- therein let them rejoice.'' That is better than what (the wealth) they amass.)(10:58) Allah the Exalted said,

﴿ هُوَ ٱللَّهُ ٱلَّذِى لَآ إِلَـٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ ٱلۡمَلِكُ

(He is Allah, beside Whom La ilaha illa Huwa, Al-Malik.) Al-Malik, meaning "The Owner and King of all things,'' Who has full power over them without resistance or hindrance. Allah's statement,

﴿ ٱلۡقُدُّوسُ

(Al-Quddus,) meaning "The Pure,'' according to Wahb bin Munabbih, while Mujahid and Qatadah said that Al-Quddus means "The Blessed.'' Ibn Jurayj said that Al-Quddus means "He Whom the honorable angels glorify.''

﴿ ٱلسَّلَـٰمُ

(As-Salam,) meaning "Free from any defects or shortcomings that lessen or decrease His perfect attributes and actions.'' Allah's statement,

﴿ ٱلۡمُؤۡمِنُ

(Al-Mu'min,) means "Who has granted safety to His servants by promising that He will never be unjust to them, '' according to Ad-Dahhak who reported it from Ibn `Abbas. Qatadah said that Al-Mu'min means that "Allah affirms that His statements are true,'' while Ibn Zayd said that it means, "He attested to His faithful servants' having faith in Him.'' Allah's statement,

﴿ ٱلۡمُهَيۡمِنُ

(Al-Muhaymin,) means, according to Ibn `Abbas and others, "The Witness for His servants actions,'' that is, the Ever-Watcher over them. Allah said in similar Ayat,

﴿ وَٱللَّهُ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَىۡءٍ۬ شَہِيدٌ

(And Allah is Witness over all things.)(58:6),

﴿ ثُمَّ ٱللَّهُ شَہِيدٌ عَلَىٰ مَا يَفۡعَلُونَ

(and moreover Allah is Witness over what they used to do.)(10:46), and,

﴿ أَفَمَنۡ هُوَ قَآٮِٕمٌ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ نَفۡسِۭ بِمَا كَسَبَتۡ‌ۗ

(Is then He (Allah) Who takes charge (guards) of every person and knows all that he has earned)(13:33) Allah said,

﴿ ٱلۡعَزِيزُ

(Al-`Aziz,) meaning that "He is the Almighty, Dominant over all things.'' Therefore, His majesty is never violated, due to His might, greatness, irresistible power and pride. Allah said;

﴿ ٱلۡجَبَّارُ ٱلۡمُتَڪَبِّرُ‌ۚ

(Al-Jabbar, Al-Mutakabbir), meaning "The Only One worthy of being the Compeller and Supreme.'' There is a Hadith in the Sahih Collection in which Allah said,

« الْعَظَمَةُ إِزَارِي، وَالْكِبْرِيَاءُ رِدَائِي، فَمَنْ نَازَعَنِي وَاحِدًا مِنْهُمَا عَذَّبْتُه »

(Might is My Izar and pride is My Rida; if anyone disputes any one of them with Me, then I will punish him.) Allah the Exalted said,

﴿ سُبۡحَـٰنَ ٱللَّهِ عَمَّا يُشۡرِكُونَ

(Glory be to Allah! (High is He) above all that they associate as partners with Him.), then He said,

﴿ هُوَ ٱللَّهُ ٱلۡخَـٰلِقُ ٱلۡبَارِئُ ٱلۡمُصَوِّرُ‌ۖ

(He is Allah, Al-Khaliq, Al-Bari, Al-Musawwir.) Al-Khaliq refers to measuring and proportioning, Al-Bari refers to inventing and bringing into existence what He has created and measured. Surely, none except Allah is able to measure, bring forth and create whatever He wills to come to existence. Allah's statement,

﴿ ٱلۡخَـٰلِقُ ٱلۡبَارِئُ ٱلۡمُصَوِّرُ‌ۖ

(Al-Khaliq, Al-Bari, Al-Musawwir.) means, if Allah wills something, He merely says to it "be'' and it comes to existence in the form that He wills and the shape He chooses,

﴿ فِىٓ أَىِّ صُورَةٍ۬ مَّا شَآءَ رَكَّبَكَ

(In whatever form He willed, He put you together.)(82:8) Allah describing Himself as being Al-Musawwir, Who brings into existence anything He wills in the shape and form He decides.

Al-Asma' Al-Husna

Allah the Exalted said,

﴿ لَهُ ٱلۡأَسۡمَآءُ ٱلۡحُسۡنَىٰ‌ۚ

(To Him belong Al-Asma' Al-Husna (the Best Names).) We explained the meaning of this Ayah in the Tafsir of Surat Al-A`raf. The Two Sahihs recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said,

« إِنَّ للهِ تَعَالَى تِسْعَةً وَتِسْعِينَ اسْمًا، مِائَةً إِلَّا وَاحِدًا، مَنْ أَحْصَاهَا دَخَلَ الْجَنَّةَ، وَهُوَ وِتْرٌ يُحِبُّ الْوِتْر »

(Allah the Exalted has ninety-nine Names, one hundred less one; whoever then preserves them, will enter Paradise. Allah is Witr (One) and He likes the Witr.)

Everything praises and glorifies Allah

Allah's statement,

﴿ يُسَبِّحُ لَهُ ۥ مَا فِى ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِ‌ۖ

(All that is in the heavens and the earth glorify Him.) is similar to His other statement,

﴿ تُسَبِّحُ لَهُ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتُ ٱلسَّبۡعُ وَٱلۡأَرۡضُ وَمَن فِيہِنَّ‌ۚ وَإِن مِّن شَىۡءٍ إِلَّا يُسَبِّحُ بِحَمۡدِهِۦ وَلَـٰكِن لَّا تَفۡقَهُونَ تَسۡبِيحَهُمۡ‌ۗ إِنَّهُ ۥ كَانَ حَلِيمًا غَفُورً۬ا

(The seven heavens and the earth and all that is therein, glorify Him and there is not a thing but glorifies His praise. But you understand not their glorification. Truly, He is Ever Forbearing, Oft--Forgiving.)(17:44) Allah's statement,

﴿ وَهُوَ ٱلۡعَزِيزُ

(and He is Al-`Aziz) The Almighty, meaning, His greatness is never humbled,

﴿ ٱلۡحَكِيمُ

(Al-Hakim) the All-Wise, in His legislation and decrees This is the end of the Tafsir of Surat Al-Hashr. All praise is due to Allah.