Allah says about the Day of Decision -- and it is the Day of Judgement -- that it is at a fixed time, with a set appointment. Its time cannot be added to or decreased. No one knows its exact time except Allah. This is as Allah says,
(And We delay it only for a term fixed.) (11:104)
(The Day when the Trumpet will be blown, and you shall come forth in crowds.) Mujahid said, "Groups after groups.'' Ibn Jarir said, "This means that each nation will come with its Messenger. It is similar to Allah's statement,
(The Day when We shall call together all human beings with their Imam.) (17:71)'' Al-Bukhari reported concerning the explanation of Allah's statement,
(The Day when the Trumpet will be blown, and you shall come forth in crowds.) Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said,
(That which is between the two blowings is forty.) Someone asked, "Is it forty days, O Abu Hurayrah'' But he (Abu Hurayrah) refused to reply, saying "no comment.'' They then asked, "Is it forty months'' But he (Abu Hurayrah) refused to reply, saying "no comment.'' They asked again, "Is it forty years'' But he (Abu Hurayrah) refused to reply, saying "no comment.'' (Abu Hurayrah added:) "Then the Prophet went on to say,
(Then Allah will send down a rain from the sky and the dead body will sprout just as a green plant sprouts. Every part of the last person will deteriorate except for one bone, and it is the coccyx bone (tailbone). From it the creation will be assembled on the Day of Judgement.)''
(And the heaven shall be opened, and it will become as gates.) meaning, paths, and routes for the descending of the angels.
(And the mountains shall be moved away from their places and they will be as if they were a mirage.) This is similar to Allah's statement,
(And you will see the mountains and think them solid, but they shall pass away as the passing away of the clouds.) (27:88) He also says,
(And the mountain will be like carded wool.) (101:5) And Allah says here,
(As if they were a mirage.) meaning, they appear to the one who looks at them as if they are something, but they are actually nothing. After this they will be completely removed. Nothing will be seen of them, and there will be neither base nor trace of them. This is as Allah says,
(And they ask you concerning the mountains, say: "My Lord will blast them and scatter them as particles of dust. Then He shall leave them as a level smooth plain. You will see therein nothing crooked or curved.'') (20:105-107) And He says,
(And the Day We shall cause the mountains to pass away, and you will see the earth as a leveled plain.) (18:47) Allah then says,
(Truly, Hell is a place of ambush) meaning, it is waiting in preparation.
(for the Taghun) These are the disobedient rejecters who oppose the Messengers.
(A dwelling place) meaning, a place of return, final destination, final outcome, and residence. Allah said,
(They will abide therein Ahqab.) meaning, they will remain in it for Ahqab, which is the plural of Huqb. Huqb means a period of time. Khalid bin Ma`dan said, "This Ayah, and the Ayah,
except your Lord wills. (11:107) both refer to the people of Tawhid. Ibn Jarir recorded this statement. Ibn Jarir also recorded from Salim that he heard Al-Hasan being asked about Allah’s statement,
(They will abide therein Ahqab) "In reference to Ahqab, it has no specific amount of time other than its general meaning of eternity in the Hellfire. However, they have mentioned that the Huqb is seventy years, and every day of it is like one thousand years according to your reckoning (in this life).'' Sa`id reported from Qatadah that he said, "Allah says,
(They will abide therein Ahqab.) (78:23) And it is that which has no end to it. Whenever one era comes to an end, a new era follows it. It has been mentioned to us that the Huqb is eighty years.'' Ar-Rabi` bin Anas said,
(They will abide therein Ahqab) "No one knows how much time this Ahqab is, except for Allah, the Mighty and Sublime. It has been mentioned to us that one Huqb is eighty years, and the year is three hundred and sixty days, and each day is equivalent to one thousand years according to your reckoning (in this life).'' Ibn Jarir has recorded both of these statements. Allah's statement:
(Nothing cool shall they taste therein, nor any drink.) meaning, they will not find any coolness in Hell for their hearts, nor any good drink for them to partake of. Thus, Allah says,
(Except Hamim, and Ghassaq) Abu Al-`Aliyah said, "The Hamim has been made an exception to the coolness, and Ghassaq is the exception to the drink.'' This has also been said by Ar-Rabi` bin Anas. In reference to the Hamim, it is the heat that has reached its maximum temperature and point of boiling. The Ghassaq is gathered from the pus, sweat, tears, and wounds of the people of Hellfire. It is unbearably cold with an intolerable stench. May Allah save us from that by His beneficence and grace. Then He continues,
(An exact recompense.) meaning, that which will happen to them of this punishment is in accordance with their wicked deeds, which they were doing in this life. Mujahid, Qatadah, and others have said this. Then Allah said,
(For verily, they used not to look for a reckoning.) (78:27) meaning, they did not believe that there would be an abode in which they would be taken to account.
