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The Believing Woman is prohibited from marrying an Idolator and the Believing Man is prohibited from marrying the Idolatress

Allah's statement,

﴿ لَا هُنَّ حِلٌّ۬ لَّهُمۡ وَلَا هُمۡ يَحِلُّونَ لَهُنَّ‌ۖ

(They are not lawful for the disbelievers nor are the disbelievers lawful for them.) This Ayah forbids Muslim women for idolaters, which was a lawful marriage in the beginning of Islam. Abu Al-`As bin Ar-Rabi` was married to Zaynab, the Prophet's daughter. She was a Muslim, while Abu Al-`As was still an idolater like his people. When he was captured during the battle of Badr, his wife, Zaynab, sent his ransom, a necklace that belonged to the Prophet's first wife Khadijah. The Prophet became very emotional when he saw the necklace and said to the Companions,

« إِنْ رَأَيْتُمْ أَنْ تُطْلِقُوا لَهَا أَسِيرَهَا فَافْعَلُوا »

(If you decide to set free the prisoner who belongs to her, then do so.) They did, and Allah's Messenger set him free. His ransom was that he send his wife to Allah's Messenger. Abu Al-`As fulfilled his promise and sent Zaynab to Allah's Messenger along with Zayd bin Harithah. Zaynab remained in Al-Madinah after the battle of Badr, which took place in the second year of Hijrah, until her husband Abu Al-`As bin Ar-Rahi` embraced Islam in the eighth year after the Hijrah. She returned to their marriage without renewing the dowery. Allah's statement,

﴿ وَءَاتُوهُم مَّآ أَنفَقُواْ‌ۚ

(But give them that which they have spent.) meaning, the husbands of the emigrant women who came from the idolaters, return the dowery that they gave to their wives. This was said by Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, Qatadah, Az-Zuhri and several others. Allah's statement,

﴿ وَلَا جُنَاحَ عَلَيۡكُمۡ أَن تَنكِحُوهُنَّ إِذَآ ءَاتَيۡتُمُوهُنَّ أُجُورَهُنَّ‌ۚ

(And there will be no sin on you to marry them if you have paid their due to them.) means, when you wish to marry them, then give them their dowery. That is, marry them under the condition that their `Iddah (waiting period) is finished and they have a legal guardian for their marriage etc. Allah said,

﴿ وَلَا تُمۡسِكُواْ بِعِصَمِ ٱلۡكَوَافِرِ

(Likewise do not keep disbelieving women,) thus forbidding His faithful servants from marrying idolater women or remaining married to them. In the Sahih, it is recorded that Al-Miswar and Marwan bin Al-Hakam said that after the Messenger of Allah conducted the treaty with the Quraysh idolaters at Al-Hudaybiyyah, some Muslim women emigrated to him and Allah the Exalted sent down this Ayah about them,

﴿ يَـٰٓأَيُّہَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوٓاْ إِذَا جَآءَڪُمُ ٱلۡمُؤۡمِنَـٰتُ مُهَـٰجِرَٲتٍ۬

(O you who believe! When believing women come to you as emigrants) until,

﴿ وَلَا تُمۡسِكُواْ بِعِصَمِ ٱلۡكَوَافِرِ

(Likewise do not keep disbelieving women,) Then `Umar bin Al-Khattab divorced two of his wives, who were idolatresses, and one of them got married to Mu`awiyah bin Abi Sufyan, while the other got married to Safwan bin Umayyah. Ibn Thawr narrated that Ma`mar said that Az-Zuhri said, "This Ayah was revealed to Allah's Messenger while he was in the area of Al-Hudaybiyyah, after making peace. He agreed that whoever comes from the Quraysh to his side, will be returned to Makkah. When some women came, this Ayah was revealed. Allah commanded that the dowery that was paid to these women be returned to their husbands. Allah also ordered that if some Muslim women revert to the side of the idolaters, the idolaters should return their dowery to their Muslim husbands. Allah said,

﴿ وَلَا تُمۡسِكُواْ بِعِصَمِ ٱلۡكَوَافِرِ

(Likewise do not keep disbelieving women).'' Allah's statement,

﴿ وَسۡـَٔلُواْ مَآ أَنفَقۡتُمۡ وَلۡيَسۡـَٔلُواْ مَآ أَنفَقُواْ‌ۚ

(and ask for that which you have spent and let them ask for that which they have spent.) means, ask them for what you have paid to your wives who reverted to the side of the idolaters, and they are entitled to get back the dowery that they gave their wives who emigrated to the Muslims. Allah's statement,

