Concerning Allah's statement,
(Then, when the Naqur is sounded. Truly, that Day will be a Hard Day -- far from easy for the disbelievers) Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, Ash-Sha`bi, Zayd bin Aslam, Al-Hasan, Qatadah, Ad-Dahhak, Ar-Rabi` bin Anas, As-Suddi and Ibn Zayd, all said,
(Naqur) "It is the Trumpet.'' Mujahid said, "It is in the shape of a horn.'' Ibn Abi Hatim narrated that Abu Sa`id Al-Ashaj told them that Asbat bin Muhammad related to them from Mutarrif, from `Atiyah Al-`Awfi, from Ibn `Abbas,
(Then, when the Trumpet is sounded.) The Messenger of Allah said,
(How can I be comfortable when the one with the horn has placed it in his mouth, leaned his forehead forward, and is waiting to be commanded so that he can blow) The Companions of the Messenger of Allah said, "What do you command us, O Messenger of Allah'' He replied,
(Say: "Allah is sufficient for us, and what an excellent Trustee He is. We put our trust in Allah.'') It has been recorded like this by Imam Ahmad on the authority of Asbat. Concerning Allah's statement,
(Truly, that Day will be a Hard Day.) meaning, severe.
(Far from easy for the disbelievers.) meaning, it will not be easy for them. This is as Allah says,
(The disbelievers will say: "This a Hard Day.'') (54:8) We have reported from Zurarah bin Awfa, the judge of Al-Basrah, that he led the people in the morning prayer and he recited this Surah. Then, when he reached Allah's statement,
(Then, when the Naqur is sounded. Truly, that Day will be a Hard Day -- far from easy for the disbelievers.) he made a moaning sound and then he fell down dead. May Allah have mercy on him.
(11. Leave Me alone (to deal) with whom I created lonely.) (12. And then granted him resources in abundance.) (13. And children attending.) (14. And made life smooth and comfortable for him.) (15. After all that he desires that I should give more.) (16. Nay! Verily, he has been opposing Our Ayat.) (17. I shall force him to Sa`ud!) (18. Verily, he thought and plotted.) (19. So let him be cursed, how he plotted!) (20. And once more let him be cursed, how he plotted!) (21. Then he thought.) (22. Then he frowned and he looked in a bad tempered way;) (23. Then he turned back, and was proud.) (24. Then he said: "This is nothing but magic from that of old,) (25. "This is nothing but the word of a human being!'') (26. I will cast him into Saqar.) (27. And what will make you know (exactly) what Saqar is) (28. It spares not, nor does it leave (anything)!) (29. Scorching for the humans!) (30. Over it are nineteen.)
Allah threatens this wicked person whom He has favored with the blessings of this world, yet he is ungrateful for the blessings of Allah and he meets them with disbelief (in Allah) and rejection of His Ayat. He invents lies against Allah's Ayat and claims that they are the words of a man. Allah recounts to him His favors upon him when He says,
(Leave Me alone (to deal) with whom I created lonely.) meaning, he came out of the womb of his mother alone, without any wealth or children. Then, Allah provided him with
(resources in abundance.) meaning, vast and abundant. Allah then made for him,
(And children attending.) Mujahid said, "They are not absent.'' This means that they are present with him. They do not travel for business and trade. Rather, their servants and hired workers handle all of that for them while they are sitting with their father. He enjoys their company and delights in being with them.
(And made life smooth and comfortable for him.) meaning, `I made possible for him to amass wealth, luxuries and other than that.'
(After all that he desires that I should give more. Nay! Verily, he has been opposing Our Ayat.) meaning, obstinate. This refers to his ungratefulness for his blessings after knowing (these blessings). Allah says,
(I shall force him to Sa`ud!) Qatadah reported from Ibn `Abbas that he said, "Sa`ud is a rock in Hell that the disbeliever will be dragged across on his face.'' As-Suddi said, "Sa`ud is a slippery rock in Hell that he will be forced to climb.'' Mujahid said,
(I shall force him to Sa`ud!) "This is a harsh portion of the torment.'' Qatadah said, "It is a torment that contains no relaxation (break for relief).'' Concerning Allah's statement,
(Verily, he thought and plotted.) meaning, `We only caused him to face the grievous torment of Sa`ud, that is Our bringing him close to the harsh torment, because he was far away from faith.' This was because he thought and plotted, meaning he contemplated what he should say about the Qur'an when he was asked about it. So he deliberated over what statement he should invent against it.
