;
The Happiness of the Person Who will receive His Book in His Right Hand and His Good Situation

Allah informs of the happiness of those who receive their Book in the right hand on the Day of Judgment and being pleased with this. Out of his extreme pleasure is his saying to everyone that he meets,

﴿ هَآؤُمُ ٱقۡرَءُواْ كِتَـٰبِيَهۡ

(Here! read my Record!) meaning, `take my Book and read it.' He will say this because he knows that what is in it is good and purely virtuous deeds. He will be of those whom Allah replaced their bad deeds (evils) with good deeds. `Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd said, "The meaning of

﴿ هَآؤُمُ ٱقۡرَءُواْ كِتَـٰبِيَهۡ

(Here! read my Record!) is `Here, read my Book.'... The suffix `Um' is a grammatical addition.'' This is what he (`Abdur-Rahman) said. It seems apparent that the suffix `Um' means here `you all.' Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that `Abdullah bin `Abdullah bin Hanzalah - and he (Hanzalah) was the Companion who was washed by the angels for his funeral - said, "Verily, Allah will stop His servant on the Day of Judgment and He will make his sins appear on the outside of his Book of Records. Then He will say to him, `Did you do this? The servant will respond, `Yes my Lord.' Then Allah will say to him, `I will not expose you (or dishonor you) for it, for verily, I have forgiven you. 'The person will then say, `Here (you all) read my Book!'''

﴿ إِنِّى ظَنَنتُ أَنِّى مُلَـٰقٍ حِسَابِيَهۡ

(Surely, I did believe that I shall meet my account!) This will be when he (the servant of Allah) will be saved from being disgraced and exposed on the Day of Judgment. In the Sahih, it is recorded from Ibn `Umar that he was asked about the private counsel. He responded by saying that he heard the Messenger of Allah saying,

« يُدْنِي اللهُ الْعَبْدَ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ فَيُقَرِّرُهُ بِذُنُوبِهِ كُلِّهَا، حَتْى إِذَا رَأَى أَنَّهُ قَدْ هَلَكَ قَالَ اللهُ تَعَالى: إِنِّي سَتَرْتُهَا عَلَيْكَ فِي الدُّنْيَا وَأَنَا أَغْفِرُهَا لَكَ الْيَوْمَ، ثُمَّ يُعْطَى كِتَابَ حَسَنَاتِهِ بِيَمِينِهِ. وَأَمَّا الْكَافِرُ وَالْمُنَافِقُ فَيَقُولُ الْأَشْهَادُ
﴿ هَـٰٓؤُلَآءِ ٱلَّذِينَ كَذَبُواْ عَلَىٰ رَبِّهِمۡ‌ۚ أَلَا لَعۡنَةُ ٱللَّهِ عَلَى ٱلظَّـٰلِمِينَ

(Allah will bring the servant close (to Him) on the Day of Judgment and make him confess all of his sins. This will continue until the servant thinks that he is about to be destroyed. Then Allah will say, "Verily, I have concealed these sins for you in the worldly life and I have forgiven you for them today.'' Then he will be given his Book of good deeds in his right hand. However, about the disbeliever and the hypocrite, the witnesses will say, ("These are those who lied on their Lord, and verily, the curse of Allah is on the wrongdoers.'')) Allah's statement,

﴿ إِنِّى ظَنَنتُ أَنِّى مُلَـٰقٍ حِسَابِيَهۡ

(Surely, I did believe that I shall meet my account!) means, `I used to be certain in the worldly life that this day would definitely come.' This is as Allah says,

﴿ ٱلَّذِينَ يَظُنُّونَ أَنَّہُم مُّلَـٰقُواْ رَبِّہِمۡ

((They are those) who are certain that they are going to meet their Lord.) (2:46) Allah then says,

﴿ فَهُوَ فِى عِيشَةٍ۬ رَّاضِيَةٍ۬

(So he shall be in a life, well-pleasing.) (69:21), meaning, pleasant.

﴿ فِى جَنَّةٍ عَالِيَةٍ۬

(In a lofty Paradise,) meaning, having elevated castles, beautiful wide-eyed maidens, pleasant stations and eternal joy. It has been confirmed in the Sahih that the Prophet said,

« إِنَّ الْجَنَّةَ مِائَةُ دَرَجَةٍ مَا بَيْنَ كُلِّ دَرَجَتَيْنِ كَمَا بَيْنَ السَّمَاءِ وَالْأَرْض »

(Verily, Paradise has one hundred levels and between each level is a distance like the distance between the earth and the sky.) Then Allah says,

﴿ قُطُوفُهَا دَانِيَةٌ۬

(The fruits in bunches whereof will be low and near at hand.) Al-Bara' bin `Azib said, "This means close enough for one of them (the people of Paradise) to reach them while he is lying on his bed.'' More than one person has said this. Then Allah says,

﴿ كُلُواْ وَٱشۡرَبُواْ هَنِيٓـَٔۢا بِمَآ أَسۡلَفۡتُمۡ فِى ٱلۡأَيَّامِ ٱلۡخَالِيَةِ

(Eat and drink at ease for that which you have sent on before you in days past!) meaning, this will be said to them as an invitation to them of blessing, favor and goodness. For verily, it has been confirmed in the Sahih that the Messenger of Allah said,

« اعْمَلُوا وَسَدِّدُوا وَقَارِبُوا، وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّ أَحَدًا مِنْكُمْ لَنْ يُدْخِلَهُ عَمَلُهُ الْجَنَّة »

(Work deeds, strive, seek to draw near (to Allah) and know that none of you will be admitted into Paradise because of his deeds.) They (the Companions) said, "Not even you O Messenger of Allah?'' He replied,

« وَلَا أَنَا إِلَّا أَنْ يَتَغَمَّدَنِيَ اللهُ بِرَحْمَةٍ مِنْهُ وَفَضْل »

(Not even me, except if Allah covers me with mercy from Himself and grace.)