﴿ ذَٲلِكُمۡ حُكۡمُ ٱللَّهِ‌ۖ يَحۡكُمُ بَيۡنَكُمۡ‌ۚ

(That is the judgment of Allah, He judges between you.) means, this judgment about the treaty and excluding women from its clauses, is a decision that Allah made for His creatures,

﴿ وَٱللَّهُ عَلِيمٌ حَكِيمٌ۬

(And Allah is All-Knowing, All-Wise.) meaning, He knows what benefits His servants and is the Most Wise about that. Allah the Exalted said,

﴿ وَإِن فَاتَكُمۡ شَىۡءٌ۬ مِّنۡ أَزۡوَٲجِكُمۡ إِلَى ٱلۡكُفَّارِ فَعَاقَبۡتُمۡ فَـَٔاتُواْ ٱلَّذِينَ ذَهَبَتۡ أَزۡوَٲجُهُم مِّثۡلَ مَآ أَنفَقُواْ‌ۚ

(And if any of your wives have gone from you to the disbelievers -- then you succeeded (gained victory) over them; then pay those whose wives have gone, the equivalent of what they had spent.) Mujahid and Qatadah explained this Ayah, by saying, "This is about the disbelievers who did not have a treaty of peace. If a woman flees to the disbelievers and they do not give back what that her husband spent on her, then if a women comes to them (the Muslims) they are not to return to her husband anything until they pay the Muslim whose wife went to them the equivalent of what he spent. '' Ibn Jarir recorded that Az-Zuhri said, "The believers abided by Allah's decree and paid what they owed the idolaters to compensate for the dowery the idolaters gave to the women (who emigrated). However, the idolaters refused to accept Allah's judgment for what they owed the Muslims. Allah said to the faithful believers,

﴿ وَإِن فَاتَكُمۡ شَىۡءٌ۬ مِّنۡ أَزۡوَٲجِكُمۡ إِلَى ٱلۡكُفَّارِ فَعَاقَبۡتُمۡ فَـَٔاتُواْ ٱلَّذِينَ ذَهَبَتۡ أَزۡوَٲجُهُم مِّثۡلَ مَآ أَنفَقُواْ‌ۚ وَٱتَّقُواْ ٱللَّهَ ٱلَّذِىٓ أَنتُم بِهِۦ مُؤۡمِنُونَ

(And if any of your wives have gone from you to the disbelievers -- then you succeeded (gained victory) over them; then pay those whose wives have gone, the equivalent of what they had spent. And have Taqwa of Allah, the One in Whom your are believers.) Therefore, if a Muslim woman reverts to the idolaters, the believers should give back the dowery her Muslim husband paid her, from whatever money is left with them from the dowery of women who migrated to the Muslims. They were supposed to return this wealth to the idolater husbands of these emigrant women. If they still have anything they owed the idolaters, then they should return it to them.''

﴿ يَـٰٓأَيُّہَا ٱلنَّبِىُّ إِذَا جَآءَكَ ٱلۡمُؤۡمِنَـٰتُ يُبَايِعۡنَكَ عَلَىٰٓ أَن لَّا يُشۡرِكۡنَ بِٱللَّهِ شَيۡـًٔ۬ا وَلَا يَسۡرِقۡنَ وَلَا يَزۡنِينَ وَلَا يَقۡتُلۡنَ أَوۡلَـٰدَهُنَّ وَلَا يَأۡتِينَ بِبُهۡتَـٰنٍ۬ يَفۡتَرِينَهُ ۥ بَيۡنَ أَيۡدِيہِنَّ وَأَرۡجُلِهِنَّ وَلَا يَعۡصِينَكَ فِى مَعۡرُوفٍ۬‌ۙ فَبَايِعۡهُنَّ وَٱسۡتَغۡفِرۡ لَهُنَّ ٱللَّهَ‌ۖ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ غَفُورٌ۬ رَّحِيمٌ۬

(12. O Prophet! When the believing women come to you pledging to you that they will not associate anything with Allah, and that they will not steal, and that they will not commit Zina, and that they will not kill their children, and that they will not utter slander, fabricating from between their hands and their feet, and that they will not disobey you in Ma`ruf (good), Allah said to the faithful believers,

