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Instructing the Prophet to have Patience Then

Allah says,

﴿ فَٱصۡبِرۡ صَبۡرً۬ا جَمِيلاً

(So be patient, with a good patience.) meaning, `be patient, O Muhammad, with your people's rejection and their seeking to hasten the torment since they think it will not occur.' Allah says in another Ayah,

﴿ يَسۡتَعۡجِلُ بِہَا ٱلَّذِينَ لَا يُؤۡمِنُونَ بِہَا‌ۖ وَٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ مُشۡفِقُونَ مِنۡہَا وَيَعۡلَمُونَ أَنَّهَا ٱلۡحَقُّ‌ۗ

(Those who believe not therein seek to hasten it, while those believe are fearful of it, and know that it is the very truth.) (42:18) Thus, Allah says,

﴿ إِنَّہُمۡ يَرَوۡنَهُ ۥ بَعِيدً۬ا

(Verily, they see it (the torment) afar off.) meaning, the happening of the torment and the establishment of the Hour (Day of Judgement). The disbelievers see this as something that is farfetched. The word "Ba`id'' here means that which is impossible to occur.

﴿ وَنَرَٮٰهُ قَرِيبً۬ا

(But We see it (quite) near.) meaning, the believers believe that its occurrence is near, even though its time of occurrence is unknown and no one knows when it will be except Allah. All of what is approaching then it is near and it will definitely happen.

﴿ يَوۡمَ تَكُونُ ٱلسَّمَآءُ كَٱلۡمُهۡلِ وَتَكُونُ ٱلۡجِبَالُ كَٱلۡعِهۡنِ وَلَا يَسۡـَٔلُ حَمِيمٌ حَمِيمً۬ا يُبَصَّرُونَہُمۡ‌ۚ يَوَدُّ ٱلۡمُجۡرِمُ لَوۡ يَفۡتَدِى مِنۡ عَذَابِ يَوۡمِٮِٕذِۭ بِبَنِيهِ وَصَـٰحِبَتِهِۦ وَأَخِيهِ وَفَصِيلَتِهِ ٱلَّتِى تُـٔۡوِيهِ وَمَن فِى ٱلۡأَرۡضِ جَمِيعً۬ا ثُمَّ يُنجِيهِ كَلَّآ‌ۖ إِنَّہَا لَظَىٰ نَزَّاعَةً۬ لِّلشَّوَىٰ تَدۡعُواْ مَنۡ أَدۡبَرَ وَتَوَلَّىٰ وَجَمَعَ فَأَوۡعَىٰٓ

(8. The Day that the sky will be like the Al-Muhl.) (9. And the mountains will be like `Ihn.) (10. And no friend will ask a friend,) (11. Though they shall be made to see one another, the criminal would desire to ransom himself from the punishment of that Day by his children.) (12. And his wife and his brother,) (13. And his Fasilah who sheltered him,) (14. And all that are in the earth, so that it might save him.) (15. By no means! Verily, it will be the fire of Hell,) (16. Naza`ah the Shawa!) (17. Calling (all) such as turn their backs and turn away their faces.) (18. And collect (wealth) and hide it (from spending it in the cause of Allah).)

Terrors of the Day of Judgement

Allah says that the torment will befall the disbelievers.

﴿ يَوۡمَ تَكُونُ ٱلسَّمَآءُ كَٱلۡمُهۡلِ

(The Day that the sky will be like the Al-Muhl.) Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, `Ata, Sa`id bin Jubayr, `Ikrimah, As-Suddi and others have all said, "Like the residue of oil.''

﴿ وَتَكُونُ ٱلۡجِبَالُ كَٱلۡعِهۡنِ

(And the mountains will be like `Ihn.) meaning, like fluffed wool. This was said by Mujahid, Qatadah and As-Suddi. This Ayah is similar to Allah's statement,

﴿ وَتَكُونُ ٱلۡجِبَالُ ڪَٱلۡعِهۡنِ ٱلۡمَنفُوشِ

(And the mountains will be like carded wool.) (101:5) Concerning Allah's statement,