(But they denied Our Ayat Kidhdhaba.) meaning, they used to deny the evidences of Allah and His proofs for His creation, which He revealed to His Messengers. So they met these proofs with rejection and obstinance. His statement,
(Kidhdhaba) it means rejection, and it is considered a verbal noun that does not come from a verb. Allah said;
(And all things We have recorded in a Book.) meaning, `surely We know the deeds of all of the creatures, and We have written these deeds for them. We will reward them based upon this.' If their deeds were good then their reward will be good, and if their deeds were evil their reward will be evil. Allah then says,
(So taste you. No increase shall We give you, except in torment.) This means that it will be said to the people of the Hellfire, "Taste that which you were in. We will never increase you in anything except torment according to its type (of sin), and something else similar to it.'' Qatadah reported from Abu Ayyub Al-Azdi, who reported from `Abdullah bin `Amr that he said, "Allah did not reveal any Ayah against the people of the Hellfire worse than this Ayah,
(So taste you. No increase shall We give you, except in torment.)'' Then he said, "They will continue increasing in torment forever.''
(31. Verily, for those who have Taqwa, there will be a success;) (32. Hada'iq and vineyards,) (33. And Kawa`ib Atrab,) (34. And a cup Dihaq.) (35. No Laghw shall they hear therein, nor lying;) (36. Rewarded from your Lord with a sufficient gift.)
Allah informs about the happy people and what He has prepared for them of esteem, and eternal pleasure. Allah says,
(Verily, for those who have Taqwa, there will be a success;) Ibn `Abbas and Ad-Dahhak both said, "A place of enjoyable recreation.'' Mujahid and Qatadah both said, "They are successful and thus, they are saved from the Hellfire.'' The most obvious meaning here is the statement of Ibn `Abbas, because Allah says after this,
(Hada'iq) And Hada'iq are gardens of palm trees and other things.
(And vineyards, and Kawa`ib Atrab,) meaning, wide-eyed maidens with fully developed breasts. Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid and others have said,
(Kawa`ib) "This means round breasts. They meant by this that the breasts of these girls will be fully rounded and not sagging, because they will be virgins, equal in age. This means that they will only have one age.'' The explanation of this has already been mentioned in Surat Al-Waqi`ah. Concerning Allah's statement,
(And a cup Dihaq.) Ibn `Abbas said, "Continuously filled.'' `Ikrimah said, "Pure.'' Mujahid, Al-Hasan, Qatadah, and Ibn Zayd all said,
(Dihaq) "This means completely filled.'' Then Allah says,
(No Laghw shall they hear therein, nor lying;) This is similar to Allah's statement,
(Free from any Laghw, and free from sin.) (52:23) meaning, there will not be any vain, worthless speech therein, nor any sinful lying. Rather, it will be the abode of peace, and everything that is in it will be free of any shortcomings. Allah then says,
(Rewarded from your Lord with a sufficient gift.) meaning, `this that We have mentioned to you is what Allah will reward them with, and they will be given it by His favor and from Him. It will be a kindness, mercy, gift, and recompense from Him. It will be sufficient, suitable, comprehensive and abundant.' The Arabs say, "He gave me and he sufficed me.'' This means that he sufficiently provided for me.'' From this comes the saying, "Allah is sufficient for me.''
(37. The Lord of the heavens and the earth, and whatsoever is in between them, the Most Gracious, with Whom they cannot dare to speak.) (38. The Day that Ar-Ruh and the angels will stand forth in rows, they will not speak except him whom Ar-Rahman allows, and he will speak what is right.) (39. That is the True Day. So, whosoever wills, let him seek a place with His Lord!) (40. Verily, We have warned you of a near torment -- the Day when man will see that which his hands have sent forth, and the disbeliever will say: "Woe to me! Would that I were dust!'')
