(Then how can you protect yourselves from the punishment, if you disbelieved, on a Day that will make the children gray-headed) Ibn Jarir quoted in the recitation of Ibn Mas`ud: "How can you, O people, fear a Day that makes the children grey-headed, if you disbelieve in Allah and do not testify to Him'' So the first interpretation would mean, `how can you attain safety for yourselves from the Day of this great horror if you disbelieve' It could imply the meaning, `how can you all attain piety if you disbelieve in the Day of Judgement and reject it.' Both of these meanings are good. However, the first interpretation is closer to the truth. And Allah knows best. The meaning of Allah's statement,
(On a Day that will make the children gray-headed) is that this will happen due to the severity of its horrors, its earth- quakes and its distur- bing confusion. This is when Allah will say to Adam, "Send a group to the Fire.'' Adam will say, "How many'' Allah will then reply, "From every thousand, nine hundred and ninety-nine to the Fire, and one to Paradise.'' Then Allah says,
(Whereon the heaven will be cleft asunder) Al-Hasan and Qatadah both said, "This means, because of it (the Day of Judge- ment), due to its severity and its horror.'' Then Allah says,
(His promise is certainly to be accomplished.) meaning, the promise of this Day will be fulfilled. This means it will occur and there is no way around it, and it will come to pass and there is no avoiding it.
(19. Verily, this is an admonition, therefore whosoever wills, let him take a path to His Lord!) (20. Verily, your Lord knows that you do stand a little less than two-thirds of the night, or half the night, or a third of the night, and also a party of those with you. And Allah measures the night and the day. He knows that you are unable to pray the whole night, so He has turned to you. So, recite you of the Qur'an as much as may be easy for you. He knows that there will be some among you sick, others traveling through the land, seeking of Allah's bounty, yet others fighting in Allah's cause. So recite as much of the Qur'an as may be easy,
(Verily, this) meaning, this Surah.
(an admonition,) meaning, men of understanding receive admonition from it. Thus, Allah says,
(therefore whosoever wills, let him take a path to His Lord.) meaning, from those whom Allah wills that they be guided. This is similar to the stipulation that Allah mentions in another Surah,
(But you cannot will, unless Allah wills. Verily Allah is Ever All-Knowing, Al-Wise.) (76:30)
Then Allah says,
(Verily, your Lord knows that you do stand a little less than two-thirds of the night, or half the night, or a third of the night, and also a party of those with you.) meaning, sometimes like this and sometimes like that, and all of these are done unintentionally. However, you all are not able to be consistent with the night prayer Allah has commanded you, because it is difficult for you. Thus, Allah says,
(And Allah measures the night and the day.) meaning, sometimes the night and day are equal, and sometimes one of them will be longer or shorter than the other.
(He knows that you are unable to pray the whole night,) meaning, the obligation which He prescribed for you.
(So, recite you of the Qur'an as much as may be easy.) meaning, without specification of any set time. This means, stand and pray during the night as much as is easy (for you). Allah uses the term recitation (Qira'ah) to mean prayer (Salah). This is as Allah says in Surah Subhan (Al-Isra'),
(And offer your Salah neither aloud) (17:110) meaning, your recitation.
(Nor in low voice.) (17:110) Then Allah says,
(He knows that there will be some among you sick, others traveling through the land, seeking of Allah's bounty, yet others fighting in Allah's cause.) meaning, He knows that there will be people of this nation who will have excuses for not praying the (voluntary) night prayer. They are those who are ill and therefore they are not able to perform it, and those who are traveling in the land seeking the bounty of Allah in business and trade, and others who will be busy with that which is more important to them. An example of this is going on expeditions to fight in the way of Allah. This Ayah, rather, this entire Surah was revealed in Makkah even though fighting was not legislated until after it was revealed. Thus, it is among the greatest of the signs of prophethood, because it informs about unseen matters of the future. Thus, Allah says,
(So recite as much of the Qur'an as may be easy,) meaning, stand and pray at night whatever is easy for you to do of it. Allah said;
(and perform Salah and give Zakah,) meaning, establish your obligatory prayers and pay your obligatory Zakah. This is a proof for those who say that Zakah was made obligatory in Makkah, but the various amounts of Nisab and how much was to be given was clarified in Al-Madinah. And Allah knows best. Ibn `Abbas, `Ikrimah, Mujahid, Al-Hasan, Qatadah and others from the Salaf have said, "Verily, this Ayah abrogated the standing for prayer at night that Allah previously made obligatory for the Muslims.'' It has been confirmed in the Two Sahihs that the Messenger of Allah said to a man,
(Five obligatory prayers during a day and a night (are obligatory).)'' The man said, "Is there anything other than this (of prayer) that is obligatory upon me'' The Messenger of Allah replied,
(No, except what you may do voluntarily.)