﴿ وَإِن فَاتَكُمۡ شَىۡءٌ۬ مِّنۡ أَزۡوَٲجِكُمۡ إِلَى ٱلۡكُفَّارِ فَعَاقَبۡتُمۡ فَـَٔاتُواْ ٱلَّذِينَ ذَهَبَتۡ أَزۡوَٲجُهُم مِّثۡلَ مَآ أَنفَقُواْ‌ۚ وَٱتَّقُواْ ٱللَّهَ ٱلَّذِىٓ أَنتُم بِهِۦ مُؤۡمِنُونَ

(And if any of your wives have gone from you to the disbelievers -- then you succeeded (gained victory) over them; then pay those whose wives have gone, the equivalent of what they had spent. And have Taqwa of Allah, the One in Whom your are believers.) Therefore, if a Muslim woman reverts to the idolaters, the believers should give back the dowery her Muslim husband paid her, from whatever money is left with them from the dowery of women who migrated to the Muslims. They were supposed to return this wealth to the idolater husbands of these emigrant women. If they still have anything they owed the idolaters, then they should return it to them.''

The Matters the Women pledged to

Al-Bukhari recorded that `A'ishah the wife of the Prophet said, "Allah's Messenger used to examine women who migrated to his side according to this Ayah,

﴿ يَـٰٓأَيُّہَا ٱلنَّبِىُّ إِذَا جَآءَكَ ٱلۡمُؤۡمِنَـٰتُ يُبَايِعۡنَكَ

(O Prophet! When believing women come to you pledging to you...) until,

﴿ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ غَفُورٌ۬ رَّحِيمٌ۬

(Verily, Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.)'' `Urwah said, "`A'ishah said, `When any believing woman agreed to these conditions, Allah's Messenger would say to her,

« قَدْ بَايَعْتُك »

(I have accepted your pledge.) but, by Allah, he never touched the hand of any women at all while taking the pledge from them. He only took their pledge of allegiance by saying,

« قَدْ بَايَعْتُكِ عَلى ذَلِك »

(I have accepted your pledge.)'' This is the wording of Al-Bukhari. Imam Ahmad recorded that Umaymah bint Ruqayqah said, "I came to Allah's Messenger with some women to give him our pledge and he took the pledge from us that is mentioned in the Qur'an, that we associate none with Allah, etc; as in the Ayah. Then he said,

« فِيمَا اسْتَطَعْتُنَّ وَأَطَقْتُن »

(As much as you can bear to implement.) We said, `Surely, Allah and His Messenger are more merciful with us than we are with ourselves.' We then said, `O Allah's Messenger, should you not shake hands with us' He said,

« إِنِّي لَا أُصَافِحُ النِّسَاءَ، إِنَّمَا قَوْلِي لِامْرَأَةٍ وَاحِدَةٍ كَقَوْلِي لِمِائَةِ امْرَأَة »

(I do not shake hands with women, for my statement to one woman is as sufficient as my statement to a hundred women.)'' This Hadith has an authentic chain of narration; At-Tirmidhi, An-Nasa'i and Ibn Majah collected it. Al-Bukhari also recorded that Umm `Atiyah said, "The Messenger of Allah took our pledge and recited to us the Ayah,

﴿ أَن لَّا يُشۡرِكۡنَ بِٱللَّهِ شَيۡـًٔ۬ا

(...that they will not associate anything with Allah,) and forbade us to wail for the dead. Thereupon, a lady withdrew her hand saying, `But such and such lady shared with me in lamenting (over one of my relatives), so I must reward hers.' The Prophet did not object to that, so she went there and returned to the Prophet and he accepted her pledge of allegiance.'' Muslim also collected this Hadith. Imam Ahmad recorded that `Ubadah bin As-Samit said, "While we were with the Prophet, he said,

« تُبَايِعُونِي عَلى أَنْ لَا تُشْرِكُوا بِاللهِ شَيْئًا، وَلَا تَسْرِقُوا، وَلَا تَزْنُوا، وَلَا تَقْتُلُوا أَوْلَادَكُمْ »

(Pledge to me in that you will not associate any with Allah, nor steal, nor commit Zina, nor kill your children.) Then he recited the Ayah that begins;

