In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.
(1. Al-Haqqah!) (2. What is Al-Haqqah) (3. And what will make you know what Al-Haqqah is) (4. Thamud and `Ad denied the Qari`ah!) (5. As for Thamud, they were destroyed by the Taghiyah!) (6. And as for `Ad, they were destroyed by a wind, Sarsar `Atiyah!) (7. Which Allah imposed on them for seven nights and eight days Husum, so that you could see men lying toppled, as if they were trunks of date palms, Khawiyah!) (8. Do you see any remnants of them) (9. And Fir`awn, and those before him, and the cities overthrown committed Al-Khati'ah.) (10. And they disobeyed their Lord's Messenger, so He seized them with a punishment that was Rabiyah.) (11. Verily, when the water rose beyond its limits, We carried you in the ship.) (12. That We might make it an admonition for you and that it might be retained by the retaining ears.)
Al-Haqqah is one of the names of the Day of Judgment, because during it the promise and the threat will inevitably occur. Due to this, Allah has declared the greatness of this matter. So He says,
(And what will make you know what Al-Haqqah is)
Then Allah mentions the destruction of the nations that denied the Resurrection. He says,
(As for Thamud, they were destroyed by the Taghiyah!) It is the cry which will silence them, and the quake that will silence them. Qatadah said similar to this when he said, "At-Taghiyah is the shout.'' Mujahid said, "At-Taghiyah means the sins.'' This was also said by Ar-Rabi` bin Anas and bin Zayd. They said that it means transgression. After mentioning this, Ibn Zayd recited the following Ayat as proof for his statement,
(Thamud denied through their transgression.) Then Allah says,
(And as for `Ad, they were destroyed by a wind Sarsar) meaning, a cold wind. Qatadah, As-Suddi, Ar-Rabi` bin Anas and Ath-Thawri all said about,
(`Atiyah) "This means severe blowing of the wind.'' Qatadah said, "It blew fiercely upon them until it pierced their hearts.'' Ad-Dahhak said,
(Sarsar) "This means cold, and
(`Atiyah) means, it blew fiercely upon them without any mercy or blessing.'' `Ali and others said, "It blew fiercely upon their stored harvest until it was brought out worthless.''
(Which Allah imposed on them) meaning, He made it overpower them.
(for seven nights and eight days Husum,) Husum means, complete, successive and unfortunately evil. Ibn Mas`ud, Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, `Ikrimah, Ath-Thawri and others all said, "Husum means in succession.'' It has been reported that `Ikrimah and Ar-Rabi` bin Khuthaym both said, "It means it was unfortunately evil upon them.'' This is similar to Allah's statement,
(in days of calamity) (41: 16) It has been said that it is that which people now call A`jaz (apparently used to mean evil devastation). It seems as though the people took this term from Allah's statement,
(so that you could see the people lying toppled, as if they were A`jaz (trunks) of date palms, Khawiyah!) Ibn `Abbas said about,
(Khawiyah) "It means ruined.'' Others besides him said, "It means dilapidated.'' This means that the wind would cause one of them (palm tree) to hit the ground, and it will fall down dead on his head. Then his head would shatter and it would remain a lifeless corpse as if it were without branches, motionless. It has been confirmed in the Two Sahihs that the Messenger of Allah said,
(I was helped by an easterly wind and the people of `Ad were destroyed by a westerly wind.)
(Do you see any remnants of them) meaning, `do you find any one of them left or anyone who even attributes himself to being from them' Rather they are all gone, right down to the last of them, and Allah did not make for them any successors. Then Allah says,
(And Fir`awn and those before him committed (sin)) This has been recited with a Kasrah under the letter Qaf (in the word Qabalahu, as Qiblahu), which changes the meaning to those who were with him in his time, and they were his followers who were disbelieving Coptic people. Others recited it with a Fathah over the letter Qaf (as the word Qablahu), which means those nations before him who were similar to him. Concerning Allah's statement,
(the overthrown cities) those nations that rejected their Messengers.
(committed Al-Khati'ah.) Al-Khati'ah means their rejection of what Allah revealed. Ar-Rabi` said,
(committed Al-Khati'ah.) "This means disobedience.'' Mujahid said, "They committed errors.'' Thus, Allah says,
(And they disobeyed their Lord's Messenger,) meaning they were all of the same type, they all denied the Messenger of Allah who was sent to them. As Allah says,
(Everyone of them denied the Messengers, so My threat took effect.) So whoever denies a Messenger, then verily, he denies all of the Messengers. This is as Allah says,
(The people of Nuh belied the Messengers)
(`Ad belied the Messengers.)
