(Their garments will be of fine green silk, and Istabraq.) meaning, among the garments of the people of Paradise is silk and Sundus, which is a high quality silk. These garments will be shirts and similar clothing from the undergarments. Concerning Istabraq (velvet), from it there is that which has a glitter and shimmer to it, and it is that which is worn as outer clothes, just as is well-known in clothing.
(They will be adorned with bracelets of silver,) This is a description of the righteous. In reference to those who will be near to Allah, then their description is as Allah says,
(Wherein they will be adorned with bracelets of gold and pearls and their garments therein will be of silk.) (22:23) After Allah mentions the outward beautification with silk and ornaments, He then says,
(and their Lord will give them a purifying drink.) meaning, it will purify their insides of envy, despise, hatred, harm and the other reprehensible character traits. This is just as we have recorded from the Commander of the believers, `Ali bin Abi Talib, that he said, "When the people of Paradise come to the Gate of Paradise, they will find two springs there. Then it will be as if they were inspired with what to do, so they will drink from one of them and Allah will remove whatever harmfulness there may be within them. Then they will bathe in the other spring and a glow of delight will run all over them. Thus, Allah informs of their outward condition and their inner beauty.'' Allah then says,
(Verily, this is a reward for you, and your endeavor has been accepted.) meaning, this will be said to them in honor of them and as a goodness towards them. This is as Allah says,
(Eat and drink at ease for that which you have sent forth before you in days past!) (69:24) Allah also says,
(And it will be cried out to them: "This is the Paradise which you have inherited for what you used to do.'') (7:43) Then Allah says,
(And your endeavor has been accepted) meaning, `Allah the Exalted will reward you for a small amount (of deeds) with a large amount (of reward).'
(23. Verily, it is We Who have sent down the Qur'an to you by stages.) (24. Therefore be patient with constancy to the command of your Lord, and obey neither a sinner nor a disbeliever among them.) (25. And remember the Name of your Lord every morning and afternoon.) (26. And during the night, prostrate yourself to Him, and glorify Him a long night through.) (27. Verily, these love the present life of this world, and put behind them a heavy Day.) (28. It is We Who created them, and We have made them of strong build. And when We will, We can replace them with others like them with a complete replacement.) (29. Verily, this is an admonition, so whosoever wills, let him take a path to his Lord.) (30. But you cannot will, unless Allah wills. Verily, Allah is Ever All-Knowing, All-Wise.) (31. He will admit to His mercy whom He wills and as for the wrongdoers -- He has prepared a painful torment.)
Allah reminds His Messenger of how He blessed him by revealing the Magnificent Qur'an to him.
(Therefore be patient with constancy to the command of your Lord.,) meaning, `just as you have been honored by what has been revealed to you, then be patient with His decree and decision and know that He will handle your affairs in a good manner.'
(And obey neither a sinner (Athim) nor a disbeliever (Kafur) among them.) meaning, `do not obey the disbelievers and the hypocrites if they wish to deter you from what has been revealed to you. Rather convey that which has been revealed to you from your Lord and put your trust in Allah, for verily, Allah will protect you from the people.' The Athim is the sinner in his deeds and the Kafur is the disbeliever in his heart.
(And remember the Name of your Lord every morning and afternoon.) meaning, at the beginning of the day and at its end.
(And during the night, prostrate yourself to Him, and glorify Him a long night through.) This is similar to Allah's statement,
(And in some parts of the night offer the Salah with it (the Qur'an), as an additional prayer (Tahajjud) for you. It may be that you Lord will raise you to Maqam Mahmud.) (17:79) Similarly, Allah also says,
(O you wrapped! Stand all night, except a little. Half of it or a little less than that, or a little more. And recite the Qur'an Tartil.) (73:1-4)
Allah reprimands the disbelievers and those similar to them who love the world and are devoted and dedicated to it, who put the abode of the Hereafter behind them in disregard. He says;
(Verily, these love the present life of this world, and put behind them a heavy Day.) meaning, the Day of Judgement. Then Allah says,
(It is We Who created them, and We have made them of strong build.) Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid and others have said, "This means their creation.''
(And when We will, We can replace them with others like them with a complete replacement.) meaning, `when We wish, We will resurrect them on the Day of Judgement and change them, repeating their creation in a new form.' Here the beginning of their creation is a proof for the repetition of their creation. Ibn Zayd and Ibn Jarir both said,
(And when We will, We can replace them with others like them with a complete replacement.) "This means, if We wish We can bring another group of people besides them (in their place).'' This is like Allah's statement,
(If He wills, He can take you away, O people, and bring others. And Allah is capable over that.) (4:133) This is also like His statement,
(If He wills, He can remove you and bring a new creation! And for Allah that is not hard or difficult.) (14:19-20)
Allah then says,
(Verily, this is an admonition,) meaning, this Surah is a reminder.