﴿ وَأَمَّا مَنۡ أُوتِىَ كِتَـٰبَهُ ۥ بِشِمَالِهِۦ فَيَقُولُ يَـٰلَيۡتَنِى لَمۡ أُوتَ كِتَـٰبِيَهۡ وَلَمۡ أَدۡرِ مَا حِسَابِيَهۡ يَـٰلَيۡتَہَا كَانَتِ ٱلۡقَاضِيَةَ مَآ أَغۡنَىٰ عَنِّى مَالِيَهۡۜ هَلَكَ عَنِّى سُلۡطَـٰنِيَهۡ خُذُوهُ فَغُلُّوهُ ثُمَّ ٱلۡجَحِيمَ صَلُّوهُ ثُمَّ فِى سِلۡسِلَةٍ۬ ذَرۡعُهَا سَبۡعُونَ ذِرَاعً۬ا فَٱسۡلُكُوهُ إِنَّهُ ۥ كَانَ لَا يُؤۡمِنُ بِٱللَّهِ ٱلۡعَظِيمِ وَلَا يَحُضُّ عَلَىٰ طَعَامِ ٱلۡمِسۡكِينِ فَلَيۡسَ لَهُ ٱلۡيَوۡمَ هَـٰهُنَا حَمِيمٌ۬ وَلَا طَعَامٌ إِلَّا مِنۡ غِسۡلِينٍ۬ لَّا يَأۡكُلُهُ ۥۤ إِلَّا ٱلۡخَـٰطِـُٔونَ

(25. But as for him who will be given his Record in his left hand, will say: "I wish that I had not been given my Record!'') (26. "And that I had never known how my account is!'') (27. "Would that it had been my end!'') (28. "My wealth has not availed me;'') (29. "My power has gone from me!'') (30. (It will be said): "Seize him and fetter him;'') (31. "Then throw him in the blazing Fire.'') (32. "Then fasten him on a chain whereof the length is seventy cubits!'') (33. Verily, he used not to believe in Allah, the Most Great,) (34. And urged not the feeding of the poor.) (35. So, no friend has he here this Day,) (36. Nor any food except filth from Ghislin.) (37. None will eat it except the Khati'un.)

The Bad Condition of Whoever is given His Record in His Left Hand

These Ayat inform about the condition of the wretched people when one of them is given his Record (of deeds) in his left hand when the people are brought before Allah. At this time he will be very remorseful.

﴿ وَأَمَّا مَنۡ أُوتِىَ كِتَـٰبَهُ ۥ بِشِمَالِهِۦ فَيَقُولُ يَـٰلَيۡتَنِى لَمۡ أُوتَ كِتَـٰبِيَهۡ وَلَمۡ أَدۡرِ مَا حِسَابِيَهۡ يَـٰلَيۡتَہَا كَانَتِ ٱلۡقَاضِيَةَ

((He) will say: "I wish that I had not been given my Record! And that I had never known how my account is! Would that it had been my end!...'') Ad-Dahhak said, "Meaning a death which is not followed by any life.'' Likewise said Muhammad bin Ka`b, Ar-Rabi` and As-Suddi. Qatadah said, "He will hope for death even though in the worldly life it was the most hated thing to him.''

﴿ مَآ أَغۡنَىٰ عَنِّى مَالِيَهۡۜ هَلَكَ عَنِّى سُلۡطَـٰنِيَهۡ

(My wealth has not availed me; my power has gone from me.) means, `my wealth and my honor did not protect me from the punishment of Allah and His torment. Now the matter has ended with me alone and I have no helper nor anyone to save me.' At this Allah says,

﴿ خُذُوهُ فَغُلُّوهُ ثُمَّ ٱلۡجَحِيمَ صَلُّوهُ

(Seize him and fetter him; then throw him in the blazing Fire.) meaning, He will command the guardians of Hell to forcibly remove him from the gathering place, fetter him - meaning put iron collars on his neck - then carry him off to Hell and cast him into it, meaning they will submerge him in it. Allah said,

﴿ ثُمَّ فِى سِلۡسِلَةٍ۬ ذَرۡعُهَا سَبۡعُونَ ذِرَاعً۬ا فَٱسۡلُكُوهُ

(Then fasten him on a chain whereof the length is seventy cubits!) Ka`b Al-Ahbar said, "Every ring of it will be equal to the entire amount of iron found in this world.'' Al-`Awfi reported that Ibn `Abbas and Ibn Jurayj both said, "Each cubit will be the forearm's length of an angel.'' Ibn Jurayj reported that Ibn `Abbas said,

