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The Record Book of the Righteous and Their Reward

Allah says that truly,

﴿ إِنَّ كِتَـٰبَ ٱلۡأَبۡرَارِ

(Verily, the Record of Al-Abrar (the righteous believers)) These people are in a situation that is the opposite of the wicked people.

﴿ لَفِى عِلِّيِّينَ

(is in `Illiyyin.) meaning, their final destination is `Illiyyin, which is the opposite of Sijjin. It has been reported from Hilal bin Yasaf that Ibn `Abbas asked Ka`b about Sijjin while he was present, and Ka`b said, "It is the seventh earth and in it are the souls of the disbelievers.'' Then Ibn `Abbas asked him about `Illiyyin, so he said, "It is the seventh heaven and it contains the souls of the believers.'' This statement -- that it is the seventh heaven -- has been said by others as well. `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas said concerning Allah's statement,

﴿ كَلَّآ إِنَّ كِتَـٰبَ ٱلۡأَبۡرَارِ لَفِى عِلِّيِّينَ

(Nay! Verily, the Record of Al-Abrar (the righteous believers) is in `Illiyyin.) "This means Paradise.'' Others besides him have said, "`Iliyyin is located at Sidrat Al-Muntaha.'' The obvious meaning is that the word `Illiyyin is taken from the word `Uluw, which means highness. The more something ascends and rises, the more it becomes greater and increases. Thus, Allah magnifies its affair and extols its matter by saying,

﴿ وَمَآ أَدۡرَٮٰكَ مَا عِلِّيُّونَ

(And what will make you know what `Illiyyin is) Then He says by way of affirming what will be written for them,

﴿ كِتَـٰبٌ۬ مَّرۡقُومٌ۬ يَشۡہَدُهُ ٱلۡمُقَرَّبُونَ

(A Register inscribed. To which bear witness those nearest.) They are the angels. This was stated by Qatadah. Al-`Awfi reported from Ibn `Abbas that he said, "Those nearest to Allah in each heaven will witness it.'' Then Allah says,

﴿ إِنَّ ٱلۡأَبۡرَارَ لَفِى نَعِيمٍ

(Verily, Al-Abrar (the righteous believers) will be in Delight.) meaning, on the Day of Judgement they will be in eternal pleasure and gardens that contain comprehensive bounties.

﴿ عَلَى ٱلۡأَرَآٮِٕكِ

(On thrones,) These are thrones beneath canopies from which they will be gazing. It has been said, "This means that they will be gazing at their kingdom and what Allah has given them of good and bounties that will not end or perish. It has also been said,

﴿ عَلَى ٱلۡأَرَآٮِٕكِ يَنظُرُونَ

(On thrones, looking.) "This means that they will be looking at Allah, the Mighty and Sublime.'' This is the opposite of what those wicked people have been described with,

﴿ كَلَّآ إِنَّہُمۡ عَن رَّبِّہِمۡ يَوۡمَٮِٕذٍ۬ لَّمَحۡجُوبُونَ

(Nay! Surely, they (evildoers) will be veiled from seeing their Lord that Day.) (83:15) Thus, it has been mentioned that these (righteous people) will be allowed to look at Allah while they are upon their thrones and elevated couches. Concerning Allah's statement,

﴿ تَعۡرِفُ فِى وُجُوهِهِمۡ نَضۡرَةَ ٱلنَّعِيمِ

(You will recognize in their faces the brightness of delight.) meaning, `you will notice a glow of delight in their faces when you look at them.' This is a description of opulence, decorum, happiness, composure, and authority that they will be experiencing from this great delight. Concerning Allah's statement,

﴿ يُسۡقَوۡنَ مِن رَّحِيقٍ۬ مَّخۡتُومٍ

(They will be given to drink of pure sealed Rahiq.) meaning, they will be given drink from the wine of Paradise. Ar-Rahiq is one of the names of the wine (in Paradise). Ibn Mas`ud, Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, Al-Hasan, Qatadah and Ibn Zayd all said this. Ibn Mas`ud said concerning Allah's statement,

﴿ خِتَـٰمُهُ ۥ مِسۡكٌ۬‌ۚ

(Sealed with musk,) "This means it will be mixed with musk.'' Al-`Awfi reported from Ibn `Abbas that he said, "Allah will make the wine have a pleasant aroma for them, so the last thing that He will place in it will be musk. Thus, it will be sealed with musk.'' Qatadah and Ad-Dahhak both said the same. Then Allah says,

