(O you who believe! Take not My enemies and your enemies as protecting friends showing affection towards them, while they have disbelieved in what has come to you of the truth,) refers to the idolaters and the disbelievers who are combatants against Allah, His Messenger and the believers. It is they whom Allah has decided should be our enemies and should be fought. Allah has forbidden the believers to take them as friends, supporters or companions. Allah the Exalted said in another Ayah,
(O you who believe! Take not the Jews and the Christians as protecting friends, they are but protecting friends of each other. And if any among you takes them (as such), then surely, he is one of them.) (5:51) This Ayah contains a stern warning and a sure threat. Allah the Exalted said,
(O you who believe! Take not as protecting friends those who take your religion as a mockery and fun from among those who received the Scripture before you, nor from among the disbelievers; and have Taqwa of Allah if you indeed are true believers.) (5:57)
(O you who believe! Take not for protecting friends disbelievers instead of believers. Do you wish to offer Allah a manifest proof against yourselves) (4:144) and,
(Let not the believers take the disbelievers as protecting friends instead of the believers, and whoever does that will never be helped by Allah in any way, except if you indeed fear a danger from them. And Allah warns you against Himself (His punishment).) (3:28) This is why Allah's Messenger accepted Hatib's excuse when he said that he only wanted to have a favor on the Quraysh, because of the property and family members he left behind in Makkah. Allah's statement,
(and have driven out the Messenger and yourselves ( from your homeland)) follows His encouragement to fight against them and to avoid being their supporters. This is because they expelled the Messenger and his Companions on account of their hatred for Tawhid and worshipping Allah alone in sincerity. This is why Allah the Exalted said,
(because you believe in Allah, your Lord!) meaning, `your only fault is that you believed in Allah, Lord of all that exists.' Allah the Exalted said in other Ayat,
(And they had no fault except that they believed in Allah, Almighty, Al-Hamid!) (85:8) and,
(Those who have been expelled from their homes unjustly only because they said: "Our Lord is Allah.'') (22:40) Allah said,
(If you have come forth to strive in My cause and to seek My good pleasure.) Allah says, `if you are as described here, then do not take the disbelievers as supporters. If you migrated in Jihad for My cause and for seeking My pleasure, then do not take My enemies and your enemies as protecting friends, after they expelled you from your homes and property in rage against you and rejection of your religion.' Allah's statement,
(You show friendship to them in secret, while I am All-Aware of what you conceal and what you reveal.) Allah asks, `do you do this while I know the secrets of the hearts, the intentions and all apparent things,'
(And whosoever of you does that, then indeed he has gone astray from the straight path. Should they gain the upper hand over you, they would behave to you as enemies, and stretch forth their hands and their tongues against you with evil,) meaning, `if they gain the upper hand over you, they would use every type of harm in their disposal to hurt you in words and action,'
(and they desire that you should disbelieve.) meaning, `they are eager that you do not earn any good. Therefore, their enmity to you is outward and inward, so how can you become supporters of this type of people' This also encourages the enmity. Allah's statement,
(Neither your relatives nor your children will benefit you on the Day of Resurrection. He will judge between you. And Allah is the All-Seer of what you do.) means, `your family relations will not benefit you with Allah if Allah decided to cause harm your way. Your relations will not benefit you if you please them with what angers Allah.' Those who agree with their family being disbelievers in order to please them will have earned loss and failure and their deeds will be rendered invalid. Their relation will not benefit them with Allah, even if their relation was with a Prophet. Imam Ahmad recorded that Anas said that a man said, "O Allah's Messenger! Where is my father'' He said,
(In the Fire.) When the man went away, the Prophet called him back and said:
(Verily, my father and your father are in the Fire.) Muslim and Abu Dawud also collected this Hadith.
(4. Indeed there has been an excellent example for you in Ibrahim and those with him, when they said to their people: "Verily, we are free from you and whatever you worship besides Allah, we have rejected you, and there has started between us and you, hostility and hatred forever until you believe in Allah alone,'' -- except the saying of Ibrahim to his father: "Verily, I will ask forgiveness for you, but I have no power to do anything for you before Allah.'' "Our Lord! In You we put our trust, and to You we turn in repentance, and to You is the final Return.'') (5. "Our Lord! Make us not a trial for the disbelievers, and forgive us, Our Lord! Verily, You, only You, are the Almighty, the All-Wise.'') (6. Certainly, there has been in them an excellent example for you to follow - for those who look forward to (the meeting with) Allah and the Last Day. And whosoever turns away, then verily, Allah is Al-Ghani, Al-Hamid.)