﴿ فَٱسۡلُكُوهُ

(Then fasten him) "It will be entered into his buttocks and pulled out of his mouth. Then they will be arranged on this (chain) just like locusts are arranged on a stick that is being roasted.'' Al-`Awfi reported from Ibn `Abbas that he said, "It will be ran into his behind until it is brought out of his two nostrils so he will not be able to stand on his two feet.'' Imam Ahmad recorded from `Abdullah bin `Amr that the Messenger of Allah said,

« لَوْ أَنَّ رَصَاصَةً مِثْلَ هذِهِ وأشار إلى جُمْجُمَةٍ أُرْسِلَتْ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ إِلَى الْأَرْضِ، وَهِيَ مَسِيرَةُ خَمْسِمِائَةِ سَنَةٍ، لَبَلَغَتِ الْأَرْضَ قَبْلَ اللَّيْلِ وَلَوْ أَنَّهَا أُرْسِلَتْ مِنْ رَأْسِ السِّلْسِلَةِ لَسَارَتْ أَرْبَعِينَ خَرِيفًا اللَّيْلَ وَالنَّهَارَ قَبْلَ أَنْ تَبْلُغَ قَعْرَهَا أَوْ أَصْلَهَا »

(If a drop of lead like this - and he pointed to a skull bone - were sent from the heaven to the earth, and it is a distance of five hundred years travel, it would reach the earth before night. And if it (the same drop of lead) were sent from the head of the chain (of Hell), it would travel forty fall seasons, night and day, before it would reach its (Hell's) cavity or base.) At-Tirmidhi also recorded this Hadith and he said, "This Hadith is Hasan.'' Concerning Allah's statement,

﴿ إِنَّهُ ۥ كَانَ لَا يُؤۡمِنُ بِٱللَّهِ ٱلۡعَظِيمِ وَلَا يَحُضُّ عَلَىٰ طَعَامِ ٱلۡمِسۡكِينِ

(Verily, he used not to believe in Allah, the Most Great, and urged not on the feeding of the poor.) meaning, he did not establish the right of Allah upon him, of obedience to Him and performing His worship. He also did not benefit Allah's creation nor did he give them their rights. For verily, Allah has a right upon the servants that they worship Him alone and not associate anything with Him. The servants of Allah also have a right upon each other to good treatment and assistance in righteousness and piety. For this reason, Allah commanded performance of the prayer and the payment of Zakah. When the Prophet was (in his last moments) near death he said,

« الصَّلَاةَ وَمَا مَلَكَتْ أَيْمَانُكُم »

(The prayer (As-Salah) and your right hand possessions (i.e., slaves).) Allah says,

﴿ فَلَيۡسَ لَهُ ٱلۡيَوۡمَ هَـٰهُنَا حَمِيمٌ۬ وَلَا طَعَامٌ إِلَّا مِنۡ غِسۡلِينٍ۬ لَّا يَأۡكُلُهُ ۥۤ إِلَّا ٱلۡخَـٰطِـُٔونَ

(So no friend has he here this Day. Nor any food except filth from the washing of wounds. None will eat it except the Khati'un.) meaning, there is no one today who can save him from the punishment of Allah, nor any close friend or intercessor whose request would be honored. He will have no food here except for the filthy washing of wounds. Qatadah said, "It will be the worst food of the people of the Hellfire.'' Ar-Rabi` and Ad-Dahhak both said, "It (Ghislin) is a tree in Hell.'' Shabib bin Bishr reported from `Ikrimah that Ibn `Abbas said, `Ghislin will be the blood and fluid that will flow from their flesh.'' `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported from Ibn `Abbas that he said, `Ghislin is the pus of the people of the Hellfire.''

﴿ فَلَآ أُقۡسِمُ بِمَا تُبۡصِرُونَ وَمَا لَا تُبۡصِرُونَ إِنَّهُ ۥ لَقَوۡلُ رَسُولٍ۬ كَرِيمٍ۬ وَمَا هُوَ بِقَوۡلِ شَاعِرٍ۬‌ۚ قَلِيلاً۬ مَّا تُؤۡمِنُونَ وَلَا بِقَوۡلِ كَاهِنٍ۬‌ۚ قَلِيلاً۬ مَّا تَذَكَّرُونَ تَنزِيلٌ۬ مِّن رَّبِّ ٱلۡعَـٰلَمِينَ

(38. So, I swear by whatsoever you see,) (39. And by whatsoever you see not,) (40. That this is verily the word of an honored Messenger.) (41. It is not the word of a poet, little is that you believe!) (42. Nor is it the word of a soothsayer, little is that you remember!) (43. This is the revelation sent down from the Lord of all that exists.)

The Qur'an is the Speech of Allah

Allah swears by His creation, in which some of His signs can be seen in His creatures. These also indicate the perfection of His Names and Attributes. He then swears by the hidden things that they cannot see. This is an oath swearing that the Qur'an is His Speech, His inspiration and His revelation to His servant and Messenger, whom He chose to convey His Message, and the Messenger carried out this trust faithfully. So Allah says,

﴿ فَلَآ أُقۡسِمُ بِمَا تُبۡصِرُونَ وَمَا لَا تُبۡصِرُونَ إِنَّهُ ۥ لَقَوۡلُ رَسُولٍ۬ كَرِيمٍ۬

(So I swear by whatsoever you see, and by whatsoever you see not, that this is verily the word of an honored Messenger.) meaning, Muhammad. Allah gave this description to him, a description which carries the meaning of conveying, because the duty of a messenger is to convey from the sender. Therefore, Allah gave this description to the angelic Messenger in Surat At-Takwir, where he said,