﴿ وَفِى ذَٲلِكَ فَلۡيَتَنَافَسِ ٱلۡمُتَنَـٰفِسُونَ

(and for this let (all) those strive who want to strive.) meaning, for a situation like this, let the boasters boast, compete, and strive to gain more. Let the competitors compete and race toward the likes of this. This is similar to Allah's statement,

﴿ لِمِثۡلِ هَـٰذَا فَلۡيَعۡمَلِ ٱلۡعَـٰمِلُونَ

(For the like of this let the workers work.) (37:61) Allah then says,

﴿ وَمِزَاجُهُ ۥ مِن تَسۡنِيمٍ

(It will be mixed with Tasnim.) meaning, this wine that is being described is mixed with Tasnim. This refers to a drink called Tasnim, and it is the most excellent and exalted drink of the people of Paradise. This was said by Abu Salih and Ad-Dahhak. Thus, Allah says,

﴿ عَيۡنً۬ا يَشۡرَبُ بِہَا ٱلۡمُقَرَّبُونَ

(A spring whereof drink those nearest to Allah.) (83:28) meaning, those who are near to Allah, will drink from it as they wish, and the companions of the right hand will be given a drink that is mixed with it. This has been said by Ibn Mas`ud, Ibn `Abbas, Masruq, Qatadah and others.

﴿ إِنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ أَجۡرَمُواْ كَانُواْ مِنَ ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ يَضۡحَكُونَ وَإِذَا مَرُّواْ بِہِمۡ يَتَغَامَزُونَ وَإِذَا ٱنقَلَبُوٓاْ إِلَىٰٓ أَهۡلِهِمُ ٱنقَلَبُواْ فَكِهِينَ وَإِذَا رَأَوۡهُمۡ قَالُوٓاْ إِنَّ هَـٰٓؤُلَآءِ لَضَآلُّونَ وَمَآ أُرۡسِلُواْ عَلَيۡہِمۡ حَـٰفِظِينَ فَٱلۡيَوۡمَ ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ مِنَ ٱلۡكُفَّارِ يَضۡحَكُونَ عَلَى ٱلۡأَرَآٮِٕكِ يَنظُرُونَ هَلۡ ثُوِّبَ ٱلۡكُفَّارُ مَا كَانُواْ يَفۡعَلُونَ

(29. Verily, those who committed crimes used to laugh at those who believed.) (30. And, whenever they passed by them, used to wink one to another.) (31. And when they returned to their own people, they would return jesting;) (32. And when they saw them, they said: "Verily, these have indeed gone astray!'') (33. But they were not sent as watchers over them.) (34. But this Day those who believe will laugh at the disbelievers) (35. On thrones, looking.) (36. Are not the disbelievers paid for what they used to do)

The Wicked Behavior of the Criminals and Their mocking of the Believers

Allah informs that the criminals used to laugh at the believers in the worldly life. In other words, they would mock them and despise them. Whenever they would pass by the believers, they would wink at each other about them, meaning in contempt of them.

﴿ وَإِذَا ٱنقَلَبُوٓاْ إِلَىٰٓ أَهۡلِهِمُ ٱنقَلَبُواْ فَكِهِينَ

(And when they returned to their own people, they would return jesting.) meaning, when these criminals turn back, or return to their homes, they go back pleased. This means that whatever they request, they find it. Yet, with this, they still are not grateful for Allah's favor upon them. Rather they busy themselves with despising and envying the believers.

﴿ وَإِذَا رَأَوۡهُمۡ قَالُوٓاْ إِنَّ هَـٰٓؤُلَآءِ لَضَآلُّونَ

(And when they saw them, they said: "Verily, these have indeed gone astray!'') meaning, `because they are upon a religion other than their own religion.' Allah then says,

﴿ وَمَآ أُرۡسِلُواْ عَلَيۡہِمۡ حَـٰفِظِينَ

(But they were not sent as watchers over them.) meaning, these criminals have not been sent as guardians over the deeds and statements of these believers. These wrongdoers have not been made responsible for them. So, why are they so concerned with them, and why have they made them the focus of their attention This is as Allah says,