﴿ إِذَا جَآءَكَ ٱلۡمُؤۡمِنَـٰتُ

(when the believing women come to you. ..) and took the pledge of allegiance from the women. He then added,

« فَمَنْ وَفَى مِنْكُمْ فَأَجْرُهُ عَلَى اللهِ، وَمَنْ أَصَابَ مِنْ ذَلِكَ شَيْئًا فَعُوقِبَ بِهِ فَهُوَ كَفَّارَةٌ لَهُ، وَمَنْ أَصَابَ مِنْ ذَلِكَ شَيْئًا فَسَتَرَهُ اللهُ عَلَيْهِ فَهُوَ إِلَى اللهِ، إِنْ شَاءَ غَفَرَ لَهُ، وَإِنْ شَاءَ عَذَّبَه »

(Those among you who fulfill this pledge, will receive their reward from Allah. Those who deviate from any of it and receive the legal punishment (in this life), the punishment will be expiation for that sin. Whoever deviates from any of it and Allah screens him, then it is up to Allah to punish or forgive if He wills.) The Two Sahihs recorded this Hadith. Allah's statement,

﴿ يَـٰٓأَيُّہَا ٱلنَّبِىُّ إِذَا جَآءَكَ ٱلۡمُؤۡمِنَـٰتُ يُبَايِعۡنَكَ

(O Prophet! When the believing women come to you pledging to you) means, `if any woman comes to you to give you the pledge and she accepts these conditions, then accept the pledge from her,'

﴿ عَلَىٰٓ أَن لَّا يُشۡرِكۡنَ بِٱللَّهِ شَيۡـًٔ۬ا وَلَا يَسۡرِقۡنَ

(that they will not associate anything with Allah, that they will not steal,) meaning, the property of other people. In the case where a husband is not fulfilling his duty of spending on his wife, then she is allowed to use a part of his wealth, what is reasonable, to spend on herself. This is the case regardless of whether the husband knows about his wife's actions or not, because of the Hadith in which Hind bint `Utbah said, "O Allah's Messenger! Abu Sufyan is a miser! He does not give me sufficient money for the living expense of our family and myself. Am I allowed to secretly take from his money without his knowledge'' Allah's Messenger said to her,

« خُذِي مِنْ مَالِهِ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ، مَا يَكْفِيكِ وَيَكْفِي بَنِيك »

(You may take from what is reasonable and appropriate for you and your children) This Hadith was recorded in the two Sahihs. Allah's statement,

﴿ وَلَا يَزۡنِينَ

(they will not commit Zina,) is similar to His other statement,

﴿ وَلَا تَقۡرَبُواْ ٱلزِّنَىٰٓ‌ۖ إِنَّهُ ۥ كَانَ فَـٰحِشَةً۬ وَسَآءَ سَبِيلاً۬

(And come not near to Az-Zina. Verily, it is a Fahishah (immoral act) and an evil way.) (17:32) A Hadith collected from Samurah mentions that for the adulterers and fornicators there is a painful torment in the fire of Hell. Imam Ahmad recorded that `A'ishah said, "Fatimah bint `Utbah came to give her pledge to Allah's Messenger, who took the pledge from her,

﴿ أَن لَّا يُشۡرِكۡنَ بِٱللَّهِ شَيۡـًٔ۬ا وَلَا يَسۡرِقۡنَ وَلَا يَزۡنِينَ

(that they will not associate anything with Allah, they will not steal, that they will not commit Zina (fornication and adultery),) Fatimah bashfully placed her hand on her head in shyness. The Prophet liked what she did. `A'ishah said, `O woman! Accept the pledge, because by Allah, we all gave the pledge to the same.' She said, `Yes then,' and she gave her pledge to the same things mentioned in the Ayah.''' Allah's statement,

﴿ وَلَا يَقۡتُلۡنَ أَوۡلَـٰدَهُنَّ

(that they will not kill their children,) includes killing children after they are born. The people of Jahiliyyah used to kill their children because they feared poverty. The Ayah includes killing the fetus, just as some ignorant women do for various evil reasons. Allah's statement,

﴿ وَلَا يَأۡتِينَ بِبُهۡتَـٰنٍ۬ يَفۡتَرِينَهُ ۥ بَيۡنَ أَيۡدِيہِنَّ وَأَرۡجُلِهِنَّ