﴿ إِنَّهُ ۥ لَقَوۡلُ رَسُولٍ۬ كَرِيمٍ۬ ذِى قُوَّةٍ عِندَ ذِى ٱلۡعَرۡشِ مَكِينٍ۬ مُّطَاعٍ۬ ثَمَّ أَمِينٍ۬

(Verily, this is the Word of (this Qur'an brought by) a most honorable messenger. Owner of power (and high rank) with Allah, the Lord of the Throne. Obeyed and trustworthy.) (81:19-21) And here, it refers to Jibril. Then Allah says,

﴿ وَمَا صَاحِبُكُم بِمَجۡنُونٍ۬

(and your companion is not a madman. ) (81:22) meaning, Muhammad.

﴿ وَلَقَدۡ رَءَاهُ بِٱلۡأُفُقِ ٱلۡمُبِينِ

(And indeed he saw him in the clear horizon.) (81:23) meaning, Muhammad saw Jibril in his true form in which Allah created him.

﴿ وَمَا هُوَ عَلَى ٱلۡغَيۡبِ بِضَنِينٍ۬

(And he is not Danin with the Unseen.) (81:24) meaning, suspicious.

﴿ وَمَا هُوَ بِقَوۡلِ شَيۡطَـٰنٍ۬ رَّجِيمٍ۬

(And it (the Qur'an) is not he word of the outcast Shaytan.) (81:25) This is similar to what is being said here.

﴿ وَمَا هُوَ بِقَوۡلِ شَاعِرٍ۬‌ۚ قَلِيلاً۬ مَّا تُؤۡمِنُونَ وَلَا بِقَوۡلِ كَاهِنٍ۬‌ۚ قَلِيلاً۬ مَّا تَذَكَّرُونَ

(It is not the word of a poet, little is that you believe! Nor is it the word of soothsayer, little is that you remember!) So in one instance Allah applies the term messenger to the angelic Messenger and in another instance He applies it to the human Messenger (Muhammad). This is because both of them are conveying from Allah that which has been entrusted to them of Allah's revelation and Speech. Thus, Allah says,

﴿ تَنزِيلٌ۬ مِّن رَّبِّ ٱلۡعَـٰلَمِينَ

(This is the revelation sent down from the Lord of all that exists.)

﴿ وَلَوۡ تَقَوَّلَ عَلَيۡنَا بَعۡضَ ٱلۡأَقَاوِيلِ لَأَخَذۡنَا مِنۡهُ بِٱلۡيَمِينِ ثُمَّ لَقَطَعۡنَا مِنۡهُ ٱلۡوَتِينَ فَمَا مِنكُم مِّنۡ أَحَدٍ عَنۡهُ حَـٰجِزِينَ وَإِنَّهُ ۥ لَتَذۡكِرَةٌ۬ لِّلۡمُتَّقِينَ وَإِنَّا لَنَعۡلَمُ أَنَّ مِنكُم مُّكَذِّبِينَ وَإِنَّهُ ۥ لَحَسۡرَةٌ عَلَى ٱلۡكَـٰفِرِينَ وَإِنَّهُ ۥ لَحَقُّ ٱلۡيَقِينِ فَسَبِّحۡ بِٱسۡمِ رَبِّكَ ٱلۡعَظِيمِ

(44. And if he had forged a false saying concerning Us,) (45. We surely would have seized him by his right hand,) (46. And then We certainly would have cut off Al-Watin from him,) (47. And none of you could have prevented it from him.) (48. And verily, this is a Reminder for those who have Taqwa.) (49. And verily, We know that there are some among you that deny.) (50. And indeed it will be an anguish for the disbelievers. (51. And verily, it (this Qur'an) is an absolute truth with certainty.) (52. So, glorify the Name of your Lord, the Most Great.)

If the Prophet forged anything against Allah, then Allah would punish Him

Allah says,

﴿ وَلَوۡ تَقَوَّلَ عَلَيۡنَا

(And if he had forged a false saying concerning Us,) meaning, `if Muhammad forged something against Us, as they claim, and added or removed anything from the Message, or said anything from himself while attributing it to Us, then We would surely be swift in punishing him. And of course, Muhammad did not do any of this (as the disbelievers claimed).' Thus, Allah says,

﴿ لَأَخَذۡنَا مِنۡهُ بِٱلۡيَمِينِ

(We surely would have seized him by his right hand,) It has been said that this means, `We would seize him by the right hand because it is more stronger in grabbing.'