﴿ وَلَا يَسۡـَٔلُ حَمِيمٌ حَمِيمً۬ا يُبَصَّرُونَہُمۡ‌ۚ

(And no friend will ask a friend, though they shall be made to see one another.) Meaning, no close friend will ask his close friend about his condition while he sees him in the worst of conditions. He will be worried about himself and will not be able to think of others. Al-`Awfi reported from Ibn `Abbas, "Some of them will know others and they will be acquainted with each other. Then, they will flee from each other after that, as Allah says,

﴿ لِكُلِّ ٱمۡرِىٍٕ۬ مِّنۡہُمۡ يَوۡمَٮِٕذٍ۬ شَأۡنٌ۬ يُغۡنِيهِ

(Every man that Day will have enough to make him careless of others.)'' (80:37) This honorable Ayah is similar to Allah's statement,

﴿ يَـٰٓأَيُّہَا ٱلنَّاسُ ٱتَّقُواْ رَبَّكُمۡ وَٱخۡشَوۡاْ يَوۡمً۬ا لَّا يَجۡزِى وَالِدٌ عَن وَلَدِهِۦ وَلَا مَوۡلُودٌ هُوَ جَازٍ عَن وَالِدِهِۦ شَيۡـًٔا‌ۚ إِنَّ وَعۡدَ ٱللَّهِ حَقٌّ۬‌ۖ

(O mankind! Have Taqwa of your Lord, and fear a Day when no father can avail aught for his son, and nor a son avail aught for his father. Verily the promise of Allah is true.) (31:33) and He also says,

﴿ وَإِن تَدۡعُ مُثۡقَلَةٌ إِلَىٰ حِمۡلِهَا لَا يُحۡمَلۡ مِنۡهُ شَىۡءٌ۬ وَلَوۡ كَانَ ذَا قُرۡبَىٰٓۗ

(And if one heavily laden calls another to (bear) his load, nothing of it will be lifted even though he be near of kin.) (35:18) and He says,

﴿ فَإِذَا نُفِخَ فِى ٱلصُّورِ فَلَآ أَنسَابَ بَيۡنَهُمۡ يَوۡمَٮِٕذٍ۬ وَلَا يَتَسَآءَلُونَ

(Then, when the Trumpet is blown, there will be no kinship among them that Day, nor will they ask of one another.) (23:101) and similarly He says,

﴿ يَوۡمَ يَفِرُّ ٱلۡمَرۡءُ مِنۡ أَخِيهِ وَأُمِّهِۦ وَأَبِيهِ وَصَـٰحِبَتِهِۦ وَبَنِيهِ لِكُلِّ ٱمۡرِىٍٕ۬ مِّنۡہُمۡ يَوۡمَٮِٕذٍ۬ شَأۡنٌ۬ يُغۡنِيهِ

(That day shall a man flee from his brother, and from his mother and his father, and from his wife and his children. Every man that Day will have enough to make him careless of others.) (80:34-37) Then Allah's saying here

﴿ يُبَصَّرُونَہُمۡ‌ۚ يَوَدُّ ٱلۡمُجۡرِمُ لَوۡ يَفۡتَدِى مِنۡ عَذَابِ يَوۡمِٮِٕذِۭ بِبَنِيهِ وَصَـٰحِبَتِهِۦ وَأَخِيهِ وَفَصِيلَتِهِ ٱلَّتِى تُـٔۡوِيهِ وَمَن فِى ٱلۡأَرۡضِ جَمِيعً۬ا ثُمَّ يُنجِيهِ كَلَّآ‌ۖ

(the criminal would desire to ransom himself from the punishment of the Day by his children, and his wife and his brother, and his Fasilah (kindred) who sheltered him, and all that are in the earth, so that it might save him. By no means!) means, no ransom will be accepted from him even if he brought all of the people of the earth (as ransom), and the greatest wealth that he could find, even if it was enough gold to fill the entire earth. Even the child that he had who was dearer to him than the last beat of his heart in the life of this world, he would wish to use the child as a ransom for himself against the torment of Allah on the Day of Judgement when he sees the horrors. However, even this child would not be accepted from him (as a ransom). Mujahid and As-Suddi both said,

﴿ وَفَصِيلَتِهِ

(and his Fasilah) "This means his tribe and his kin.'' `Ikrimah said, "This means the subdivision of his tribe that he is from.'' Ashhab reported from Malik that he said, "His Fasilah is his mother.'' Allah said,

﴿ إِنَّہَا لَظَىٰ

(Verily, it will be the fire of Hell,) Here He is describing the Hell- fire and the severity of its heat.