Allah the Exalted says to His faithful servants, whom He commanded to disown the disbelievers, to be enemies with them, and to distant themselves and separate from them:
(Indeed there has been an excellent example for you in Ibrahim and those with him,) meaning, his followers who believed in him,
(when they said to their people: "Verily we are free from you...'') meaning, `we disown you,'
(and whatever you worship besides Allah: we rejected you,) meaning, `we disbelieve in your religion and way,'
(and there has started between us and you, hostility and hatred forever) meaning, `Animosity and enmity have appeared between us and you from now and as long as you remain on your disbelief; we will always disown you and hate you,'
(until you believe in Allah alone,) meaning, `unless, and until, you worship Allah alone without partners and disbelieve in the idols and rivals that you worship besides Him.' Allah's statement,
(except the saying of Ibrahim to his father: "Verily, I will ask forgiveness (from Allah) for you...'') means, `you have a good example in Ibrahim and his people; as for Ibrahim's prayers for Allah his father, it was a promise that he made for his father.' When Ibrahim became sure that his father was an enemy of Allah, he declared himself innocent of him. Some of the believers used to invoke Allah for their parents who died as disbelievers, begging Him to forgive them. They did so claiming that Ibrahim used to invoke Allah to forgive his father. Allah the Exalted said in reply,
(It is not for the Prophet and those who believe to ask Allah's forgiveness for the idolaters, even though they be of kin, after it has become clear to them that they are the dwellers of the Fire (because they died in a state of disbelief). And Ibrahim's request for his father's forgiveness was only because of a promise he made to him .But when it became clear to him that he was an enemy of Allah, he dissociated himself from him. Verily, Ibrahim was Awwah and was forbearing.) (9:113-114) Allah said here,
(Indeed there has been an excellent example for you in Ibrahim and those with him, when they said to their people: "Verily, we are free from you...'') until,
(... except the saying of Ibrahim to his father: "Verily, I will ask forgiveness for you, but I have no power to do anything for you before Allah.'') meaning, `You cannot follow Ibrahim's example as proof in the case mentioned here, as being allowed to ask Allah to forgive those who died on Shirk.' This is the saying of Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, Qatadah, Muqatil bin Hayyan, Ad-Dahhak and several others. Allah the Exalted said that Ibrahim and his companions, who parted with their people and disowned their way, said afterwards, while invoking Allah in humility and submission,
(Our Lord! In You we put our trust, and to You we turn in repentance, and to You is the final Return.) meaning, `we trust in You for all matters, we surrender all of our affairs to You, and to You is the final Return in the Hereafter,'
(Our Lord! Make us not a trial for the disbelievers,) Mujahid said, "It means, `Do not punish us by their hands, nor with a punishment from You.' Or they will say, `Had these people been following the truth, the torment would not have struck them'.'' Ad-Dahhak said something similar. Qatadah said, "Do not give the disbelievers victory over us, thus subjecting us to trials by their hands. Surely, if You do so, they would then think that they were given victory over us because they are on the truth.'' This is the meaning that Ibn Jarir preferred. `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported from Ibn `Abbas: "Do not give them dominance over us, lest we suffer trials by their hands.'' Allah's statement,
(and forgive us, Our Lord! Verily, You, only You, are the Almighty, the All-Wise.) means, `cover our mistakes from being exposed to other than You, and forgive us for what (sin) is between us and You.'
(Verily, You, only You, are the Almighty,) `and those who seek refuge in Your majesty are never dealt with unjustly,'
(the All-Wise.) `in Your statements, actions, legislation and decrees.' Allah the Exalted said,
(Certainly, there has been in them an excellent example for you to follow -- for those who look forward to (the meeting with) Allah and the Last Day.) asserting what He has said before with the exemption mentioned, i.e., the good example that Allah mentioned before,
(for those who look forward to Allah and the Last Day.) thus encouraging the believers who believe in Allah and the Return to Him. Allah said,
(And whosoever turns away) meaning, from what Allah has ordained,
(verily, Allah is Al-Ghani, Al-Hamid.) Allah said in another Ayah,
(If you disbelieve, you and all on the earth together, then verily! Allah is Ghani, Hamid.) (14:8) `Ali bin Talhah reported from Ibn `Abbas,
"(Ghani) is the One Who is perfectly rich.'' That is Allah. This is Allah's attribute that He alone is worthy of being described by; surely, He has no equal, none like unto Him. All praise is due to Allah, the One, the Irresistible.
(Hamid) means, the praiseworthy, in all His statements and actions, there is no (true) God except Him alone.
(7. Perhaps Allah will make friendship between you and those whom you hold as enemies. And Allah has power (over all things), and Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.) (8. Allah does not forbid you to deal justly and kindly with those who fought not against you on account of religion nor drove you out of your homes. Verily, Allah loves those who deal with equity.) (9. It is only as regards those who fought against you on account of religion, and have driven you out of your homes, and helped to drive you out, that Allah forbids you to befriend them. And whosoever will befriend them, then such are the wrongdoers.)