(so whosoever wills, let him take a path to his Lord.) meaning, a path and a way. This means, whoever wishes to be guided by the Qur'an. This is similar to Allah's statement,
(And what loss have they if they had believed in Allah and in the Last Day.) (4:39) Then Allah says,
(But you cannot will, unless Allah wills.) meaning, no one is able to guide himself, enter into faith or bring about any benefit for himself,
(Unless Allah wills. Verily, Allah is Ever All-Knowing, All-Wise.) meaning, He is Most Knowledgeable of who deserves to be guided. So, He makes guidance easy for him and He predestines for him that which will be a cause for it. However, whoever deserves misguidance, He averts guidance from him. Unto Him belongs the most excellent wisdom and the most irrefutable argument. Thus, He says,
(Verily, Allah is Ever All-Knowing, All-Wise.) Then He says,
(He will admit to His mercy whom He wills and as for the wrongdoers -- He has prepared a painful torment.) meaning, He guides whomever He wishes and He leads astray whomever He wishes. Whoever He guides, there is no one who can lead him astray; and whoever He leads astray, there is no one who can guide him. This is the end of the Tafsir of Surat Al-Insan. And all praise and thanks are due to Allah.
Al-Bukhari recorded from `Abdullah - that is Ibn Mas`ud -- that he said, "While we were with the Messenger of Allah in a cave at Mina,
(By the Mursalat.) was revealed to him. He was reciting it and I was learning it from his mouth. Verily, his mouth was moist with it when a snake leaped out at us. The Prophet said,
(Kill it!) So we quickly went after it, but it got away. Then the Prophet said,
(It was saved from your harm just as you all were saved from its harm.)'' Muslim also recorded this Hadith by way of Al-A`mash. Imam Ahmad recorded from Ibn `Abbas, who reported from his mother that she heard the Prophet reciting
(By the Mursalat.) in the Maghrib prayer. In a report from Malik on the authority of Ibn `Abbas, he narrated that Umm Al-Fadl (his mother) heard him (Ibn `Abbas) reciting
(By the Mursalat `Urfa.) (77:1) so she said, "O my son! You reminded me with your recitation of this Surat. Verily, it is the last thing I heard from the Messenger of Allah . He recited it in the Maghrib prayer (i.e., before he died).'' Both Al-Bukhari and Muslim recorded this report in the Two Sahihs by way of Malik.
In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.
(1. By the Mursalat `Urfa.) (2. The `Asifat `Asfa.) (3. And the Nashirat Nashra.) (4. The Fariqat that separate.) (5. The Mulqiyat that remind,) (6. Excusing or warning.) (7. Surely, what you are promised will occur.) (8. Then when the stars lose their lights.) (9. And when Furijat the heaven.) (10. And when the mountains are blown away.) (11. And when the Messengers are Uqqitat.) (12. For what Day are these signs postponed) (13. For the Day of Sorting Out (the men of Paradise from the men destined for Hell).) (14. And what will explain to you what is the Day of Sorting Out) (15. Woe that Day to the deniers (of the Day of Resurrection)!)
Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Abu Hurayrah said,
(By the Mursalat `Urfa.) "The angels.'' From Masruq, Abu Ad-Duha, Mujahid in one narrations from him, As-Suddi and Ar-Rabi` bin Anas, statements similar to this have been reported. It has been reported from Abu Salih that he said, "These are the Messenger.'' In another narration from him (Abu Salih) he said that it means the angels. Abu Salih has also said the meaning of Al-`Asifat, An-Nashirat, Al-Fariqat and Al-Mulqiyat, that they all refer to the angels. Ath-Thawri narrated from Salamah bin Kuhayl, who reported from Muslim Al-Batin, who reported from Abu Al-`Ubaydayn that he asked Ibn Mas`ud about the meaning of Al-Mursalat `Urfa, and he (Ibn Mas`ud) said, "The wind.'' He said the same about Al-`Asifat `Asfa and An-Nashirat Nashra, that they all refer to the wind. Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid and Qatadah all said the same. Ibn Jarir confidently affirmed that Al-`Asifat `Asfa means the wind just as Ibn Mas`ud and those who followed him said. However, he (Ibn Jarir) did not affirm whether An-Nashirat Nashra are the angels or the wind as has preceded. It has been reported from Abu Salih that An-Nashirat Nashra is the rain. The most obvious meaning is as Allah says,
(And we send the winds fertilizing.) (15:22) He also says,
(And it is He Who sends the winds as heralds of glad tidings, going before His mercy (rain).) (7:57) Similarly, Al-`Asifat are winds. It is said (in Arabic) that the winds `Asifat when they make noise with their blowing. Likewise, An-Nashirat are the winds that scatter into clouds in the horizons of the sky according to the will of the Lord. Allah then says,
(The Fariqat that separate, the Mulqiyat that remind, excusing or warning.) meaning, the angels. This was said by Ibn Mas`ud, Ibn `Abbas, Masruq, Mujahid, Qatadah, Ar-Rabi` bin Anas, As-Suddi and Ath-Thawri. There is no difference of opinion here, because they (the angels) are the ones who descend with Allah's command to the Messengers, separating between the truth and falsehood, guidance and misguidance, and the lawful and the forbidden. They bring the revelation to the Messengers, which contains exemption or absolvement for the creatures and a warning for them of Allah's torment if they oppose His command. Allah said,
(Surely, what you are promised will occur.) This is the subject of these oaths. This means, what you all have been promised concerning the establishment of the Hour (Judgement Day), the blowing of the horn, the resurrection of the bodies, the gathering of those of old and those of latter times on one common ground and the rewarding of every doer of a deed based upon his deed. If he did good, then his reward will be good, and if he did evil, then his reward will be evil. All of this will occur, meaning it will come to pass and there is no avoiding it.
Then Allah says,
(Then when the stars lose their lights.) meaning, their light will leave. This is similar to Allah's statement,
(And when the star fall.) (81:2) It is also similar to His statement,
(And when the stars have fallen and scattered.) (82:2) Then Allah says,
(And when Furijat the heaven.) meaning, it is cleft asunder, becomes split, its sides fall and its edges become weak.
(And when the mountains are blown away.) meaning, they will be removed and no sight or trace of them will remain. This is as Allah says,
(And they ask you concerning the mountains: Say, "My Lord will blast them and scatter them as particles of dust.'') (20:105) Allah also says,
(And (remember) the Day We shall cause the mountains to pass away (like clouds of dust), and you will see the earth as a leveled plain, and we shall gather them all together so as to leave not one of them behind.) (18:47) Then He says,
(And when the Messengers are Uqqitat.) Al-`Awfi narrated from Ibn `Abbas that he said that Uqqitat means "Gathered.'' Ibn Zayd said, "This is similar to Allah's statement,
(On the Day when Allah will gather the Messengers together.) Mujahid said,
(Uqqitat.) "This means postponed.'' Ath-Thawri narrated from Mansur, who narrated from Ibrahim that he said concerning the word,
(Uqqitat.) "This means promised.'' It seems as though he holds this to be similar to Allah's statement,
(And the earth will shine with the light of its Lord: and the Book will be produced; and the Prophets and the witnesses will be brought forward; and it will be judged between them with truth, and they will not be wronged.) (39:69) Then Allah says,
(For what Day are these signs postponed For the Day of Sorting Out. And what will explain to you what is the Day of Sorting Out Woe that Day to the deniers!) Allah is saying, `for which day are the Messengers postponed and their matter expected, so that the Hour will be established' This is as Allah says,
(So think not that Allah will fail to keep His promise to His Messengers. Certainly, Allah is Almighty, All-Able of Retribution. On the Day when the earth will be changed to another earth and so will be the heavens, and they will appear before Allah, the One, the Irresistible.) (14:47, 48) This is the Day of Sorting Out, as Allah says,
(the Day of Sorting Out.) Then Allah says, in magnifying its matter,
(And what will explain to you what is the Day of Sorting Out Woe that Day to the deniers.) meaning, woe unto them from Allah's torment that is coming in the future.
(16. Did We not destroy the ancients) (17. So shall We make later generations to follow them.) (18. Thus do We deal with the criminals.) (19. Woe that Day to the deniers!) (20. Did We not create you from a despised water) (21. Then We placed it in a place of safety,) (22. For a known period) (23. So We did measure; and We are the best to measure.) (24. Woe that Day to the deniers!) (25. Have We not made the earth Kifat (a receptacle)) (26. For the living and the dead) (27. And have placed therein fixed towers, and have given you Furat water) (28. Woe that Day to the deniers!)