﴿ نَزَّاعَةً۬ لِّلشَّوَىٰ

(Nazza`ah the Shawa!) Ibn `Abbas and Mujahid both said, "It is the skin of the head.'' Al-Hasan Al-Basri and Thabit Al-Bunani both said,

﴿ نَزَّاعَةً۬ لِّلشَّوَىٰ

(Nazza`ah the Shawa!) "This means respectable parts of the face.'' Qatadah said,

﴿ نَزَّاعَةً۬ لِّلشَّوَىٰ

(Nazza`ah the Shawa!) "This means removing his important organs, and the respectable parts of his face, his creation and his limbs.'' Ad-Dahhak said, "This means it will scrape the flesh and the skin off of the bone until it leaves nothing of it remaining.'' Ibn Zayd said, "The Shawa is the marrow of the bones.'' As for,

﴿ نَزَّاعَةً۬

(Nazza`ah) Ibn Zayd said, "It is cutting their bones and transformation of their skins and their form.'' Concerning Allah's statement,

﴿ تَدۡعُواْ مَنۡ أَدۡبَرَ وَتَوَلَّىٰ وَجَمَعَ فَأَوۡعَىٰٓ

(Calling (all) such as turn their backs and turn away their faces. And collect and hide it.) meaning, the Fire will call out to its children whom Allah created for it, determining that they will perform the deeds deserving of it in the worldly life. So it will call them on the Day of Judgement with an eloquent and articulate tongue. Then it will pick them out from the people of the gathering just as birds pick seeds. This is because they were, as Allah said, of those who turned their backs and turned away. This means they denied with their hearts and abandoned the performance of deeds with their limbs.

﴿ وَجَمَعَ فَأَوۡعَىٰٓ

(And collect and hide it.) meaning, he gathered wealth piling it up, and he concealed it, meaning he hid it and refused to give the obligatory right of Allah that was due on it of spending and paying the Zakah. It has been recorded in a Hadith that the Prophet said,

« لَا تُوعِي فَيُوعِيَ اللهُ عَلَيْك »

(Do not hold back (your wealth) or else Allah will hold back from you.)

﴿ إِنَّ ٱلۡإِنسَـٰنَ خُلِقَ هَلُوعًا إِذَا مَسَّهُ ٱلشَّرُّ جَزُوعً۬ا وَإِذَا مَسَّهُ ٱلۡخَيۡرُ مَنُوعًا إِلَّا ٱلۡمُصَلِّينَ ٱلَّذِينَ هُمۡ عَلَىٰ صَلَاتِہِمۡ دَآٮِٕمُونَ وَٱلَّذِينَ فِىٓ أَمۡوَٲلِهِمۡ حَقٌّ۬ مَّعۡلُومٌ۬ لِّلسَّآٮِٕلِ وَٱلۡمَحۡرُومِ وَٱلَّذِينَ يُصَدِّقُونَ بِيَوۡمِ ٱلدِّينِ وَٱلَّذِينَ هُم مِّنۡ عَذَابِ رَبِّہِم مُّشۡفِقُونَ إِنَّ عَذَابَ رَبِّہِمۡ غَيۡرُ مَأۡمُونٍ۬ وَٱلَّذِينَ هُمۡ لِفُرُوجِهِمۡ حَـٰفِظُونَ إِلَّا عَلَىٰٓ أَزۡوَٲجِهِمۡ أَوۡ مَا مَلَكَتۡ أَيۡمَـٰنُہُمۡ فَإِنَّہُمۡ غَيۡرُ مَلُومِينَ فَمَنِ ٱبۡتَغَىٰ وَرَآءَ ذَٲلِكَ فَأُوْلَـٰٓٮِٕكَ هُمُ ٱلۡعَادُونَ وَٱلَّذِينَ هُمۡ لِأَمَـٰنَـٰتِہِمۡ وَعَهۡدِهِمۡ رَٲعُونَ وَٱلَّذِينَ هُم بِشَہَـٰدَٲتِہِمۡ قَآٮِٕمُونَ وَٱلَّذِينَ هُمۡ عَلَىٰ صَلَاتِہِمۡ يُحَافِظُونَ أُوْلَـٰٓٮِٕكَ فِى جَنَّـٰتٍ۬ مُّكۡرَمُونَ