﴿ ثُمَّ لَقَطَعۡنَا مِنۡهُ ٱلۡوَتِينَ

(And then We certainly would have cut off Al-Watin from him,) Ibn `Abbas said, "It (Al-Watin) refers to the artery of the heart, and it is the vein that is attached to the heart.'' This has also been said by `Ikrimah, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Al-Hakim, Qatadah, Ad-Dahhak, Muslim Al-Batin and Abu Sakhr Humayd bin Ziyad. Muhammad bin Ka`b said, "It (Al-Watin) is the heart, its blood, and whatever is near it.'' Concerning Allah's statement,

﴿ فَمَا مِنكُم مِّنۡ أَحَدٍ عَنۡهُ حَـٰجِزِينَ

(And none of you could have prevented it from him.) means, `none of you would be able to come between Us and him if We wanted to do any of this to him.' The meaning behind all of this is to say that he (Muhammad) is truthful, righteous and guided because Allah determined what he is to convey from Him, and Allah helps him with fantastic miracles and definite proofs. Then Allah says,

﴿ وَإِنَّهُ ۥ لَتَذۡكِرَةٌ۬ لِّلۡمُتَّقِينَ

(And verily, this (Qur'an) is a Reminder for those who have Taqwa.) meaning, the Qur'an. This is just as Allah says,

﴿ قُلۡ هُوَ لِلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ هُدً۬ى وَشِفَآءٌ۬‌ۖ وَٱلَّذِينَ لَا يُؤۡمِنُونَ فِىٓ ءَاذَانِهِمۡ وَقۡرٌ۬ وَهُوَ عَلَيۡهِمۡ عَمًى‌ۚ

(Say: "It is for those who believe, a guide and a healing. And as for those who disbelieve, there is heaviness (deafness) in their ears, and it (the Qur'an) is blindness for them.'') Then Allah says,

﴿ وَإِنَّا لَنَعۡلَمُ أَنَّ مِنكُم مُّكَذِّبِينَ

(And verily, We know that there are some among you that deny (this Qur'an).) meaning, with this explanation and clarification, there will still be among you those who reject the Qur'an. Then Allah says,

﴿ وَإِنَّهُ ۥ لَحَسۡرَةٌ عَلَى ٱلۡكَـٰفِرِينَ

(And indeed it (this Qur'an) will be an anguish for the disbelievers (on the Day of Resurrection).) Ibn Jarir said, "And verily this rejection will be anguish for the disbelievers on the Day of Judgment.'' He (Ibn Jarir) also mentioned a similar statement from Qatadah. It is possible that the meaning of the pronoun (it) may also refer to the Qur'an, in which case the verse would mean that the Qur'an and belief in it are a cause of anguish for the disbelievers. This is as Allah says,

﴿ كَذَٲلِكَ سَلَكۡنَـٰهُ فِى قُلُوبِ ٱلۡمُجۡرِمِينَ لَا يُؤۡمِنُونَ بِهِۦ

(Thus have We caused it (the denial of the Qur'an) to enter the hearts of the criminals. They will not believe in it.) (26:200,201) And Allah said,

﴿ وَحِيلَ بَيۡنَہُمۡ وَبَيۡنَ مَا يَشۡتَہُونَ

(And a barrier will be set between them and that which they desire) (34:54). Therefore, Allah says here,

﴿ وَإِنَّهُ ۥ لَحَقُّ ٱلۡيَقِينِ

(And verily, it (this Qur'an) is an absolute truth with certainty.) meaning, the right and truthful news in which there is no doubt, suspicion or confusion. Then Allah says,

﴿ فَسَبِّحۡ بِٱسۡمِ رَبِّكَ ٱلۡعَظِيمِ

(So glorify the Name of your Lord, the Most Great.) meaning, He Who sent down this magnificent Qur'an. This is the end of the explanation (Tafsir) of Surat Al-Haqqah. And to Allah belong all praise and blessings.

Which was revealed in Makkah
﴿ بِسۡمِ ٱللَّهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

﴿ سَأَلَ سَآٮِٕلُۢ بِعَذَابٍ۬ وَاقِعٍ۬ لِّلۡڪَـٰفِرِينَ لَيۡسَ لَهُ ۥ دَافِعٌ۬ مِّنَ ٱللَّهِ ذِى ٱلۡمَعَارِجِ تَعۡرُجُ ٱلۡمَلَـٰٓٮِٕڪَةُ وَٱلرُّوحُ إِلَيۡهِ فِى يَوۡمٍ۬ كَانَ مِقۡدَارُهُ ۥ خَمۡسِينَ أَلۡفَ سَنَةٍ۬ فَٱصۡبِرۡ صَبۡرً۬ا جَمِيلاً إِنَّہُمۡ يَرَوۡنَهُ ۥ بَعِيدً۬ا وَنَرَٮٰهُ قَرِيبً۬ا

(1. A questioner asked concerning a torment about to befall) (2. Upon the disbelievers, which none can avert,) (3. From Allah, the Lord of the ways of ascent.) (4. The angels and the Ruh ascend to Him in a Day the measure whereof is fifty thousand years.) (5. So be patient, with a good patience.) (6. Verily, they see it (the torment) afar off.) (7. But We see it near.)

A Request to hasten the Day of Judgement
﴿ سَأَلَ سَآٮِٕلُۢ بِعَذَابٍ۬ وَاقِعٍ۬

(A questioner asked concerning a torment about to befall) This Ayah contains an assumed meaning that is alluded to by the letter "Ba''. It is as though it is saying, a questioner requested to hasten on the torment that is about to fall. It is similar to Allah's statement,

﴿ وَيَسۡتَعۡجِلُونَكَ بِٱلۡعَذَابِ وَلَن يُخۡلِفَ ٱللَّهُ وَعۡدَهُ ۥ‌ۚ

(And they ask you to hasten on the torment! And Allah fails not His promise.) (22:47) meaning, that its torment will occur and there is no avoiding it. Al-`Awfi reported from Ibn `Abbas concerning the Ayah,

