After mentioning the situation of the wretched people, Allah changes the discussion to mention those who will be happy. He says,
(Faces that Day.) meaning, on the Day of Judgement.
(will be joyful,) meaning, pleasure will be noticeable in them (those faces). This will only occur due to their striving. Sufyan said,
(Glad with their endeavor.) "They will be pleased with their deeds.'' Then Allah says,
(In a lofty Paradise.) meaning, elevated and brilliant, secure in their dwellings.
(Where they shall neither hear harmful speech nor falsehood.) meaning, they will not hear in the Paradise that they will be in, any foolish word. This is as Allah says,
(They shall not hear therein any Laghw, but only Salam.) (19:62) Allah also says,
(Free from any Laghw, and free from sin.) (52:23) and He says,
(No Laghw will they hear therein, nor any sinful speech. But only the saying of: "Salam! Salam!'' ) (56:25-26) Then Allah continues,
(Therein will be a running spring.) meaning, flowing freely. This is mentioned with the intent of emphasizing affirmation. It is not intended to mean that there is only one spring. So here it refers to springs collectively. Thus, the meaning is that in it (Paradise) are flowing springs. Ibn Abi Hatim recorded from Abu Hurayrah that the Messenger of Allah said,
(The rivers of Paradise spring forth from beneath hills -- or mountains -- of musk.)
(Therein will be thrones raised high.) meaning, lofty, delightful, numerous couches, with elevated ceilings. Upon which will be seated wide-eyed, beautiful maidens. They have mentioned that whenever the friend of Allah wishes to sit on these lofty thrones, they (the thrones) will lower themselves for him.
(And cups set at hand.) meaning, drinking containers that are prepared and presented for whoever among their masters (i.e., the people of Paradise) wants them.
(And Namariq set in rows.) Ibn `Abbas said, "An-Namariq are pillows.'' This was also said by `Ikrimah, Qatadah, Ad-Dahhak, As-Suddi, Ath-Thawri and others. Concerning Allah's statement,
(And Zarabi, spread out (Mabthuthah).) Ibn `Abbas said, "Az-Zarabi are carpets.'' This was also said by Ad-Dahhak and others. Here the word Mabthuthah means placed here and there for whoever would like to sit upon them.
(17. Do they not look at the camels, how they are created) (18. And at the heaven, how it is raised) (19. And at the mountains, how they are rooted) (20. And at the earth, how it is outspread) (21. So remind them -- you are only one who reminds.) (22. You are not a Musaytir over them.) (23. Save the one who turns away and disbelieves.) (24. Then Allah will punish him with the greatest punishment.) (25. Verily, to Us will be their return;) (26. Then verily, for Us will be their reckoning.)
Allah commands His servants to look at His creations that prove His power and greatness. He says,
(Do they not look at the camels, how they are created) Indeed it is an amazing creation, and the way it has been fashioned is strange. For it is extremely powerful and strong, yet gentle, carrying heavy loads. It allows itself to be guided by a weak rider. It is eaten, benefit is derived from its hair, and its milk is drunk. They are reminded of this because the most common domestic animal of the Arabs was the camel. Shurayh Al-Qadi used to say, "Come out with us so that we may look at the camels and how they were created, and at the sky and how it has been raised.'' Meaning, how Allah raised it in such magnificence above the ground. This is as Allah says,
(Have they not looked at the heaven above them, how we have made it and adorned it and there are no rifts on it) (50:6) Then Allah says,
(And at the mountains, how they are rooted) meaning, how they have been erected. For indeed they are firmly affixed so that the earth does not sway with its dwellers. And He made them with the benefits and minerals they contain.
(And at the earth, how it is outspread) meaning, how it has been spread out, extended and made smooth. Thus, He directs the bedouin to consider what he himself witnesses. His camel that he rides upon, the sky that is above his head, the mountain that faces him, and the earth that is under him, all of this is proof of the power of the Creator and Maker of these things. These things should lead him to see that He is the Lord, the Most Great, the Creator, the Owner, and the Controller of everything. Therefore, He is the God other than Whom none deserves to be worshipped.