(Thamud belied the Messengers.) However, only one Messenger came to every nation. Thus, Allah says here,
(And they disobeyed their Lord's Messenger, so He seized them with a punishment that was Rabiyah.) Rabiyah means, great, severe and painful. Mujahid said, "Rabiyah means severe.'' As-Suddi said, "It means destructive.''
Then, Allah says,
(Verily, when the water rose beyond its limits,) meaning, it rose up over its shores by the leave of Allah and it overcame all that existed. Ibn `Abbas and others said, "The water rising beyond its boundary means it increased abundantly.'' This happened due to the supplication of Nuh against his people when they denied him, opposed him and worshipped other than Allah. Therefore, Allah answered his supplication and the people of the earth were covered with the flood except for those who were with Nuh in the ship. Thus, are humans all from the loins of Nuh and his progeny. For this reason Allah reminds humanity of His blessing,
(Verily, when the water rose beyond its limits, We carried you in the ship.) meaning, a ship running along upon the surface of the water.
(That We might make it an admonition for you) The pronoun "it'' here refers to the species of the object (ships) due to the general meaning alluding to this. Thus, the meaning is, `We caused its type of creation (ships) to remain (in the earth) for you, so that you ride upon the currents of the water in the seas. 'This is as Allah says,
(and has appointed for you ships and cattle on which you ride; In order that you may mount on their backs, and then may remember the favor of your Lord when you mount thereon) (43:12,13) And Allah said,
(And an Ayah for them is that We bore their offspring in the laden ship. And We have created for them of the like thereunto, on which they ride.) (36:41,42) Qatadah said, "Allah caused this ship to remain until the first people of this Ummah saw it.'' However, the first view (that it refers to all ships in general) is the most apparent. Allah continues saying,
(and that it might be retained by the retaining ears.) meaning, that a receptive ear may understand and reflect upon this bounty. Ibn `Abbas said, "This means an ear that is retentive and hearing.'' Qatadah said,
(by the retaining ears.) means, "An ear that Allah gives intelligence, so it benefits by what it hears from Allah's Book.'' Ad-Dahhak said,
(and that it might be retained by the retaining ears.) (69:12) means, "An ear that hears it and retains it, meaning the person who has sound hearing, and correct intellect.'' And this is general concerning everyone who understands and retains.
(13. Then when the Trumpet will be blown with one blowing.) (14. And the earth and the mountains shall be removed from their places, and crushed with a single crushing.) (15. Then on that Day shall the Event occur.) (16. And the heaven will be rent asunder, for that Day it will be frail and torn up.) (17. And the angels will be on its sides, and eight angels will, that Day, bear the Throne of your Lord above them.) (18. That Day shall you be brought to Judgment, not a secret of you will be hidden.)
Allah informs of the horrors that will take place on the Day of Judgment. The first of these events is the blowing of fright (into the Trumpet), which will be followed by the blowing of destruction when everyone in the heavens and the earth will be struck down except whoever Allah wills. Then, after this will be the blowing of standing before the Lord of all that exists, and the resurrection, and the gathering. And this is that blowing. It is emphasized here that it is one blowing, because the command of Allah cannot be opposed or prevented, and it does not need to be repeated or stressed. Thus, Allah goes on to say,
(And the earth and the mountains shall be removed from their places, and crushed with a single crushing.) meaning, they will be stretched out to the extent of the surface (of the earth) and the earth will change into something else other than the earth.
(Then on that Day shall the Event occur.) meaning, the Day of Judgment.
(And the heaven will be rent asunder, for that Day it will be frail and torn up.) Ibn Jurayj said, "This is like Allah's statement,
(And the heaven shall be opened, it will become as gates.) (78:19) Ibn `Abbas said, "It (the sky) will be torn apart and the Throne will be near it.''
(And the angels will be on its sides,) The word Malak here is referring to the species of angels (all of them); meaning the angels collectively will be standing on the sides of the heavens. Ar-Rabi` bin Anas said concerning Allah's statement,
(And the angels will be on its sides,) "This means that they will be standing on what has been ground to powder of the heavens looking at the people of the earth.'
Concerning the statement of Allah,
(That Day shall you be brought to Judgment, not a secret of you will be hidden.), meaning, `you will all be presented to the Knower of the secrets and private counsels. He is the One from Whom none of your affairs are hidden. He is the Knower of all things apparent, secret and hidden.' This is the reason that Allah says,
(not a secret of you will be hidden.) Imam Ahmad recorded from Abu Musa that the Messenger of Allah said,
(The people will be exhibited three times on the Day of Judgment. The first two presentations will be (their) arguing and offering excuses. During the third presentation the pages (records) will fly into their hands. Some of them will receive the records in their right hands and some will receive them in their left hands.) Ibn Majah and At-Tirmidhi both recorded this Hadith.