﴿ سَأَلَ سَآٮِٕلُۢ بِعَذَابٍ۬ وَاقِعٍ۬

(A questioner asked concerning a torment about to befall) "That is the questioning of the disbelievers about the torment of Allah and it will occur to them.'' Ibn Abi Najih reported from Mujahid that he said concerning Allah's statement

﴿ سَأَلَ سَآٮِٕلُۢ

(A questioner asked), "A person called out (requesting) for the torment that will occur in the Hereafter to happen.'' Then he said, "This is their saying,

﴿ ٱللَّهُمَّ إِن كَانَ هَـٰذَا هُوَ ٱلۡحَقَّ مِنۡ عِندِكَ فَأَمۡطِرۡ عَلَيۡنَا حِجَارَةً۬ مِّنَ ٱلسَّمَآءِ أَوِ ٱئۡتِنَا بِعَذَابٍ أَلِيمٍ۬

(O Allah! If this is indeed the truth from you, then rain down stones on us from the sky or bring on us a painful torment.)'' (8:32) Allah's statement,

﴿ وَاقِعٍ۬ لِّلۡڪَـٰفِرِينَ

(about to befall (Waqi`) upon the disbelievers,) means, it is waiting in preparation for the disbelievers. Ibn `Abbas said, "Waqi` means coming.''

﴿ لَيۡسَ لَهُ ۥ دَافِعٌ۬

(which non can avert) meaning, there is no one who can repel it if Allah wants it to happen. Thus, Allah says,

﴿ مِّنَ ٱللَّهِ ذِى ٱلۡمَعَارِجِ

(From Allah, the Lord of the ways of ascent (Al-Ma`arij).)

The Tafsir of "Lord of the ways of ascent"

`Ali bin Abi Talhah reported from Ibn `Abbas, "Lord of the ways of ascent means loftiness and abundance.'' Mujahid said, "Lord of the ways of ascent means the ways of ascension into the heavens.'' Concerning Allah's statement,

﴿ تَعۡرُجُ ٱلۡمَلَـٰٓٮِٕڪَةُ وَٱلرُّوحُ إِلَيۡهِ

(The angels and the Ruh Ta`ruju to Him) `Abdur-Razzaq reported from Ma`mar from Qatadah that Ta`ruju means to ascend. In reference to the Ruh, Abu Salih said, "They are creatures from the creation of Allah that resemble humans but they are not humans.'' It could be that here it means Jibril, and this is a way of connecting the specific to the general (other angels). It could also be referring to the name of the souls (Arwah) of the Children of Adam (humans). For verily, when they (the human souls) are taken at death, they are lifted up to the heavens just as the Hadith of Al-Bara' proves.

The Meaning of a "Day the measure whereof is fifty thousand years"

Concerning Allah's statement,

﴿ فِى يَوۡمٍ۬ كَانَ مِقۡدَارُهُ ۥ خَمۡسِينَ أَلۡفَ سَنَةٍ۬

(in a Day the measure whereof is fifty thousand years.) This refers to the Day of Judgement. Ibn Abi Hatim recorded from Ibn `Abbas that he said concerning the Ayah,

﴿ فِى يَوۡمٍ۬ كَانَ مِقۡدَارُهُ ۥ خَمۡسِينَ أَلۡفَ سَنَةٍ۬

(in a Day the measure whereof is fifty thousand years.) "It is the Day of Judgement.'' The chain of narration of this report (to Ibn `Abbas) is authentic. Ath-Thawri reported from Simak bin Harb from `Ikrimah that he said concerning this verse, "It is the Day of Judgement.'' Ad-Dahhak and Ibn Zayd both said the same. `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported from Ibn `Abbas concerning the Ayah,

﴿ تَعۡرُجُ ٱلۡمَلَـٰٓٮِٕڪَةُ وَٱلرُّوحُ إِلَيۡهِ فِى يَوۡمٍ۬ كَانَ مِقۡدَارُهُ ۥ خَمۡسِينَ أَلۡفَ سَنَةٍ۬

(The angels and the Ruh ascend to Him in a Day the measure whereof is fifty thousand years.) "It is the Day of Judgement that Allah has made to be the measure of fifty thousand years for the disbelievers. '' Many Hadiths have been reported with this same meaning. Imam Ahmad recorded from Abu `Umar Al-Ghudani that he said, "I was with Abu Hurayrah when a man from Bani `Amir bin Sa`sa`ah passed and it was said: `This man is the wealthiest man of Bani `Amir.' So Abu Hurayrah said, `Bring him back to me.' So they brought the man back to Abu Hurayrah. Then Abu Hurayrah said, `I have been informed that you are a man of great wealth.' The man from Bani `Amir replied, `Yes, by Allah. I have one hundred red-colored camels, one hundred brown-colored camels...' and so on he counted numerous colored camels, the races of the slaves and the types of fetters for his horses that he owned. So Abu Hurayrah said, `Beware of the hooves of the camels and the cloven hooves of the cattle.' He continued repeating that to him until the color of the man began to change. Then the man said, `O Abu Hurayrah what is this' Abu Hurayrah replied, `I heard the Messenger of Allah say,

« مَنْ كَانَتْ لَهُ إِبِلٌ لَا يُعْطِي حَقَّهَا فِي نَجْدَتِهَا وَرِسْلِهَا »