(and that they will not utter slander, fabricating from between their hands and their feet,) Ibn `Abbas said, "It means that they not to attribute to their husbands other than their legitimate children.'' Muqatil said similarly. Allah's statement,

﴿ وَلَا يَعۡصِينَكَ فِى مَعۡرُوفٍ۬‌ۙ

(and that they will not disobey you in Ma`ruf (good),) means, `that they will obey you when you order them to do good and forbid them from evil.' Al-Bukhari recorded that Ibn `Abbas said about Allah's statement,

﴿ وَلَا يَعۡصِينَكَ فِى مَعۡرُوفٍ۬‌ۙ

(and that they will not disobey you in any Ma`ruf (good), ) "This was one of the conditions which Allah imposed on the women.'' Maymun bin Mihran said, "Allah did not order obedience to His Prophet for other than Ma`ruf, and Ma`ruf is itself obedience.'' Ibn Zayd said, "Allah commanded that His Messenger, the best of His creation, be obeyed in that which is Ma`ruf.'' Ibn Jarir recorded that Umm `Atiyah Al-Ansariyah said, "Among the conditions included in our pledge to Allah's Messenger to good was not to wail. A woman said, `So-and-so family brought comfort to me (by wailing over my dead relative), so I will first pay them back.' So she went and paid them back in the same (wailed for their dead), and then came and gave her pledge. Only she and Umm Sulaym bint Milhan, the mother of Anas bin Malik, did so.'' Al-Bukhari collected this Hadith from the way of Hafsah bint Sirin from Umm `Atiyah Nusaybah Al-Ansariyah, may Allah be pleased with her. Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Asid bin Abi Asid Al-Barrad said that one of the women who gave the pledge to Allah's Messenger said, "Among the conditions included in the pledge that the Messenger took from us, is that we do not disobey any act of Ma`ruf (good) that he ordains. We should neither scratch our faces, pull our hair (in grief), tear our clothes nor wail.''

﴿ يَـٰٓأَيُّہَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ لَا تَتَوَلَّوۡاْ قَوۡمًا غَضِبَ ٱللَّهُ عَلَيۡهِمۡ قَدۡ يَٮِٕسُواْ مِنَ ٱلۡأَخِرَةِ كَمَا يَٮِٕسَ ٱلۡكُفَّارُ مِنۡ أَصۡحَـٰبِ ٱلۡقُبُورِ

(13. O you who believe! Take not as friends the people who incurred the wrath of Allah. Surely, they have despaired of the Hereafter, just as the disbelievers have despaired of those (buried) in graves.) Just like in the beginning of the Surah, Allah the Exalted forbids taking the disbelievers as protecting friends at the end of the Surah, saying,

﴿ يَـٰٓأَيُّہَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ لَا تَتَوَلَّوۡاْ قَوۡمًا غَضِبَ ٱللَّهُ عَلَيۡهِمۡ

(O you who believe! Take not as friends the people who incurred the wrath of Allah.) referring to the Jews, Christians and the rest of the disbelievers whom Allah became angry with and cursed. Those who deserved being rejected and banished by Him. (Allah says here), `how can you become their allies, friends and companions, after Allah decided that they earn the despair of receiving any good or delights in the Hereafter' Allah's statement,

﴿ كَمَا يَٮِٕسَ ٱلۡكُفَّارُ مِنۡ أَصۡحَـٰبِ ٱلۡقُبُورِ

(just as the disbelievers have despaired of those (buried) in graves.) This has two possible meanings. First, the disbelievers despair of ever again meeting their relatives buried in graves, because they do not believe in Resurrection or being brought back to life. Therefore, they have no hope that they will meet them again, according to their creed. Secondly, just as the disbelievers who are buried in graves have lost hope in receiving any kind of goodness (i.e., after seeing the punishment and knowing that Resurrection is true). Al-A`mash reported from Abu Ad-Duha from Masruq that Ibn Mas`ud said,

﴿ كَمَا يَٮِٕسَ ٱلۡكُفَّارُ مِنۡ أَصۡحَـٰبِ ٱلۡقُبُورِ

(just as the disbelievers have despaired of those (buried) in graves.) "Just as the disbeliever despairs when he dies and realizes and knows his (evil) recompense.'' This is the saying of Mujahid, `Ikrimah, Muqatil, Ibn Zayd, Al-Kalbi and Mansur; Ibn Jarir preferred this explanation. This is the end of the Tafsir of Surat Al-Mumtahanah, all praise and thanks be to Allah.