(19. Verily, man was created very impatient;) (20. Apprehensive when evil touches him;) (21. And suppressive when good touches him.) (22. Except those who are devoted to Salah.) (23. Those who with their Salah are Da'imun;) (24. And those in whose wealth there is a recognized right.) (25. For the one who asks, and for the deprived.) (26. And those who believe in the Day of Recompense.) (27. And those who fear the torment of their Lord.) (28. Verily, the torment of their Lord is that before which none can feel secure.) (29. And those who guard their private part (chastity).) (30. Except from their wives or their right hand possessions -- for (then) they are not blameworthy.) (31. But whosoever seeks beyond that, then it is those who are trespassers.) (32. And those who keep their trusts and covenants.) (33. And those who stand firm in their testimonies.) (34. And those who are with their Salah, Yuhafidhun.) (35. Such shall dwell in the Gardens, honored)

Man is Impatient Allah informs about man and his inclination to corrupt his behavior.

Allah says,

﴿ إِنَّ ٱلۡإِنسَـٰنَ خُلِقَ هَلُوعًا

(Verily, man was created very impatient;) Then, Allah explains this statement by saying,

﴿ إِذَا مَسَّهُ ٱلشَّرُّ جَزُوعً۬ا

(Apprehensive when evil touches him;) meaning, whenever any harm touches him he is frightful, worried and completely taken back due to the severity of his terror and his despair that he will receive any good after it.

﴿ وَإِذَا مَسَّهُ ٱلۡخَيۡرُ مَنُوعًا

(And suppressive when good touches him.) meaning, if he attains any blessing from Allah, he is stingy with it, not sharing it with others. He will withhold the right of Allah with that blessing. Imam Ahmad said that Abu `Abdur-Rahman informed them that Musa bin `Ali bin Rabah told them that he heard his father narrating from `Abdul-`Aziz bin Marwan bin Al-Hakim that he heard Abu Hurayrah saying, "The Messenger of Allah said,

« شَرُّ مَا فِي رَجُلٍ: شُحٌّ هَالِعٌ وَجُبْنٌ خَالِع »

(The worst thing that can be in a man is greedy impatience and unrestrained cowardice.) Abu Dawud recorded this Hadith from `Abdullah bin Al-Jarrah on the authority of Abu `Abdur-Rahman Al-Muqri', and this is the only Hadith through `Abdul-`Aziz with him.

The Exclusion of Those Who pray from what has preceded and an Explanation of Their Deeds and Their Prayer

Then Allah says,

﴿ إِلَّا ٱلۡمُصَلِّينَ

(Except those who are devoted to Salah.) meaning, man is described with blameworthy characteristics except for He whom Allah protects, helps and guides to good, making its means easy for him -- and these are those people who perform Salah.

﴿ ٱلَّذِينَ هُمۡ عَلَىٰ صَلَاتِہِمۡ دَآٮِٕمُونَ

(Those who with their Salah are Da'imun;) It has been said that this means they guard its times and the elements obligatory in it. This has been said by Ibn Mas`ud, Masruq and Ibrahim An-Nakha`i. It has also been said that it means tranquility and humble concentration (in the prayer). This is similar to Allah's statement,

﴿ قَدۡ أَفۡلَحَ ٱلۡمُؤۡمِنُونَ ٱلَّذِينَ هُمۡ فِى صَلَاتِہِمۡ خَـٰشِعُونَ

(Successful indeed are the believers. Those who with their Salah are Khashi`un.) (23:1-2) This was said by `Uqbah bin `Amir. From its meanings is the same terminology used to describe standing (still) water (Al-Ma' Ad-Da'im). This proves the obligation of having tranquility in the prayer. For verily, the one who does not have tranquility (stillness of posture) in his bowing and prostrating, then he is not being constant (Da'im) in his prayer. This is because he is not being still in it and he does not remain (in its positions), rather he pecks in it (quickly) like the pecking of the crow. Therefore, he is not successful in performing his prayer. It has also been said that the meaning here refers to those who perform a deed and are constant in its performance and consistent in it. This is like the Hadith that has been recorded in the Sahih on the authority of `A'ishah that the Messenger of Allah said,