These are the things Dimam swore by after questioning the Messenger of Allah . This can be seen in what Imam Ahmad recorded from Thabit, who reported that Anas said, "We were prohibited from asking the Messenger of Allah anything. Thus, it used to amaze us when an intelligent man from the people of the desert (bedouin Arabs) would come and ask him about something while we were listening. So a man from the people of the desert came and said, `O Muhammad! Verily, your messenger has come to us and he claims that you claim that Allah sent you.' He (the Prophet) said,
(He told the truth.) The man said, Who created the heaven؟ He (the Prophet ) replied,
(Allah.) The man said, Who created the earth? He (the Prophet) replied,
(Allah). The man said, `Who erected these mountains and placed in them whatever is in them? He (the Prophet) replied, (Allah). Then the man said, `By the One Who created the heaven, the earth, and erected these mountains, did Allah send you? He (the Prophet) said,
(Yes.) The man then said, `Your messenger claims that we are obligated to pray five prayers during our day and night.' He (the Prophet ) said,
(He told the truth.) The man then said, `By He Who has sent you, did Allah command you with this' He (the Prophet ) replied,
(Yes.) The man then said, `Your messenger also claims that we are obligated to give charity from our wealth.' He (the Prophet ) said,
(He told the truth.) Then the man said, `By He Who has sent you, did Allah command you with this' He (the Prophet ) replied,
(Yes.) The man then said, `Your messenger claims that we are obligated to perform pilgrimage (Hajj) to the House (the Ka`bah), for whoever is able to find a way there.' He (the Prophet ) said,
(He told the truth.) Then the man turned away to leave while saying, `By He Who has sent you with the truth, I will not add anything to these things and I will not decrease anything from them.' The Prophet then said,
(If he has spoken truthfully, he will certainly enter Paradise.) This Hadith was recorded by Al-Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Dawud, At-Tirmidhi, An-Nasa'i and Ibn Majah.
(So remind them -- you are only one who reminds. You are not a Musaytir over them) meaning, "O Muhammad! Remind the people with what you have been sent with to them.''
(your duty is only to convey (the Message) and on Us is the reckoning.) (13:40) Then Allah says,
(You are not a Musaytir over them.) Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid and others said, "You are not a dictator over them.'' This means that you cannot create faith in their hearts. Ibn Zayd said, "You are not the one who can force them to have faith.'' Imam Ahmad recorded from Jabir that the Messenger of Allah said,
(I have been commanded to fight the people until they say La ilaha illallah (none has the right to be worshipped except Allah). So if they say that, they have safeguarded their blood and wealth from me - except for what is rightfully due from it - and their reckoning is with Allah, the Mighty and Majestic.)'' Then he recited,
(So remind them - you are only one who reminds. You are not a dictator over them -) This is how Muslim recorded this Hadith in his Book of Faith, and At-Tirmidhi and An-Nasa'i also recorded it in their Sunans in the Books of Tafsir. This Hadith can be found in both of the Two Sahihs.
Concerning Allah's statement,
(Save the one who turns away and disbelieves.) meaning, he turns away from acting upon its pillars, and he disbelieves in the truth with his heart and his tongue. This is similar to Allah's statement,
(So he neither believed nor prayed! But on the contrary, he belied and turn away!) (75:31-32) Thus, Allah says,
(Then Allah will punish him with the greatest punishment.) Allah then says,
(Verily, to Us will be their return;) meaning, their place of return and their resort.
(Then verily, for Us will be their reckoning.) meaning, `We will reckon their deeds for them and requite them for those deeds.' If they did good, they will receive good, and if they did evil, they will receive evil. This is the end of the Tafsir of Surat Al-Ghashiyah.
An-Nasa'i recorded a narration from Jabir that Mu`adh prayed a prayer and a man came and joined him in the prayer. Mu`adh made the prayer long, so the man went and prayed (alone) at the side of the Masjid, and then left. When Mu`adh was informed of this he said, "(He is) a hypocrite.'' He (Mu`adh) then informed the Messenger of Allah of what happened. The Prophet then asked the young man (about it) and he replied, "O Messenger of Allah! I came to pray with him, but he made the prayer too long for me. So I left him and prayed at the side of the Masjid. Then I went to feed my she-camel.'' The Messenger of Allah then said,
(Are you causing trouble Mu`adh Why don't you recite (`Glorify the Name of your Lord the Most High'), (`By the sun and its brightness'), (`By the dawn'), (and (`By the night as it envelops'))
In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful
(1. By the dawn;) (2. And by the ten nights,) (3. And by the even and the odd.) (4. And by the night when it departs.) (5. Is there (not) in them sufficient proofs for men of understanding!) (6. Saw you not how your Lord dealt with `Ad) (7. Iram of the pillars,) (8. The like of which were not created in the land) (9. And Thamud, who hewed out rocks in the valley) (10. And Fir`awn with Al-Awtad) (11. Who did transgress beyond bounds in the lands.) (12. And made therein much mischief.) (13. So, your Lord poured on them different kinds of severe torment.) (14. Verily, your Lord is Ever Watchful.)