The Virtues of Surat As-Saff

Imam Ahmad recorded that `Abdullah bin Salam said, "We asked, `Who among us should go to the Messenger and ask him about the dearest actions to Allah' None among us volunteered. The Messenger sent a man to us and that man gathered us and recited this Surah, Surat As-Saff, in its entirety.'''

﴿ بِسۡمِ ٱللَّهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

﴿ سَبَّحَ لِلَّهِ مَا فِى ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَمَا فِى ٱلۡأَرۡضِ‌ۖ وَهُوَ ٱلۡعَزِيزُ ٱلۡحَكِيمُ يَـٰٓأَيُّہَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ لِمَ تَقُولُونَ مَا لَا تَفۡعَلُونَ ڪَبُرَ مَقۡتًا عِندَ ٱللَّهِ أَن تَقُولُواْ مَا لَا تَفۡعَلُونَ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ يُحِبُّ ٱلَّذِينَ يُقَـٰتِلُونَ فِى سَبِيلِهِۦ صَفًّ۬ا كَأَنَّهُم بُنۡيَـٰنٌ۬ مَّرۡصُوصٌ۬

(1. Whatsoever is in the heavens and whatsoever is on the earth glorifies Allah. And He is the Almighty, the All-Wise.) (2. O you who believe! Why do you say that which you do not do) (3. Most hateful it is with Allah that you say that which you do not do.) (4. Verily, Allah loves those who fight in His cause in rows as if they were a solid structure.)

Chastising Those Who say what They do not do

We mentioned in many a places before the meaning of Allah's statement,

﴿ سَبَّحَ لِلَّهِ مَا فِى ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَمَا فِى ٱلۡأَرۡضِ‌ۖ وَهُوَ ٱلۡعَزِيزُ ٱلۡحَكِيمُ

(Whatsoever is in the heavens and whatsoever is on the earth glorifies Allah. And He is the Almighty, the All-Wise.) Therefore, we do not need to repeat its meaning here. Allah's statement,

﴿ يَـٰٓأَيُّہَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ لِمَ تَقُولُونَ مَا لَا تَفۡعَلُونَ

(O you who believe! Why do you say that which you do not do) This refutes those who neglect to fulfill their promises. This honorable Ayah supports the view that several scholars of the Salaf held, that it is necessary to fulfill the promise, regardless of whether the promise includes some type of wealth for the person receiving the promise or otherwise. They also argue from the Sunnah, with the Hadith recorded in the Two Sahihs in which Allah's Messenger said,

« آيَةُ الْمُنَافِقِ ثَلَاثٌ: إِذَا وَعَدَ أَخْلَفَ، وَإِذَا حَدَّثَ كَذَبَ، وَإِذَا اؤْتُمِنَ خَان »

(There are three signs for a hypocrite: when he promises, he breaks his promise; when speaks, he lies; and when he is entrusted, he betrays.) And in another Hadith in the Sahih,

« أَرْبَعٌ مَنْ كُنَّ فِيهِ كَانَ مُنَافِقًا خَالِصًا، وَمَنْ كَانَتْ فِيهِ وَاحِدَةٌ مِنْهُنَّ كَانَتْ فِيهِ خَصْلَةٌ مِنْ نِفَاقٍ حَتْى يَدَعَهَا »

(There are four characteristics which if one has all of them, he is the pure hypocrite, and if anyone has any of them, he has a characteristic of hypocrisy, until he abandons it.) So he mentioned breaking the promise among these four characteristics. We mentioned the meaning of these two Hadiths in the beginning of the explanation of Sahih Al-Bukhari, and to Allah is the praise and the thanks. Therefore Allah implied this meaning, when He continued His admonishment by saying,

﴿ ڪَبُرَ مَقۡتًا عِندَ ٱللَّهِ أَن تَقُولُواْ مَا لَا تَفۡعَلُونَ

(Most hateful it is with Allah that you say that which you do not do.) Imam Ahmad and Abu Dawud recorded that `Abdullah bin `Amir bin Rabi`ah said, "Allah's Messenger came to us while I was a young boy, and I went out to play. My mother said, `O `Abdullah! Come, I want to give you something.' Allah's Messenger said to her,

« وَمَا أَرَدْتِ أَنْ تُعْطِيَهُ؟ »