(and lend to Allah a handsome loan.) meaning, from charitable donations. For verily, Allah will reward for this the best and most abundant of rewards. This is as Allah says,
(Who is he that will lend to Allah a goodly loan so that He may multiply it to him many times) (2:245) Then Allah says,
(And whatever good you send before you for yourselves, you will certainly find it with Allah, better and greater in reward.) meaning, for all that you send before yourselves, you will get it (back) and it will be better than what you kept for yourselves in the worldly life. Al-Hafiz Abu Ya`la Al-Mawsili reported from Al-Harith bin Suwayd, from `Abdullah that Messenger of Allah said,
(Which of you hold his wealth to be more beloved to him than the wealth of his heir) they said, "O Messenger of Allah! There is not a single one of us who does not hold his wealth to be more beloved to him than the wealth of his heir.'' The Messenger of Allah then said,
(Know what you are saying!) They replied, "What do we know other than this, O Messenger of Allah'' He then said,
(The wealth of one of you is only that which he sends forth, and the wealth of his heir is that which he leaves behind.) Al-Bukhari also recorded this Hadith. Then Allah says,
(And seek forgiveness of Allah. Verily, Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most-Merciful.) meaning, remember Him and seek forgiveness from Him often for all of your matters. For verily, He is Most Forgiving, Most Merciful to whoever seeks His forgiveness. This is the end of the Tafsir of Surat Al-Muzzammil, and all praise and blessings are due to Allah.
In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.
(1. O you enveloped in garments!) (2. Arise and warn!) (3. And magnify your Lord!) (4. And purify your garments!) (5. And keep away from Ar-Rujz!) (6. And give not a thing in order to have more.) (7. And be patient for the sake of your Lord!) (8. Then, when the Naqur is sounded.) (9. Truly, that Day will be a Hard Day.) (10. Far from easy for the disbelievers.)
It has been confirmed in the Sahih Al-Bukhari and Sahih Muslim on the authority of Abu Salamah that Jabir bin `Abdullah informed him that he heard the Messenger of Allah speaking about the time period (of the pause in) revelation. The Prophet said,
(While I was walking I heard a voice from the sky. So I lifted my gaze towards the sky and saw the same angel who had come to me at the cave of Hira'. He was sitting on a chair between the sky and the earth. So I fled from him (in fear) until I fell down to the ground. Then, I went to my family and I said, `Wrap me up, wrap me up. So, they wrapped me up! So Allah revealed, (O you wrapped up! Arise and warn!) Until (And keep away) ﴿Here, Abu Salamah added, `Ar-Rujz means idols.'﴾ (After this, the revelation started coming strongly and frequently in succession.) This is the wording of Al-Bukhari. The way this Hadith is narrated necessitates that revelation had descended before this. This is due to the Prophet's statement,
(The same angel who had come to me at the cave of Hira'.)'' That angel was Jibril, who had came to him with Allah's statement,
(Read! In the Name of your Lord Who has created. He has created man from a clot. Read! And your Lord is the Most Generous. Who has taught by the pen. He has taught man that which he knew not.) (96:1-5) After this first occurrence (in the cave) there was a period of time that passed, then the angel descended again. Imam Ahmad recorded from Abu Salamah bin `Abdur-Rahman that Jabir bin `Abdullah informed him that he heard the Messenger of Allah saying,
(Then the revelation ceased coming to me for a period of time. Then, while I was walking, I heard a voice from the sky. So I lifted my gaze towards the sky to see the same angel who had come to me, sitting on a chair between the sky and the earth. So I fled from him a short distance before I fell down to the ground. Then I came to my family and said to them, `Wrap me up, wrap me up! So, they wrapped me up! Then Allah revealed, (O you wrapped up! Arise and warn! And magnify your Lord. And purify your garments. And keep away from Ar-Rujz!)( After this, the revelation started coming strongly and frequently in succession.) They both (Al-Bukhari and Muslim) recorded this Hadith by way of Az-Zuhri. At-Tabarani recorded from Ibn `Abbas that he said, "Verily, Al-Walid bin Al-Mughirah prepared some food for the Quraysh. So when they had eaten from it he said, `What do you have to say about this man' Some of them said, `He is a magician.' Others said, `He is not a magician.' Then some of them said, `He is a soothsayer.' But others said, `He is not a soothsayer.' Some of them said, `He is a poet.' But others said, `He is not a poet.' Some of them said, `This is magic from that of old.' Thus, they eventually all agreed that it was magic from ancient times. Then, when this news reached the Prophet , he became grieved, covered his head and wrapped himself up. This is when Allah revealed,
(O you enveloped in garments! Arise and warn! And magnify your Lord (Allah)! And purify your garments! And keep away from Ar-Rujz (the idols)! And give not a thing in order to have more (or consider not your deeds of obedience to Allah as a favour to Him). And be patient for the sake of your Lord (i.e., perform your duty to Allah)!) Concerning Allah's statement,
(Arise and warn!) means, prepare to go forth with zeal and warn the people. With this the Prophet attained messengership just as he attained prophethood with the first revelation.