﴿ قَالَ ٱخۡسَـُٔواْ فِيہَا وَلَا تُكَلِّمُونِ
﴿ إِنَّهُ ۥ كَانَ فَرِيقٌ۬ مِّنۡ عِبَادِى يَقُولُونَ رَبَّنَآ ءَامَنَّا فَٱغۡفِرۡ لَنَا وَٱرۡحَمۡنَا وَأَنتَ خَيۡرُ ٱلرَّٲحِمِينَ فَٱتَّخَذۡتُمُوهُمۡ سِخۡرِيًّا حَتَّىٰٓ أَنسَوۡكُمۡ ذِكۡرِى وَكُنتُم مِّنۡہُمۡ تَضۡحَكُونَ إِنِّى جَزَيۡتُهُمُ ٱلۡيَوۡمَ بِمَا صَبَرُوٓاْ أَنَّهُمۡ هُمُ ٱلۡفَآٮِٕزُونَ

(He (Allah) will say: "Remain you in it with ignominy! And speak you not to Me!'' Verily there was a party of My servants, who used to say: "Our Lord! We believe, so forgive us, and have mercy on us, for You are the Best of all who show mercy!'' But you took them for a laughing stock, so much so that they made you forget My remembrance while you used to laugh at them! Verily, I have rewarded them this Day for their patience: they are indeed the ones that are successful.) (23:108-111) Thus, Allah says here,

﴿ فَٱلۡيَوۡمَ

(But this Day) meaning, the Day of Judgement.

﴿ ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ مِنَ ٱلۡكُفَّارِ يَضۡحَكُونَ

(those who believe will laugh at the disbelievers) meaning, as retribution for how those people laughed at them.

﴿ عَلَى ٱلۡأَرَآٮِٕكِ يَنظُرُونَ

(On thrones, looking.) meaning, looking at Allah as reward for bearing the false claims against them that they were misguided. They were not misguided at all. Rather they were the close Awliya' of Allah, who will be looking at their Lord in the place of His honor. Concerning Allah's statement,

﴿ هَلۡ ثُوِّبَ ٱلۡكُفَّارُ مَا كَانُواْ يَفۡعَلُونَ

(Are not the disbelievers paid for what they used to do) meaning, `will the disbelievers be recompensed for their mockery and belittlement against the believers, or not' This means that they surely will be paid in full, completely and perfectly (for their behavior). This is the end of the Tafsir of Surat Al-Mutaffifin, and all praise and thanks are due to Allah.

The Prostration of Recitation in Surat Al-Inshiqaq

It is reported from Abu Salamah that while leading them in prayer, Abu Hurayrah recited,

﴿ إِذَا ٱلسَّمَآءُ ٱنشَقَّتۡ

(When the heaven is split asunder.) And he prostrated during its recitation. Then when he completed the prayer, he informed them that the Messenger of Allah prostrated during its recitation. This was recorded by Muslim and An-Nasa'i on the authority of Malik. Al-Bukhari recorded from Abu Rafi` that he prayed the Night prayer with Abu Hurayrah) recited,

﴿ إِذَا ٱلسَّمَآءُ ٱنشَقَّتۡ

(When the heaven is split asunder.) then he prostrated. So Abu Rafi` said something to him about it (questioning it). Abu Hurayrah replied, "I prostrated behind Abul-Qasim (the Prophet ), and I will never cease prostrating during its recitation until I meet him.''

﴿ بِسۡمِ ٱللَّهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

﴿ إِذَا ٱلسَّمَآءُ ٱنشَقَّتۡ وَأَذِنَتۡ لِرَبِّہَا وَحُقَّتۡ وَإِذَا ٱلۡأَرۡضُ مُدَّتۡ وَأَلۡقَتۡ مَا فِيہَا وَتَخَلَّتۡ وَأَذِنَتۡ لِرَبِّہَا وَحُقَّتۡ يَـٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلۡإِنسَـٰنُ إِنَّكَ كَادِحٌ إِلَىٰ رَبِّكَ كَدۡحً۬ا فَمُلَـٰقِيهِ فَأَمَّا مَنۡ أُوتِىَ كِتَـٰبَهُ ۥ بِيَمِينِهِۦ فَسَوۡفَ يُحَاسَبُ حِسَابً۬ا يَسِيرً۬ا وَيَنقَلِبُ إِلَىٰٓ أَهۡلِهِۦ مَسۡرُورً۬ا وَأَمَّا مَنۡ أُوتِىَ كِتَـٰبَهُ ۥ وَرَآءَ ظَهۡرِهِۦ فَسَوۡفَ يَدۡعُواْ ثُبُورً۬ا وَيَصۡلَىٰ سَعِيرًا إِنَّهُ ۥ كَانَ فِىٓ أَهۡلِهِۦ مَسۡرُورًا إِنَّهُ ۥ ظَنَّ أَن لَّن يَحُورَ بَلَىٰٓ إِنَّ رَبَّهُ ۥ كَانَ بِهِۦ بَصِيرً۬ا