« أَحَبُّ الْأَعْمَالِ إِلَى اللهِ أَدْوَمُهَا وَإِنْ قَل »

(The most beloved deeds to Allah are those that are most consistent, even if they are few.) Then Allah says,

﴿ وَٱلَّذِينَ فِىٓ أَمۡوَٲلِهِمۡ حَقٌّ۬ مَّعۡلُومٌ۬ لِّلسَّآٮِٕلِ وَٱلۡمَحۡرُومِ

(And those in whose wealth there is a recognized right. For the one who asks, and for the deprived.) meaning, in their wealth is a determined portion for those who are in need. Concerning Allah's statement,

﴿ وَٱلَّذِينَ يُصَدِّقُونَ بِيَوۡمِ ٱلدِّينِ

(And those who believe in the Day of Recompense.) meaning, they are sure of the Final Return (to Allah), the Reckoning and the Recompense. Therefore, they perform the deeds of one who hopes for the reward and fears the punishment. For this reason Allah says,

﴿ وَٱلَّذِينَ هُم مِّنۡ عَذَابِ رَبِّہِم مُّشۡفِقُونَ

(And those who fear the torment of their Lord. ) meaning, they are fearful and dreadful.

﴿ إِنَّ عَذَابَ رَبِّہِمۡ غَيۡرُ مَأۡمُونٍ۬

(Verily, the torment of their Lord is that before which none can feel secure.) meaning, no one is safe from it (Allah's torment) of those who understand the command from Allah, except by the security of Allah Himself. Then Allah says,

﴿ وَٱلَّذِينَ هُمۡ لِفُرُوجِهِمۡ حَـٰفِظُونَ

(And those who guard their private part (chastity).) meaning, they keep their private parts away from that which is forbidden and they prevent their private parts from being put into other than what Allah has allowed them to be in. This is why Allah says,

﴿ إِلَّا عَلَىٰٓ أَزۡوَٲجِهِمۡ أَوۡ مَا مَلَكَتۡ أَيۡمَـٰنُہُمۡ

(Except from their wives or their right hand possessions) meaning, from their female slaves.

﴿ إِلَّا عَلَىٰٓ أَزۡوَٲجِهِمۡ أَوۡ مَا مَلَكَتۡ أَيۡمَـٰنُہُمۡ فَإِنَّہُمۡ غَيۡرُ مَلُومِينَ فَمَنِ ٱبۡتَغَىٰ وَرَآءَ ذَٲلِكَ فَأُوْلَـٰٓٮِٕكَ هُمُ ٱلۡعَادُونَ

(for (then) they are not blameworthy. But whosoever seeks beyond that, then it is those who are trespassers.) The explanation of this has already preceded at the beginning of Surat Al-Mu'minun, and therefore does not need to be repeated here. Allah said,

﴿ وَٱلَّذِينَ هُمۡ لِأَمَـٰنَـٰتِہِمۡ وَعَهۡدِهِمۡ رَٲعُونَ

(And those who keep their trusts and covenants.) meaning, if they are given a trust they do not deceit and when they make a covenant they do not break it. These are the characteristics of the believers which are opposite of the characteristics of the hypocrites. This is like what is reported in the authentic Hadith,

« آيَةُ الْمُنَافِقِ ثَلَاثٌ: إِذَا حَدَّثَ كَذَبَ، وَإِذَا وَعَدَ أَخْلَفَ، وَإِذَا اؤْتُمِنَ خَان »

(The signs of the hypocrites are three. When he speaks he lies, when he promises he breaks his promise, and when he is given a trust he behaves treacherously (with it).) In another narration it states,

« إِذَا حَدَّثَ كَذَبَ، وَإِذَا عَاهَدَ غَدَرَ، وَإِذَا خَاصَمَ فَجَر »