Allah informs of His magnificence and His majesty, and that He is the Lord of the heavens and the earth, and whatever is in them and between them. He explains that He is the Most Gracious, Whose mercy covers all things. Then He says,
(With Whom they cannot dare to speak.) meaning, no one is able to begin addressing Him except by His permission. This is as Allah says,
(Who is he that can intercede with Him except with His permission) (2:255) It is also similar to His statement,
(On the Day when it comes, no person shall speak except by His leave.) (11:105)
(The Day that Ar-Ruh and the angels will stand forth in rows, they will not speak) (78:38) The word Ruh here is referring to the angel Jibril. This has been said by Ash-Sha`bi, Sa`id bin Jubayr and Ad-Dahhak. This is as Allah says,
(Which the trustworthy Ruh has brought down. Upon your heart that you may be of the warners.) (26:193-194) Muqatil bin Hayyan said, "The Ruh is the noblest of the angels, the closest of them to the Lord, and the one who delivers the revelation.'' Allah said;
(except him whom Ar-Rahman allows,) This is similar to Allah's statement,
(On the Day when it comes, no person shall speak except by His leave.) (11:105) This is similar to what has been confirmed in the Sahih, that the Prophet said,
(And none will speak on that Day except the Messengers.)'' Allah said,
(and he will speak what is right.) meaning, the truth. And from the truth is the fact that there is no god worthy of worship except Allah. This is as Abu Salih and `Ikrimah both said. In reference to Allah's statement,
(That is the True Day.) meaning, it will come to pass and there is no avoiding it.
(So, whosoever wills, let him seek a place with His Lord!) meaning, a place of return, a path that leads to Him, and a way that he may pass by to get to Him.
(Verily, We have warned you of a near torment) meaning, the Day of Judgement. It is mentioned here to emphasize the fact that its occurrence has become close, because everything that is coming will certainly come to pass.
(the Day when man will see that which his hands have sent forth,) meaning, all of his deeds will be presented to him -- the good and bad, and the old and new. This is similar to Allah's statement,
(And they will find all that they did, placed before them.) (18:49) t It is also similar to His statement,
(On that Day man will be informed of what he sent forward, and what he left behind.) (75:13) Then Allah says,
(and the disbeliever will say: "Woe to me! Would that I were dust!'') meaning, the disbeliever on that Day will wish that he had only been dust in the worldly life.
He will wish that he had not been created and that he had never come into existence. This will be when he sees the torment of Allah and he looks at his wicked deeds that will be written down against him by the noble righteous scribes among angels. It has been said that he will only wish for that when Allah passes judgement between all of the animals that were in the worldly life. He will rectify matters between them with His just wisdom that does not wrong anyone. Even the hornless sheep will be allowed to avenge itself against the sheep with horns.
Then, when the judgement between them is finished, He (Allah) will say to them (the animals), "Be dust.'' So they will all become dust. Upon witnessing this the disbeliever will say,
(Would that I were dust!) meaning, `I wish I was an animal so that I would be returned to dust.' Something of similar meaning to this has been reported in the well-known Hadith about the Sur. There are also narrations recorded from Abu Hurayrah, `Abdullah bin `Amr, and others concerning this. This is the end of the Tafsir of Surat An-Naba'. And all praise and thanks are due to Allah. He is the Giver of success and protection from error.
In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.
(1. By those who pull out, drowning.) (2. By those who free briskly.) (3. And by the swimmers, swimming.) (4. And by the racers, racing.) (5. And by those who arrange affairs.) (6. On the Day the Rajifah shakes,) (7. Followed by the Radifah.) (8. Hearts that Day will tremble.) (9. Their vision humiliated.) (10. They say: "Shall we indeed be brought back from Al-Hafirah'') (11. "Even after we are bones Nakhirah'') (12. They say: "It would in that case, be a return with loss!'') (13. But it will be only a single Zajrah.) (14. When behold, they are at As-Sahirah.)
Ibn Mas`ud, Ibn `Abbas, Masruq, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Abu Salih, Abu Ad-Duha and As-Suddi all said,
(By those who pull out, drowning.) "These are the angels who remove the souls from the Children of Adam.'' Among them are those whose souls are removed by the angels with difficulty, as if he is being drowned during its removal. There are those people whose souls the angels remove with ease, as if they were unraveling him (i.e., his soul from him) due to their briskness. This is the meaning of Allah's statement,
(By those who free briskly.) This has been mentioned by Ibn `Abbas. In reference to Allah's statement,
(And by the swimmers, swimming.) Ibn Mas`ud said, "They are the angels.'' Similar statements have been reported from `Ali, Mujahid, Sa`id bin Jubayr, and Abu Salih. Concerning Allah's statement,
(And by the racers, racing.) It has been narrated from `Ali, Masruq, Mujahid, Abu Salih, and Al-Hasan Al-Basri that this means the angels. Then Allah says,
(And by those who arrange affairs.) `Ali, Mujahid, `Ata', Abu Salih, Al-Hasan, Qatadah, Ar-Rabi` bin Anas, and As-Suddi all said, "They are the angels.'' Al-Hasan added, "They control the affairs from the heaven to the earth, meaning by the command of their Lord, the Mighty and Majestic.''