(1. When the heaven is split asunder,) (2. And listens to and obeys its Lord -- and it must do so.) (3. And when the earth is stretched forth,) (4. And has cast out all that was in it and became empty.) (5. And listens to and obeys its Lord -- and it must do so.) (6. O man! Verily, you are returning towards your Lord with your deeds and actions, a sure returning, and you will meet.) (7. Then as for him who will be given his Record in his right hand,) (8. He surely will receive an easy reckoning,) (9. And will return to his family Masrur (in joy)!) (10. But whosoever is given his Record behind his back,) (11. He will invoke destruction,) (12. And he shall enter a blazing Fire, and made to taste its burning.) (13. Verily, he was among his people in joy!) (14. Verily, he thought that he would never return!) (15. Yes! Verily, his Lord has been ever beholding him!)

Splitting the Heavens asunder and stretching the Earth forth on the Day of Resurrection

Allah says,

﴿ إِذَا ٱلسَّمَآءُ ٱنشَقَّتۡ

(When the heaven is split asunder,) This refers to the Day of Judgement.

﴿ وَأَذِنَتۡ لِرَبِّہَا

(And listens to and obeys its Lord) meaning, it listens to its Lord and obeys His command to split apart. This will occur on the Day of Judgement.

﴿ وَحُقَّتۡ

(and it must do so.) meaning, it is right for it to obey the command of its Lord, because it is great and cannot be rejected, nor overcome. Rather it overpowers everything and everything is submissive to it. Then Allah says,

﴿ وَإِذَا ٱلۡأَرۡضُ مُدَّتۡ

(And when the earth is stretched forth,) meaning, when the earth is expanded, spread out and extended. Then He says,

﴿ وَأَلۡقَتۡ مَا فِيہَا وَتَخَلَّتۡ

(And has cast out all that was in it and became empty.) meaning, it throws out the dead inside of it, and it empties itself of them. This was said by Mujahid, Sa`id, and Qatadah.

﴿ وَأَذِنَتۡ لِرَبِّہَا وَحُقَّتۡ

(And listens to and obeys its Lord, and it must do so.) The explanation of this is the same as what has preceded.

The Recompense for Deeds is True

Allah says,

﴿ يَـٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلۡإِنسَـٰنُ إِنَّكَ كَادِحٌ إِلَىٰ رَبِّكَ كَدۡحً۬ا

(O man! Verily, you are returning towards your Lord with your deeds and actions, a sure returning,) meaning, `verily you are hastening to your Lord and working deeds.'

﴿ فَمُلَـٰقِيهِ

(and you will meet.) `Then you will meet that which you did of good or evil.' A proof for this is what Abu Dawud At-Tayalisi recorded from Jabir, that the Messenger of Allah said,

« قَالَ جِبْرِيلُ: يَا مُحَمَّدُ، عِشْ مَا شِئْتَ فَإِنَّكَ مَيِّتٌ، وَأَحْبِبْ (مَنْ) شِئْتَ فَإِنَّكَ مُفَارِقُهُ، وَاعْمَلْ مَا شِئْتَ فَإِنَّكَ مُلَاقِيه »

(Jibril said, "O Muhammad! Live how you wish, for verily you will die; love what you wish, for verily you will part with it; and do what you wish, for verily you will meet it (your deed).) There are some people who refer the pronoun back to the statement "your Lord.'' Thus, they hold the Ayah to mean, "and you will meet your Lord.'' This means that He will reward you for your work, and pay you for your efforts. Therefore, both of these two views are connected. Al-`Awfi recorded from Ibn `Abbas that he said explaining,

﴿ يَـٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلۡإِنسَـٰنُ إِنَّكَ كَادِحٌ إِلَىٰ رَبِّكَ كَدۡحً۬ا

(O man! Verily, you are returning towards your Lord with your deeds and actions, a sure returning,) "Whatever deed you do, you will meet Allah with it, whether it is good or bad.''