(Whoever has camels and does not give their due (Zakah) in their Najdah and their Risl...) We interrupted saying, `O Messenger of Allah! What is their Najdah and Risl' He said,

« فِي عُسْرِهَا وَيُسْرِهَا، فَإِنَّهَا تَأْتِي يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ كَأَغَذِّ مَا كَانَتْ وَأَكْثَرِهِ وَأَسْمَنِهِ وَآشَرِهِ، ثُمَّ يُبْطَحُ لَهَا بِقَاعٍ قَرْقَرٍ فَتَطَؤُهُ بِأَخْفَافِهَا، فَإِذَا جَاوَزَتْهُ أُخْرَاهَا أُعِيدَتْ عَلَيْهِ أُولَاهَا فِي يَوْم كَانَ مِقْدَارُهُ خَمْسِينَ أَلْفَ سَنَةٍ، حَتْى يُقْضَى بَيْنَ النَّاسِ فَيَرَى سَبِيلَهُ. وَإِذَا كَانَتْ لَهُ بَقَرٌ لَا يُعْطِي حَقَّهَا فِي نَجْدَتِهَا وَرِسْلِهَا، فَإِنَّهَا تَأْتِي يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ كَأَغَذِّ مَا كَانَتْ وَأَكْثَرِهِ وَأَسْمَنِهِ وَآشَرِهِ، ثُمَّ يُبْطَحُ لَهَا بِقَاعٍ قَرْقَرٍ، فَتَطَؤُهُ كُلُّ ذَاتِ ظِلْفٍ بِظِلْفِهَا وَتَنْطَحُهُ كُلُّ ذَاتِ قَرْنٍ بِقَرْنِهَا، لَيْسَ فِيهَا عَقْصَاءُ وَلَا عَضْبَاءُ، إِذَا جَاوَزَتْهُ أُخْرَاهَا أُعِيدَتْ عَلَيْهِ أُولَاهَا، فِي يَوْمٍ كَانَ مِقْدَارُهُ خَمْسِينَ أَلْفَ سَنَةٍ حَتْى يُقْضَى بَيْنَ النَّاسِ فَيَرَى سَبِيلَهُ. وَإِذَا كَانَتْ لَهُ غَنَمٌ لَا يُعْطِي حَقَّهَا فِي نَجْدَتِهَا وَرِسْلِهَا فَإِنَّهَا تَأْتِي يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ كَأَغَذِّ مَا كَانَتْ وَأَسْمَنِهِ وَآشَرِهِ حَتْى يُبْطَحَ لَهَا بِقَاعٍ قَرْقَرٍ فَتَطَؤُهُ كُلُّ ذَاتِ ظِلْفٍ بِظِلْفِهَا وَتَنْطَحُهُ كُلُّ ذَاتِ قَرْنٍ بِقَرْنِهَا، لَيْسَ فِيهَا عَقْصَاءُ وَلَا عَضْبَاءُ إِذَا جَاوَزَتْهُ أُخْرَاهَا أُعِيدَتْ عَلَيْهِ أُولَاهَا، فِي يَوْمٍ كَانَ مِقْدَارُهُ خَمْسِينَ أَلْفَ سَنَةٍ، حَتْى يُقْضَى بَيْنَ النَّاسِ فَيَرَى سَبِيلَه »

(It is their difficulty and their ease, for verily, they will come on the Day of Resurrection healthier than before. They will be more in number, fatter and more lively and unruly. Then a soft, level plain will be spread out for them and they will trample him with their hooves. When the last of them has passed over him, the first of them will return to trample him again during a day whose measure will be fifty thousand years. This will continue until the case of all the people is decided between them. Then he (the withholder of Zakah) will see his path (i.e., either to Paradise or Hell). If he had cows that he did not pay the Zakah in their ease and their difficult times, then they will come on the Day of Judgement healthier than they were before. They will be more in number, fatter and more lively and unruly. Then a soft, level plain will be spread out for them and they will trample him. Every one of them that has cloven hooves will trample him with its hooves, and every one of them that has a horn will butt him with its horn. There will not be any hornless or bent horned animals among them. When the last of them has passed over him, the first of them will return to trample him again during a day whose measure will be fifty thousand years. This will continue until the case of all the people is decided between them. Then he (the withholder of Zakah) will see his path (i.e., either to Paradise or Hell). If he has any sheep that he does not pay the due Zakah in their difficulty and their ease, then they will come on the Day of Judgement healthier than they were before. They will be more (in number) fatter and more lively and unruly. Then a soft, level plain will be spread out for them and they will trample him. Every one of them that has a cloven hoof will trample him with its hooves, and every one of them that has a horn will butt him with its horn. There will not be any hornless or bent horned animals among them. When the last of them has passed over him, the first of them will return to trample him again during a day whose measure will be fifty thousand years. This will continue until the case of all the people is decided between them. Then he (the withholder of Zakah) will see his path (i.e., either to Paradise or Hell).) Then, the man from Bani `Amir said, `What is the due of the camel, O Abu Hurayrah' Abu Hurayrah said, `It is that you give (in your Zakah payment) from your most valuable camels, that you lend a milking she-camel, that you lend your mount for riding, that you give the milk (to the people) for drinking, and you lend the male camel for breeding.''' This Hadith was also recorded by Abu Dawud and An-Nasa'i.