Then Allah says,
(On the Day the Rajifah shakes, followed by the Radifah.) Ibn `Abbas said, "These are the two blasts (of the Trumpet) -- the first and the second.'' Mujahid, Al-Hasan, Qatadah, Ad-Dahhak and others have made similar statements. It has been reported from Mujahid that he said, "In reference to the first, it is the statement of Allah,
(On the Day the Rajifah shakes,) This is similar to Allah's statement,
(On the Day the earth and the mountains shake.) (73:14) The second is Ar-Radifah, and it is like the Allah's statement,
(And the earth and mountains shall be removed from their places, and crushed with a single crushing.) (69:14)'' Concerning Allah's statement,
(Hearts that Day will tremble.) Ibn `Abbas said, "This means afraid.'' Mujahid and Qatadah also said this.
(Their vision humiliated.) meaning, the eyes of the people. It means that the eyes will be lowly and disgraced from what they will witness of terrors. Allah then says,
(They say: "Shall we indeed be brought back from Al-Hafirah'') meaning, the idolators of the Quraysh and whoever rejects the Hereafter as they did. They consider the occurrence of the resurrection after being placed in Al-Hafirah -- which are the graves -- as something farfetched. This has been said by Mujahid. They feel that this is something impossible after the destruction of their physical bodies and the disintegration of their bones and their decaying. Thus, Allah says,
(Even after we are bones Nakhirah) It has also been recited: (نَاخِرَةً) (Nakhirah) Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid and Qatadah, all said, "This means decayed.'' Ibn `Abbas said, "It is the bone when it has decayed and air enters into it.'' Concerning their saying,
(It would in that case be a return with loss.) (79:12) Muhammad bin Ka`b said that the Quraysh said, "If Allah brings us back to life after we die, then surely we will be losers.'' Allah then says,
(But it will be only a single Zajrah. When behold, they are at As-Sahirah.) meaning, this is a matter that is from Allah that will not occur twice, nor will there be any opportunity to affirm it or verify it. The people will be standing and looking. This will be when Allah commands the angel Israfil to blow into the Sur, which will be the blowing of the resurrection. At that time the first people and the last people will all be standing before their Lord looking. This is as Allah says,
(On the Day when He will call you, and you will answer with His praise and obedience, and you will think that you have stayed but a little while!) (17:52) Allah has also said,
(And our commandment is but one as the twinkling of an eye.) (54:50) Allah also says,
(And the matter of the Hour is not but as a twinkling of the eye, or even nearer.) (16:77) Allah then says,
(When behold, they are at As-Sahirah.) Ibn `Abbas said, "As-Sahirah means the entire earth.'' Sa`id bin Jubayr, Qatadah and Abu Salih have all said this as well. `Ikrimah, Al-Hasan, Ad-Dahhak, and Ibn Zayd have all said, "As-Sahirah means the face of the earth.'' Mujahid said, "They will be at its (the earth's) lowest part, and they will be brought out to highest part.'' Then he said, "As-Sahirah is a level place.'' Ar-Rabi` bin 'Anas said,
(When behold, they are at As-Sahirah.) "Allah says,
(On the Day when the earth will be changed to another earth and so will be the heavens, and they will appear before Allah, the One, the Irresistible.) (14:48) and He says,
(And they ask you concerning the mountains: say, "My Lord will blast them and scatter them as particles of dust. Then He shall leave them as a level smooth plain. You will see therein nothing crooked or curved.) (20:105-107) and Allah says,
(And the Day We shall cause the mountains to pass away, and you will see the earth as a leveled plain.) (18:47) and the earth will be brought forth which will have mountains upon it, and it will not be considered from this earth (of this life). It will be an earth that no sin will be performed on it, nor will any blood be shed upon it.''
(15. Has there come to you the story of Musa) (16. When his Lord called him in the holy valley of Tuwa,) (17. Go to Fir`awn; verily, he has transgressed all bounds.) (18. And say to him: "Would you purify yourself'') (19. "And that I guide you to your Lord, so you should fear Him'') (20. Then he showed him the great sign.) (21. But he denied and disobeyed.) (22. Then he turned back, striving.) (23. So he gathered and called out,) (24. Saying: "I am your lord, most high.'') (25. So Allah seized him with punishing example for the Hereafter and the first (life).) (26. In this is a lesson for whoever fears.)