Concerning Al-Fajr, it is well known that it is the morning. This was said by `Ali, Ibn `Abbas, `Ikrimah, Mujahid and As-Suddi. It has been reported from Masruq and Muhammad bin Ka`b that Al-Fajr refers to the day of Sacrifice (An-Nahr) in particular, and it is the last of the ten nights. `The ten nights' refers to the (first) ten days of Dhul-Hijjah. This was said by Ibn `Abbas, Ibn Zubayr, Mujahid and others among the Salaf and the latter generations. It has been confirmed in Sahih Al-Bukhari from Ibn `Abbas that the Prophet said,
(There are no days in which righteous deeds are more beloved to Allah than these days.) meaning the ten days of Dhul-Hijjah. They said, "Not even fighting Jihad in the way of Allah'' He replied,
(Not even Jihad in the way of Allah; except for a man who goes out (for Jihad) with his self and his wealth, and he does not return with any of that.)
Concerning Allah's statement,
(And by the night when it departs.) Al-`Awfi reported from Ibn `Abbas that he said, "When it goes away.'' `Abdullah bin Zubayr said,
(And by the night when it departs.) "As some parts of it remove other parts of it.'' Mujahid, Abu Al-`Aliyah, Qatadah, and Malik who reported it from Zayd bin Aslam and Ibn Zayd, they all said;
(And by the night when it departs.) "When it moves along.'' Concerning Allah's statement,
(There is indeed in them sufficient proofs for men with Hijr!) meaning, for he who possesses intellect, sound reasoning, understanding and religious discernment. The intellect has only been called Hijr because it prevents the person from doing that which is not befitting of him of actions and statement. From this we see the meaning of Hijr Al-Bayt because it prevents the person performing Tawaf from clinging the wall facing Ash-Sham. Also the term Hijr Al-Yamamah (the cage of the pigeon) is derived from this meaning (i.e., prevention). It is said, "Hajara Al-Hakim so-and-so (The judge passed a judgement preventing so-and-so),'' when his judgement prevents the person from his liberty (i.e., of freely utilizing his wealth). Allah says,
(And they will say: "Hijr Mahjur.'') (25:22) All of these examples are different cases but their meanings are quite similar. The oath that is referred to here is about the times of worship and the acts of worship themselves, such as Hajj, Salah and other acts of worship that Allah's pious, obedient, servants who fear Him and are humble before Him, seeking His Noble Face, perform in order to draw nearer to Him.
After mentioning these people, and their worship and obedience, Allah says,
(Saw you not how your Lord dealt with `Ad) These were people who were rebellious, disobedient, arrogant, outside of His obedience, deniers of His Messengers and rejectors of His Scriptures. Thus, Allah mentions how He destroyed them, annihilated them and made them legends to be spoken of and an exemplary lesson of warning. He says,
(Saw you not how your Lord dealt with `Ad Iram of the pillars,) These were the first people of `Ad. They were the descendants of `Ad bin Iram bin `Aws bin Sam bin Nuh. This was said by Ibn Ishaq. They are those to whom Allah sent His Messenger Hud. However, they rejected and opposed him. Therefore, Allah saved him and those who believed with him from among them, and He destroyed others with a furious, violent wind.
(Which Allah imposed on them for seven nights and eight days in succession, so that you could see men lying overthrown, as if they were hollow trunks of date palms! Do you see any remnants of them) (69: 7-8) Allah mentioned their story in the Qur'an in more than one place, so that the believers may learn a lesson from their demise. Allah then says,
(Iram of the pillars.) This is an additional explanation that adds clarification who they actually were. Concerning His saying,
(of the pillars.) is because they used to live in trellised houses that were raised with firm pillars. They were the strongest people of their time in their physical stature, and they were the mightiest people in power. Thus, Hud reminded them of this blessing, and he directed them to use this power in the obedience of their Lord Who had created them. He said,
(And remember that He made you successors after the people of Nuh and increased you amply in stature. So remember the graces from Allah so that you may be successful.)(7:69) Allah also said,
(As for 'Ad, they were arrogant in the land without right, and they said: "Who is mightier than us in strength'' See they not that Allah Who created them was mightier in strength than them.) (41:15) And Allah says here,
(The like of which were not created in the land) meaning, there had been none created like them in their land, due to their strength, power and their great physical stature. Mujahid said, "Iram was an ancient nation who were the first people of `Ad.'' Qatadah bin Di`amah and As-Suddi both said, "Verily, Iram refers to the House of the kingdom of `Ad.'' This latter statement is good and strong. Concerning Allah's statement,