(and plotted.) meaning, he contemplated.
(So let him be cursed, how he plotted! And once more let him be cursed, how he plotted!) This is a supplication against him.
(Then he thought.) meaning, he thought again and deliberated.
(Then he frowned) meaning, he contracted his eyebrows together and frowned.
(and he looked in a bad tempered way.) meaning, he scowled and was disgusted. Concerning Allah's statement,
(Then he turned back, and was proud.) meaning, he turned away from the truth and arrogantly refused to accept and submit to the Qur'an.
(Then he said: "This is nothing but magic from that of old.'') meaning, `this is magic that Muhammad received from those who were before him, and he is merely saying what he got from them.' This is why he said,
(This is nothing but the word of a human being!) meaning, it is not the Words of Allah. The person who is mentioned in this discussion is Al-Walid bin Al-Mughirah Al-Makhzumi. He was one of the chiefs of the Quraysh -- may Allah curse him. Among the narrations about this is what was reported by Al-`Awfi from Ibn `Abbas. He (Ibn `Abbas) said, "Al-Walid bin Al-Mughirah entered the house of Abu Bakr bin Abi Quhafah and asked him about the Qur'an. When Abu Bakr informed him about it, he left and went to the Quraysh saying, `What a great thing this is that Ibn Abi Kabshah is saying. I swear by Allah that it is not poetry, nor magic, nor the prattling of insanity. Verily, his speech is from the Words of Allah!' So when a group of the Quraysh heard this they gathered and said, `By Allah, if Al-Walid converts (to Islam) all of the Quraysh will convert.' When Abu Jahl bin Hisham heard this he said, `By Allah, I will deal with him for you.' So he went to Al-Walid's house and entered upon him. He said to Al-Walid, `Don't you see that your people are collecting charity for you' Al-Walid replied, `Don't I have more wealth and children than they do' Abu Jahl answered, `They are saying that you only went to Ibn Abi Quhafah's house so that you can get some of his food.' Al-Walid then said, `Is this what my tribe is saying Nay, by Allah, I am not seeking to be close to Ibn Abi Quhafah, nor `Umar, nor Ibn Abi Kabshah. And his speech is only inherited magic of old.' So Allah revealed to His Messenger ,
(Leave me alone with whom I created lonely.) until His statement,
(It spares not, nor does it leave (anything)!)'' Qatadah said, "They claim that he (Al-Walid) said, `By Allah, I thought about what the man says, and it is not poetry. Verily, it has a sweetness and it is truly elegant. Verily, it is exalted and it is not overcome. And I have no doubt that it is magic.' So Allah revealed,
(So let him be cursed, how he plotted!)
(Then he frowned and he looked in a bad tempered way.) He contracted his eyes together and scowled.'' Allah says,
(I will cast him into Saqar.) meaning, `I will engulf him in it from all his sides.' Then Allah says,
(And what will make you know (exactly) what Saqar is) This is to give fright and emphasis to its matter. Then Allah explains this by His saying,
(It spares not, nor does it leave (anything)!) meaning, it eats their flesh, veins, nerves and their skins. Then their organs will be changed into something else. They will remain in this (form), not living or dying. This was stated by Ibn Buraydah, Abu Sinan and others. Concerning Allah's statement,
(Scorching for the humans!) Mujahid said, "This means for the skin.'' Qatadah said,
(Scorching for the humans!) "This means burning the skin.'' Ibn `Abbas said, "Burning the skin of man.'' Concerning Allah's statement,
(Over it are nineteen.) meaning, the first of the guardians of Hell. They are magnificent in (their appearance) and harsh in their character.
(31. And We have set none but angels as guardians of the Fire. And We have fixed their number only as a trial for the disbelievers, in order that the People of the Scripture may arrive at a certainty and that the believers may increase in faith, and that no doubt may be left for the People of the Scripture and the believers, and that those in whose hearts is a disease and the disbelievers may say: "What does Allah intend by this example'' Thus Allah leads astray whom He wills and guides whom He wills. And none can know the hosts of your Lord but He. And this is nothing but a reminder to mankind.) (32. Nay! And by the moon.) (33. And by the night when it withdraws.) (34. And by the dawn when it brightens.) (35. Verily, it is but one of the greatest (signs).) (36. A warning to mankind) (37. To any of you that chooses to go forward, or to remain behind.)