Allah said to His faithful servants, after ordering them to be enemies with the disbelievers,
(Perhaps Allah will make friendship between you and those, whom you hold as enemies.) meaning affection after animosity, tenderness after coldness and coming together after parting from each other,
(And Allah has power (over all things),) Allah is able to gather opposites and bring together hearts, after feeling hostility and hardness. In this case, the hearts will come together in agreement, just as Allah said when He mentioned His favor on the Ansar,
(And remember Allah's favor on you, for you were enemies one to another but He joined your hearts together, so that, by His grace, you became brethren and were on the brink of a pit of Fire, and He saved you from it.) (3:103) Also the Prophet said to them,
(Did I not find you misguided, and Allah guided you through me; and divided, and Allah united (your hearts) through me) Allah the Exalted said,
(He it is Who has supported you with His help and with the believers. And He has united their hearts. If you had spent all that is in the earth, you could not have united their hearts, but Allah has united them. Certainly He is Almighty, All-Wise.) (8:62, 63) And in the Hadith:
(Love your loved one moderately, because one day, he might become your enemy. Hate your hated one moderately, because one day, he might become your loved one.) Allah's statement,
(And Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.) means, Allah forgives the disbelief of the disbelievers if they repent from it, returned to their Lord and surrendered to Him in Islam. Surely, He is the Oft-Forgiving, the Most-Merciful to those who repent to Him from their sins, no matter what type of the sin it is.
(Allah does not forbid you with those who fought not against you on account of religion nor drove you out of your homes,) means, those who did not have a role in your expulsion. Therefore, Allah does not forbid you from being kind to the disbelievers who do not fight you because of the religion, such as women and weak disbelievers,
(to deal kindly) to be gentle with them,
(and justly with those) to be fair with them
(Verily, Allah loves those who deal with equity.) Imam Ahmad recorded that Asma' bint Abu Bakr said, "My mother, who was an idolatress at the time, came to me during the Treaty of Peace, the Prophet conducted with the Quraysh. I came to the Prophet and said, `O Allah's Messenger! My mother came visiting, desiring something from me, should I treat her with good relations' The Prophet said,
(Yes. Keep good relation with your mother.)'' The Two Sahihs recorded this Hadith. Imam Ahmad recorded that `Abdullah bin Zubayr said, "Qutaylah came visiting her daughter, Asma' bint Abi Bakr, with some gifts, such as Dibab, cheese and clarified (cooking) butter, and she was an idolatress at that time. Asma' refused to accept her mother's gifts and did not let her enter her house. `A'ishah asked the Prophet about his verdict and Allah sent down the Ayah,
(Allah does not forbid you with those who fought not against you on account of religion) until the end of the Ayah. Allah's Messenger ordered Asma' to accept her mother's gifts and to let her enter her house.'' Allah's statement,
(Allah loves those who deal with equity.) was duly explained in the Tafsir of Surat Al-Hujurat. We also mentioned the authentic Hadith,
(The just, who are fair in their decisions, families and those under their authority, will be on podiums made of light, to the right of the Throne.)
(It is only as regards those who fought against you on account of religion, and have driven you out of your homes, and helped to drive you out that Allah forbids you to befriend them.) (60:9) means, `Allah forbids you from being kind and befriending with the disbelievers who are openly hostile to you, those who fought against you, expelled you and helped to expel you. Allah the Exalted forbids you from being their friends and orders you to be their enemy.' Then Allah stresses His threat against being friends with them, by saying,
(And whosoever will befriend them, then such are the wrongdoers.) As He said;
(O you who believe! Take not the Jews and the Christians as protecting friends, they are but protecting friends of each other. And if any among you takes them (as protecting friends), then surely, he is one of them. Verily, Allah guides not those people who are the wrongdoers) (5:51)
(10. O you who believe! When believing women come to you as emigrants, examine them; Allah knows best as to their faith, then if you ascertain that they are true believers, send them not back to the disbelievers. They are not lawful for the disbelievers nor are the disbelievers lawful for them. But give them (disbelievers) that which they have spent (on their dowery). And there will be no sin on you to marry them if you have paid their due to them. Likewise do not keep the disbelieving women, and ask for that which you have spent (on their dowery) and let them (the disbelievers) ask for that which they have spent. That is the judgment of Allah, He judges between you. And Allah is All-Knowing, All-Wise.) (11. And if any of your wives have gone from you to the disbelievers then you succeed over them (gain victory); then pay those whose wives have gone, the equivalent of what they had spent. And have Taqwa of Allah, the One in Whom you are believers.)