(19. Then as for him who will be given his Record in his right hand will say: "Here! read my Record!'') (20. "Surely, I did believe that I shall meet my account!'') (21. So, he shall be in a life, well-pleasing.) (22. In a lofty Paradise,) (23. The fruits in bunches whereof will be low and near at hand.) (24. Eat and drink at ease for that which you have sent on before you in days past!)
Allah informs of the happiness of those who receive their Book in the right hand on the Day of Judgment and being pleased with this. Out of his extreme pleasure is his saying to everyone that he meets,
(Here! read my Record!) meaning, `take my Book and read it.' He will say this because he knows that what is in it is good and purely virtuous deeds. He will be of those whom Allah replaced their bad deeds (evils) with good deeds. `Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd said, "The meaning of
(Here! read my Record!) is `Here, read my Book.'... The suffix `Um' is a grammatical addition.'' This is what he (`Abdur-Rahman) said. It seems apparent that the suffix `Um' means here `you all.' Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that `Abdullah bin `Abdullah bin Hanzalah - and he (Hanzalah) was the Companion who was washed by the angels for his funeral - said, "Verily, Allah will stop His servant on the Day of Judgment and He will make his sins appear on the outside of his Book of Records. Then He will say to him, `Did you do this? The servant will respond, `Yes my Lord.' Then Allah will say to him, `I will not expose you (or dishonor you) for it, for verily, I have forgiven you. 'The person will then say, `Here (you all) read my Book!'''
(Surely, I did believe that I shall meet my account!) This will be when he (the servant of Allah) will be saved from being disgraced and exposed on the Day of Judgment. In the Sahih, it is recorded from Ibn `Umar that he was asked about the private counsel. He responded by saying that he heard the Messenger of Allah saying,
(Allah will bring the servant close (to Him) on the Day of Judgment and make him confess all of his sins. This will continue until the servant thinks that he is about to be destroyed. Then Allah will say, "Verily, I have concealed these sins for you in the worldly life and I have forgiven you for them today.'' Then he will be given his Book of good deeds in his right hand. However, about the disbeliever and the hypocrite, the witnesses will say, ("These are those who lied on their Lord, and verily, the curse of Allah is on the wrongdoers.'')) Allah's statement,
(Surely, I did believe that I shall meet my account!) means, `I used to be certain in the worldly life that this day would definitely come.' This is as Allah says,
((They are those) who are certain that they are going to meet their Lord.) (2:46) Allah then says,
(So he shall be in a life, well-pleasing.) (69:21), meaning, pleasant.
(In a lofty Paradise,) meaning, having elevated castles, beautiful wide-eyed maidens, pleasant stations and eternal joy. It has been confirmed in the Sahih that the Prophet said,
(Verily, Paradise has one hundred levels and between each level is a distance like the distance between the earth and the sky.) Then Allah says,
(The fruits in bunches whereof will be low and near at hand.) Al-Bara' bin `Azib said, "This means close enough for one of them (the people of Paradise) to reach them while he is lying on his bed.'' More than one person has said this. Then Allah says,
(Eat and drink at ease for that which you have sent on before you in days past!) meaning, this will be said to them as an invitation to them of blessing, favor and goodness. For verily, it has been confirmed in the Sahih that the Messenger of Allah said,
(Work deeds, strive, seek to draw near (to Allah) and know that none of you will be admitted into Paradise because of his deeds.) They (the Companions) said, "Not even you O Messenger of Allah?'' He replied,
(Not even me, except if Allah covers me with mercy from Himself and grace.)
(25. But as for him who will be given his Record in his left hand, will say: "I wish that I had not been given my Record!'') (26. "And that I had never known how my account is!'') (27. "Would that it had been my end!'') (28. "My wealth has not availed me;'') (29. "My power has gone from me!'') (30. (It will be said): "Seize him and fetter him;'') (31. "Then throw him in the blazing Fire.'') (32. "Then fasten him on a chain whereof the length is seventy cubits!'') (33. Verily, he used not to believe in Allah, the Most Great,) (34. And urged not the feeding of the poor.) (35. So, no friend has he here this Day,) (36. Nor any food except filth from Ghislin.) (37. None will eat it except the Khati'un.)