The Presentation and the Discussion that will take place during the Reckoning

Then Allah says,

﴿ فَأَمَّا مَنۡ أُوتِىَ كِتَـٰبَهُ ۥ بِيَمِينِهِۦ فَسَوۡفَ يُحَاسَبُ حِسَابً۬ا يَسِيرً۬ا

(Then as for him who will be given his Record in his right hand, he surely, will receive an easy reckoning,) (84:7-8) meaning, easy without any difficulty. This means that he will not be investigated for all the minute details of his deeds. For verily, whoever is reckoned like that, he will certainly be destroyed. Imam Ahmad recorded from `A'ishah that the Messenger of Allah said,

« مَنْ نُوقِشَ الْحِسَابَ عُذِّب »

(Whoever is interrogated during the reckoning, then he will be punished.) `A'ishah then said, "But didn't Allah say,

﴿ فَسَوۡفَ يُحَاسَبُ حِسَابً۬ا يَسِيرً۬ا

(He surely will receive an easy reckoning,)'' The Prophet replied,

« لَيْسَ ذَاكِ بِالْحِسَابِ، وَلَــكِنْ ذلِكِ الْعَرْضُ، مَنْ نُوقِشَ الْحِسَابَ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ عُذِّب »

(That is not during to the Reckoning, rather it is referring to the presentation. Whoever is interrogated during the Reckoning on the Day of Judgement, then he will be punished.) This Hadith has also been recorded by Al-Bukhari, Muslim, At-Tirmidhi, An-Nasa'i and Ibn Jarir. In reference to Allah's statement,

﴿ وَيَنقَلِبُ إِلَىٰٓ أَهۡلِهِۦ مَسۡرُورً۬ا

(And will return to his family Masrur!) This means that he will return to his family in Paradise. This was said by Qatadah and Ad-Dahhak. They also said, "Masrur means happy and delighted by what Allah has given him.'' Allah said;

﴿ وَأَمَّا مَنۡ أُوتِىَ كِتَـٰبَهُ ۥ وَرَآءَ ظَهۡرِهِۦ

(But whosoever is given his Record behind his back,) meaning, he will be given his Book in his left hand, behind his back, while his hand is bent behind him.

﴿ فَسَوۡفَ يَدۡعُواْ ثُبُورً۬ا

(He will invoke destruction,) meaning, loss and destruction.

﴿ وَيَصۡلَىٰ سَعِيرًا إِنَّهُ ۥ كَانَ فِىٓ أَهۡلِهِۦ مَسۡرُورًا

(And he shall enter a blazing Fire, and made to taste its burning. Verily, he was among his people in joy!) meaning, happy. He did not think about the consequences, nor feared what (future) was in front of him. His light happiness will be followed by long grief.

﴿ إِنَّهُ ۥ ظَنَّ أَن لَّن يَحُورَ

(Verily, he thought that he would never return!) meaning, he used to believe that he would not return to Allah, nor would Allah bring him back (to life) after his death. This was said by Ibn `Abbas, Qatadah and others. Allah then says,

﴿ بَلَىٰٓ إِنَّ رَبَّهُ ۥ كَانَ بِهِۦ بَصِيرً۬ا

(Yes! Verily, his Lord has been ever beholding him!) meaning, certainly Allah will repeat his creation just as he began his creation, and He will reward him based upon his deeds, whether they were good or bad. He was ever watchful of him, meaning All-Knowing and All-Aware.

﴿ فَلَآ أُقۡسِمُ بِٱلشَّفَقِ وَٱلَّيۡلِ وَمَا وَسَقَ وَٱلۡقَمَرِ إِذَا ٱتَّسَقَ لَتَرۡكَبُنَّ طَبَقًا عَن طَبَقٍ۬ فَمَا لَهُمۡ لَا يُؤۡمِنُونَ وَإِذَا قُرِئَ عَلَيۡہِمُ ٱلۡقُرۡءَانُ لَا يَسۡجُدُونَ ۩ بَلِ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ يُكَذِّبُونَ وَٱللَّهُ أَعۡلَمُ بِمَا يُوعُونَ فَبَشِّرۡهُم بِعَذَابٍ أَلِيمٍ إِلَّا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ وَعَمِلُواْ ٱلصَّـٰلِحَـٰتِ لَهُمۡ أَجۡرٌ غَيۡرُ مَمۡنُونِۭ

(16. But no! I swear by Ash-Shafaq;) (17. And the night and what it Wasaqa,) (18. And the moon when it Ittasaq.) (19. You shall certainly travel from stage to stage.) (20. What is the matter with them, that they believe not) (21. And when the Qur'an is recited to them, they fall not prostrate.) (22. Nay, those who disbelieve deny.) (23. And Allah knows best what they gather,) (24. So, announce to them a painful torment.) (25. Save those who believe and do righteous good deeds, for them is a reward that will never come to an end.)