(When he speaks he lies, when he makes a covenant he breaks it, and when he argues he is abusive.) Concerning Allah's statement,

﴿ وَٱلَّذِينَ هُم بِشَہَـٰدَٲتِہِمۡ قَآٮِٕمُونَ

(And those who stand firm in their testimonies.) This means that they guard their testimonies. They do not add or decrease from what they testify to nor do they conceal their testimonies. Allah says in another Ayah,

﴿ وَمَن يَڪۡتُمۡهَا فَإِنَّهُ ۥۤ ءَاثِمٌ۬ قَلۡبُهُ ۥ‌ۗ

(Who hides it, surely, his heart is sinful.) (2:283) Then Allah says,

﴿ وَٱلَّذِينَ هُمۡ عَلَىٰ صَلَاتِہِمۡ يُحَافِظُونَ

(And those who are with their Salah, Yuhafidhun.) meaning, they maintain its proper times, its pillars, its obligations and its recommended acts. So Allah begins this discussion (of the believers' attributes) with prayer and He concludes it with prayer. This proves the importance of it and the praise of its noble status, just as what preceded at the beginning of Surat Al-Mu'minun. It is exactly the same discussion. This is why Allah says there (in Al-Mu'minun),

﴿ أُوْلَـٰٓٮِٕكَ هُمُ ٱلۡوَٲرِثُونَ ٱلَّذِينَ يَرِثُونَ ٱلۡفِرۡدَوۡسَ هُمۡ فِيہَا خَـٰلِدُونَ

(These are indeed the inheritors. Who shall inherit the Firdaws (Paradise). They shall dwell therein forever.) (23:10-11) And He says here,

﴿ أُوْلَـٰٓٮِٕكَ فِى جَنَّـٰتٍ۬ مُّكۡرَمُونَ

(Such shall dwell in the Gardens, honored.) meaning, they will be honored with various types of pleasures and delights.

﴿ فَمَالِ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ قِبَلَكَ مُهۡطِعِينَ عَنِ ٱلۡيَمِينِ وَعَنِ ٱلشِّمَالِ عِزِينَ أَيَطۡمَعُ ڪُلُّ ٱمۡرِىٍٕ۬ مِّنۡہُمۡ أَن يُدۡخَلَ جَنَّةَ نَعِيمٍ۬ كَلَّآ‌ۖ إِنَّا خَلَقۡنَـٰهُم مِّمَّا يَعۡلَمُونَ
﴿ فَلَآ أُقۡسِمُ بِرَبِّ ٱلۡمَشَـٰرِقِ وَٱلۡمَغَـٰرِبِ إِنَّا لَقَـٰدِرُونَ عَلَىٰٓ أَن نُّبَدِّلَ خَيۡرً۬ا مِّنۡهُمۡ وَمَا نَحۡنُ بِمَسۡبُوقِينَ فَذَرۡهُمۡ يَخُوضُواْ وَيَلۡعَبُواْ حَتَّىٰ يُلَـٰقُواْ يَوۡمَهُمُ ٱلَّذِى يُوعَدُونَ يَوۡمَ يَخۡرُجُونَ مِنَ ٱلۡأَجۡدَاثِ سِرَاعً۬ا كَأَنَّہُمۡ إِلَىٰ نُصُبٍ۬ يُوفِضُونَ خَـٰشِعَةً أَبۡصَـٰرُهُمۡ تَرۡهَقُهُمۡ ذِلَّةٌ۬‌ۚ ذَٲلِكَ ٱلۡيَوۡمُ ٱلَّذِى كَانُواْ يُوعَدُونَ

(36. So, what is the matter with those disbelievers, before you Muhti`in) (37. On the right and on the left, `Izin.) (38. Does every man of them hope to enter the Paradise of Delight) (39. But no! Verily, We have created them out of that which they know!) (40. But no! I swear by the Lord of the easts and the wests that surely We are Able) (41. To replace them by (others) better than them; and We are not to be outrun.) (42. So, leave them to plunge in vain talk and play about, until they meet their Day which they are promised.) (43. The Day when they will come out of the graves quickly as racing to a Nusub,) (44. With their eyes lowered in fear and humility, ignominy covering them (all over)! That is the Day which they were promised!)