A Different Version of this Hadith

Imam Ahmad recorded from Abu Hurayrah that the Messenger of Allah said,

« مَا مِنْ صَاحِبِ كَنْزٍ لَا يُؤَدِّي حَقَّهُ إِلَّا جُعِلَ صَفَائِحَ، يُحْمَى عَلَيْهَا فِي نَارِ جَهَنَّمَ، فَتُكْوَى بِهَا جَبْهَتُهُ وَجَنْبُهُ وَظَهْرُهُ، حَتْى يَحْكُمَ اللهُ بَيْنَ عِبَادِهِ فِي يَوْم كَانَ مِقْدَارُهُ خَمْسِينَ أَلْفَ سَنَةٍ مِمَّا تَعُدُّونَ، ثُمَّ يَرَى سَبِيلَهُ إِمَّا إِلَى الْجَنَّةِ وَإِمَّا إِلَى النَّار »

(There is not any owner of treasure who does not pay its due except that it will be made into heated metal plates and branded upon him in the fire of Hell. His forehead, side and back will be scorched with these metal plates. This will continue until Allah judges between His servants on a Day whose measure is fifty thousand years of what you count. Then he will see his path, either to Paradise or to the Fire.) Then he (Abu Hurayrah) mentions the rest of the Hadith about the sheep and camels just as mentioned before. In this narration (of Ahmad) the Prophet also added,

« الْخَيْلُ لِثَلَاثَةٍ: لِرَجُلٍ أَجْرٌ، وَلِرَجُلٍ سِتْرٌ، وَعَلَى رَجُلٍ وِزْر »

(The horse is for three (on the Day of Judgement): for one man it is a reward, for another man it is a shield (protection), and upon another man it is a burden.) And the Hadith continues. Muslim also recorded this Hadith in its entirety even though Al-Bukhari did not mention it. The intent behind mentioning this here is the Prophet's statement,

« حَتْى يَحْكُمَ اللهُ بَيْنَ عِبَادِهِ فِي يَوْمٍ كَانَ مِقْدَارُهُ خَمْسِينَ أَلْفَ سَنَة »

(Until Allah judges between His servants on a day whose measurement is fifty thousand years.)

Instructing the Prophet to have Patience Then

Allah says,

﴿ فَٱصۡبِرۡ صَبۡرً۬ا جَمِيلاً

(So be patient, with a good patience.) meaning, `be patient, O Muhammad, with your people's rejection and their seeking to hasten the torment since they think it will not occur.' Allah says in another Ayah,

﴿ يَسۡتَعۡجِلُ بِہَا ٱلَّذِينَ لَا يُؤۡمِنُونَ بِہَا‌ۖ وَٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ مُشۡفِقُونَ مِنۡہَا وَيَعۡلَمُونَ أَنَّهَا ٱلۡحَقُّ‌ۗ

(Those who believe not therein seek to hasten it, while those believe are fearful of it, and know that it is the very truth.) (42:18) Thus, Allah says,

﴿ إِنَّہُمۡ يَرَوۡنَهُ ۥ بَعِيدً۬ا

(Verily, they see it (the torment) afar off.) meaning, the happening of the torment and the establishment of the Hour (Day of Judgement). The disbelievers see this as something that is farfetched. The word "Ba`id'' here means that which is impossible to occur.

﴿ وَنَرَٮٰهُ قَرِيبً۬ا

(But We see it (quite) near.) meaning, the believers believe that its occurrence is near, even though its time of occurrence is unknown and no one knows when it will be except Allah. All of what is approaching then it is near and it will definitely happen.

﴿ يَوۡمَ تَكُونُ ٱلسَّمَآءُ كَٱلۡمُهۡلِ وَتَكُونُ ٱلۡجِبَالُ كَٱلۡعِهۡنِ وَلَا يَسۡـَٔلُ حَمِيمٌ حَمِيمً۬ا يُبَصَّرُونَہُمۡ‌ۚ يَوَدُّ ٱلۡمُجۡرِمُ لَوۡ يَفۡتَدِى مِنۡ عَذَابِ يَوۡمِٮِٕذِۭ بِبَنِيهِ وَصَـٰحِبَتِهِۦ وَأَخِيهِ وَفَصِيلَتِهِ ٱلَّتِى تُـٔۡوِيهِ وَمَن فِى ٱلۡأَرۡضِ جَمِيعً۬ا ثُمَّ يُنجِيهِ كَلَّآ‌ۖ إِنَّہَا لَظَىٰ نَزَّاعَةً۬ لِّلشَّوَىٰ تَدۡعُواْ مَنۡ أَدۡبَرَ وَتَوَلَّىٰ وَجَمَعَ فَأَوۡعَىٰٓ

(8. The Day that the sky will be like the Al-Muhl.) (9. And the mountains will be like `Ihn.) (10. And no friend will ask a friend,) (11. Though they shall be made to see one another, the criminal would desire to ransom himself from the punishment of that Day by his children.) (12. And his wife and his brother,) (13. And his Fasilah who sheltered him,) (14. And all that are in the earth, so that it might save him.) (15. By no means! Verily, it will be the fire of Hell,) (16. Naza`ah the Shawa!) (17. Calling (all) such as turn their backs and turn away their faces.) (18. And collect (wealth) and hide it (from spending it in the cause of Allah).)