(And magnify your Lord!) to declare the greatness of Him. Al-`Awfi reported from Ibn `Abbas;
(And purify your garments!) "This means, do not let your garments that you wear be from earnings that are unlawful.'' It has also been said, "Do not wear your clothes in disobedience.'' Muhammad bin Sirin said,
(And purify your garments!) "This means clean them with water.'' Ibn Zayd said, "The idolators would not clean themselves, so Allah commanded him to clean himself and his garments.'' This view was preferred by Ibn Jarir. Sa`id bin Jubayr said,
(And purify your garments!) "This means purify your heart and your intentions.'' Muhammad bin Ka`b Al-Qurazi and Al-Hasan Al-Basri both said, "And beautify your character.'' Concerning Allah's statement,
(And keep away from Ar-Rujz!) `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported from Ibn `Abbas, "Ar-Rujz are idols, so keep away from them.'' Similar to this was said by Mujahid, `Ikrimah, Qatadah, Az-Zuhri and Ibn Zayd, "Verily, it is the idols.'' This is like Allah's statement,
(O Prophet! have Taqwa of Allah, and obey not the disbelievers and the hypocrites.) (33:1) and Allah's statement,
(And Musa said to his brother Harun: "Replace me among my people, act well and follow not way of the corrupters.'') (7:142) Then Allah says,
(And give not a thing in order to have more.) Ibn `Abbas said, "Do not give any gift seeking to get (back in return) more than it.'' Khusayf reported from Mujahid;
(And give not a thing (Tamnun) in order to have more.) "Do not slacken in seeking more good. Tamnun in the language of the Arabs means to become weak.'' Concerning Allah's statement,
(And be patient for the sake of your Lord!) meaning, make your patience with their harms be for the Face of your Lord, the Mighty and Majestic. This was stated by Mujahid. Ibrahim An-Nakha`i said, "Be patient in your giving for the sake of Allah, the Mighty and Majestic.''
Concerning Allah's statement,
(Then, when the Naqur is sounded. Truly, that Day will be a Hard Day -- far from easy for the disbelievers) Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, Ash-Sha`bi, Zayd bin Aslam, Al-Hasan, Qatadah, Ad-Dahhak, Ar-Rabi` bin Anas, As-Suddi and Ibn Zayd, all said,
(Naqur) "It is the Trumpet.'' Mujahid said, "It is in the shape of a horn.'' Ibn Abi Hatim narrated that Abu Sa`id Al-Ashaj told them that Asbat bin Muhammad related to them from Mutarrif, from `Atiyah Al-`Awfi, from Ibn `Abbas,
(Then, when the Trumpet is sounded.) The Messenger of Allah said,
(How can I be comfortable when the one with the horn has placed it in his mouth, leaned his forehead forward, and is waiting to be commanded so that he can blow) The Companions of the Messenger of Allah said, "What do you command us, O Messenger of Allah'' He replied,
(Say: "Allah is sufficient for us, and what an excellent Trustee He is. We put our trust in Allah.'') It has been recorded like this by Imam Ahmad on the authority of Asbat. Concerning Allah's statement,
(Truly, that Day will be a Hard Day.) meaning, severe.
(Far from easy for the disbelievers.) meaning, it will not be easy for them. This is as Allah says,
(The disbelievers will say: "This a Hard Day.'') (54:8) We have reported from Zurarah bin Awfa, the judge of Al-Basrah, that he led the people in the morning prayer and he recited this Surah. Then, when he reached Allah's statement,
(Then, when the Naqur is sounded. Truly, that Day will be a Hard Day -- far from easy for the disbelievers.) he made a moaning sound and then he fell down dead. May Allah have mercy on him.
(11. Leave Me alone (to deal) with whom I created lonely.) (12. And then granted him resources in abundance.) (13. And children attending.) (14. And made life smooth and comfortable for him.) (15. After all that he desires that I should give more.) (16. Nay! Verily, he has been opposing Our Ayat.) (17. I shall force him to Sa`ud!) (18. Verily, he thought and plotted.) (19. So let him be cursed, how he plotted!) (20. And once more let him be cursed, how he plotted!) (21. Then he thought.) (22. Then he frowned and he looked in a bad tempered way;) (23. Then he turned back, and was proud.) (24. Then he said: "This is nothing but magic from that of old,) (25. "This is nothing but the word of a human being!'') (26. I will cast him into Saqar.) (27. And what will make you know (exactly) what Saqar is) (28. It spares not, nor does it leave (anything)!) (29. Scorching for the humans!) (30. Over it are nineteen.)