(And We have set none as (Ashab) guardians of the Fire) meaning, its guardians.
(but angels.) Guardian angels, stern and severe. This is a refutation of the idolators of the Quraysh when they mentioned the number of guardian angels. Abu Jahl said, "O people of Quraysh! Are not every ten among you able to defeat one of them'' So Allah said,
(And We have set none but angels as guardians of the Fire.) meaning, extremely strong in their creation. They cannot be stood against nor defeated. It has been said that Abu Al-Ashaddayn, and his name was Kaladah bin Usayd bin Khalaf, said, "O people of Quraysh! You defend me against two of them and I will defend you against seventeen of them.'' He said this thinking himself to be very great. For they claimed that he achieved such strength that he would stand on a skin of cow hide and ten people would try to pull it out from under his feet, but the skin would be torn to pieces and still not be removed from under him. Concerning Allah's statement,
(And We have fixed their number only as a trial for the disbelievers,) meaning, `We only have mentioned their number as being nineteen as a test from Us for mankind.'
(In order that the People of the Scripture may arrive at a certainty) meaning, so that they may know that this Messenger is true. For he speaks according to the same thing that they have with them of heavenly revealed Scriptures that came to the Prophets before him. Concerning Allah's statement,
(and that the believers may increase in faith.) meaning, to their faith. This is due to what they witness from the truthfulness of the information of their Prophet, Muhammad .
(and that no doubt may be left for the People of the Scripture and the believers, and that those in whose hearts is a disease) meaning, among the hypocrites.
(and the disbelievers may say: "What does Allah intend by this example'') meaning, they say, "What is the wisdom in mentioning this here'' Allah says,
(Thus Allah leads astray whom He wills and guides whom He wills.) meaning, by way of examples like this, faith becomes firm in the hearts of some people and it is shaken with others. This has a profound wisdom and it is an irrefutable proof. None knows the Soldiers of Allah except Him Allah says,
(And none can know the hosts of your Lord but He.) meaning, none knows their number and their count except Allah. This is so that one does not make the mistake of thinking that they are only nineteen in all. It has been confirmed in the Hadith concerning Al-Isra' that is reported in the Two Sahihs and other collections, that the Messenger of Allah said in describing the Frequented House (Al-Bayt Al-Ma`mur), which is in the seventh heaven,
(Seventy thousand angels enter into it every day and they do not return to it as it is all that is due upon them (one visit in their lifetime).) Concerning Allah's statement,
(And this is nothing but a reminder to mankind.) Mujahid and others said,
(And this is not.) "This means the Hellfire which has been described.''
(but a reminder to mankind. ) Then Allah says,
(Nay! And by the moon. And by the night when it withdraws.) meaning, when it withdraws.
(And by the dawn when it brightens.) meaning, when it shines.
(Verily, it is but one of the greatest (signs).) meaning, the great things. This refers to the Hellfire. Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, Qatadah, Ad-Dahhak and others of the Salaf, all said this.
(A warning to mankind -- to any of you that chooses to go forward, or to remain behind.) meaning, for whoever wishes to accept the warning and be guided to the truth, or hold back from accepting it, turn away from it and reject it.
(38. Every person is a pledge for what he has earned,) (39. Except those on the Right.) (40. In Gardens they will ask one another,) (41. About criminals (and they will say to them):) (42. "What has caused you to enter Hell'') (43. They will say: "We were not of those who used to offer the Salah,'') (44. "Nor did we feed the poor;'') (45. "And we used to speak falsehood with vain speakers.'') (46. "And we used to deny the Day of Recompense,'') (47. "Until Al-Yaqin came to us.'') (48. So no intercession of intercessors will be of any use to them.) (49. Then what is wrong with them that they turn away from admonition) (50. As if they were wild donkeys.) (51. Fleeing from a Qaswarah.) (52. Nay, everyone of them desires that he should be given pages spread out.) (53. Nay! But they fear not the Hereafter.) (54. Nay, verily, this is an admonition.) (55. So, whosoever wills receives admonition from it!) (56. And they will not receive admonition unless Allah wills; He is the One, deserving of the Taqwa and He is the One Who forgives.)