(What did you want to give him) She said, `Dates.' He said,

« أَمَا إِنَّكِ لَوْ لَمْ تَفْعَلِي كُتِبَتْ عَلَيْكِ كَذْبَة »

(If you had not given them to him, it would have been written as a lie in your record.)'' Muqatil bin Hayyan said, "The faithful believers said, `If we only knew the dearest good actions to Allah, we would perform them.' Thus, Allah told them about the dearest actions to Him, saying,

﴿ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ يُحِبُّ ٱلَّذِينَ يُقَـٰتِلُونَ فِى سَبِيلِهِۦ صَفًّ۬ا

(Verily, Allah loves those who fight in His cause in rows) Allah stated what He likes, and they were tested on the day of Uhud. However, they retreated and fled, leaving the Prophet behind. It was about their case that Allah revealed this Ayah:

﴿ يَـٰٓأَيُّہَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ لِمَ تَقُولُونَ مَا لَا تَفۡعَلُونَ

(O you who believe! Why do you say that which you do not do) Allah says here, `The dearest of you to Me, is he who fights in My cause.''' Some said that it was revealed about the gravity of fighting in battle, when one says that he fought and endured the battle, even though he did not do so. Qatadah and Ad-Dahhak said that this Ayah was sent down to admonish some people who used to say that they killed, fought, stabbed, and did such and such during battle, even though they did not do any of it. Sa`id bin Jubayr said about Allah's statement,

﴿ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ يُحِبُّ ٱلَّذِينَ يُقَـٰتِلُونَ فِى سَبِيلِهِۦ صَفًّ۬ا

(Verily, Allah loves those who fight in His cause in rows (ranks)) "Before Allah's Messenger began the battle against the enemy, he liked to line up his forces in rows; in this Surah, Allah teaches the believers to do the same.'' He also said that Allah's statement,

﴿ كَأَنَّهُم بُنۡيَـٰنٌ۬ مَّرۡصُوصٌ۬

(as if they were a solid structure.) means, its parts are firmly connected to each other; in rows for battle. Muqatil bin Hayyan said, "Firmly connected to each other.'' Ibn `Abbas commented on the meaning of the Ayah,

﴿ كَأَنَّهُم بُنۡيَـٰنٌ۬ مَّرۡصُوصٌ۬

(as if they were a solid structure.) by saying, "They are like a firm structure that does not move, because its parts are cemented to each other.''

﴿ وَإِذۡ قَالَ مُوسَىٰ لِقَوۡمِهِۦ يَـٰقَوۡمِ لِمَ تُؤۡذُونَنِى وَقَد تَّعۡلَمُونَ أَنِّى رَسُولُ ٱللَّهِ إِلَيۡڪُمۡ‌ۖ فَلَمَّا زَاغُوٓاْ أَزَاغَ ٱللَّهُ قُلُوبَهُمۡ‌ۚ وَٱللَّهُ لَا يَہۡدِى ٱلۡقَوۡمَ ٱلۡفَـٰسِقِينَ وَإِذۡ قَالَ عِيسَى ٱبۡنُ مَرۡيَمَ يَـٰبَنِىٓ إِسۡرَٲٓءِيلَ إِنِّى رَسُولُ ٱللَّهِ إِلَيۡكُم مُّصَدِّقً۬ا لِّمَا بَيۡنَ يَدَىَّ مِنَ ٱلتَّوۡرَٮٰةِ وَمُبَشِّرَۢا بِرَسُولٍ۬ يَأۡتِى مِنۢ بَعۡدِى ٱسۡمُهُ ۥۤ أَحۡمَدُ‌ۖ فَلَمَّا جَآءَهُم بِٱلۡبَيِّنَـٰتِ قَالُواْ هَـٰذَا سِحۡرٌ۬ مُّبِينٌ۬

(5. And when Musa said to his people: "O my people! Why do you annoy me while you know certainly that I am the Messenger of Allah to you So, when they turned away (from the path of Allah), Allah turned their hearts away (from the right path). And Allah guides not the people who are rebellious.) (6. And (remember) when `Isa, son of Maryam, said: "O Children of Israel! I am the Messenger of Allah unto you, confirming the Tawrah ﴿which came before me, and giving glad tidings of a Messenger to come after me, whose name shall be Ahmad. "But when he came to them with clear proofs, they said: "This is plain magic.'')