(The like of which were not created in the land) Ibn Zayd considered the pronoun of discussion here to refer to the pillars, due to their loftiness. He said, "They built pillars among the hills, the likes of which had not been constructed in their land before.'' However, Qatadah and Ibn Jarir considered the pronoun of discussion to refer to the tribe (of `Ad), meaning that there was no tribe that had been created like this tribe in the land - meaning during their time. And this latter view is the correct position. The saying of Ibn Zayd and those who follow his view is a weak one, because if He intended that, He would have said "The like of which were not produced in the land.'' But He said:
(The like of which were not created in the land.) Then Allah says,
(And Thamud, who hewed (Jabu) rocks in the valley) meaning, they cut the rocks in the valley. Ibn `Abbas said, "They carved them and they hewed them.'' This was also said by Mujahid, Qatadah, Ad-Dahhak and Ibn Zayd. From this terminology it is said (in the Arabic language), "the hewing of leopard skin'' when it is torn, and "The hewing of a garment'' when it is opened. The word `Jayb' (pocket or opening in a garment) also comes from Jabu. Allah says,
(And you hew in the mountains, houses with great skill.) (26:149)
Allah then says,
(And Fir`awn with Al-Awtad) Al-`Awfi reported from Ibn `Abbas that he said, "Al-Awtad are the armies who enforced his commands for him.'' It has also been said that Fir`awn used to nail their hands and their feet into pegs (Awtad) of iron that he would hang them from. A similar statement was made by Mujahid when he said, "He used to nail the people (up) on pegs.'' Sa`id bin Jubayr, Al-Hasan and As-Suddi all said the same thing. Allah said,
(Who did transgress beyond bounds in the lands. And made therein much mischief.) meaning, they rebelled, were arrogant, and went about making corruption in the land, and harming the people.
(So, your Lord poured on them different kinds of severe torment.) meaning, He sent down a torment upon them from the sky and caused them to be overcome by a punishment that could not be repelled from the people who were criminals.
Concerning Allah's statement,
(Verily, your Lord is Ever Watchful.) Ibn `Abbas said, "He hears and He sees.'' This means that He watches over His creation in that which they do, and He will reward them in this life and in the Hereafter based upon what each of them strove for. He will bring all of the creation before Him and He will judge them with justice. He will requit each of them with that which he deserves, for He is far removed from injustice and tyranny.
(15. As for man, when his Lord tries him by giving him honor and bounties, then he says: "My Lord has honored me.'') (16. But when He tries him by straitening his means of life, he says: "My Lord has humiliated me!'') (17. But no! But you treat not the orphans with kindness and generosity!) (18. And urge not one another on the feeding of the Miskin!) (19. And you devour the Turath -- devouring with greed.) (20. And you love wealth with love Jamma.)
Allah refutes man in his belief that if Allah gives Him abundant provisions to test him with it, it is out of His honor for him. But this is not the case, rather it is a trial and a test, as Allah says,
(Do they think that in wealth and children with which We enlarge them. We hasten unto them with good things. Nay, but they perceive not.) (23:55-56) Likewise, from another angle, if Allah tests him and tries him by curtailing his sustenance, he believes that is because Allah is humiliating him. As Allah says,
(But no!) meaning, the matter is not as he claims, neither in this nor in that. For indeed Allah gives wealth to those whom He loves as well as those whom He does not love. Likewise, He withholds sustenance from those whom He loves and those whom He does not love. The point is that Allah should be obeyed in either circumstance. If one is wealthy, he should thank Allah for that, and if he is poor, he should exercise patience.
(But you treat not the orphans with kindness and generosity!) This contains the command to honor him (the orphan). Abu Dawud recorded from Sahl bin Sa`id that the Messenger of Allah said,
(The guardian of the orphan and I will be like these two in Paradise.) And he put his two fingers together - the middle finger and the index finger.
(And urge not one another on the feeding of the Miskin!) meaning, they do not command that the poor and the needy be treated with kindness, nor do they encourage each other to do so.
(And you devour the Turath) meaning, the inheritance.
(devouring with greed.) meaning, however they can get it, whether lawful or forbidden.
(And you love wealth with love Jamma.) meaning, in abundance. This increases some of them in their wickedness.
(21. Nay! When the earth is flatened, Dakkan Dakka.) (22. And your Lord comes with the angels in rows.) (23. And Hell will be brought near that Day. On that Day will man remember, but how will that remembrance avail him) (24. He will say: "Alas! Would that I had sent forth for my life!'') (25. So on that Day none will punish as He will punish.) (26. And none will bind as He will bind.) (27. "O tranquil soul!'') (28. "Come back to your Lord, -- well-pleased and well-pleasing!'') (29. "Enter then among My servants,'') (30. "And enter My Paradise!'')