(But you treat not the orphans with kindness and generosity!) This contains the command to honor him (the orphan). Abu Dawud recorded from Sahl bin Sa`id that the Messenger of Allah said,
(The guardian of the orphan and I will be like these two in Paradise.) And he put his two fingers together - the middle finger and the index finger.
(And urge not one another on the feeding of the Miskin!) meaning, they do not command that the poor and the needy be treated with kindness, nor do they encourage each other to do so.
(And you devour the Turath) meaning, the inheritance.
(devouring with greed.) meaning, however they can get it, whether lawful or forbidden.
(And you love wealth with love Jamma.) meaning, in abundance. This increases some of them in their wickedness.
(21. Nay! When the earth is flatened, Dakkan Dakka.) (22. And your Lord comes with the angels in rows.) (23. And Hell will be brought near that Day. On that Day will man remember, but how will that remembrance avail him) (24. He will say: "Alas! Would that I had sent forth for my life!'') (25. So on that Day none will punish as He will punish.) (26. And none will bind as He will bind.) (27. "O tranquil soul!'') (28. "Come back to your Lord, -- well-pleased and well-pleasing!'') (29. "Enter then among My servants,'') (30. "And enter My Paradise!'')
Allah informs of what will happen on the Day of Judgement of the great horrors. He says,
(Nay!) meaning, truly.
(When the earth is flatened, Dakkan Dakka.) meaning, the earth and the mountains will be flattened, leveled and made even, and the creatures will rise from their graves for their Lord.
(And your Lord comes) meaning, for the session of Judgement between His creatures. This is after they requested the best of the Sons of Adam -- Muhammad -- to intercede with Allah. This will occur only after they have requested the other great Messengers, one after another. Yet, all of them will say, "I cannot do that for you.'' This will continue until the beseeching of the men reaches Muhammad , and he will say, "I will do it, I will do it.'' So he will go and seek to intercede with Allah as the session of Judgement will have come, and Allah will allow him to intercede for that (the Judgement). This will be the first of the intercessions, and it is the praiseworthy station that has already been discussed in Surat Subhan (Al-Isra'). So Allah will come for the session of Judgement as He wills, and the angels will also come, lined up in rows upon rows before Him. Then Allah says,
(And Hell will be brought near that Day.) In his Sahih, Imam Muslim bin Al-Hajjaj recorded that `Abdullah bin Mas`ud said that the Messenger of Allah said,
(Hell will be brought on near that Day and it will have seventy thousand leashes, and each leash will have seventy thousand angels pulling it.) At-Tirmidhi also recorded the same narration. Allah said:
(On that Day will man remember,) meaning, his deeds, and what he did before in his past and recent times.
(but how will that remembrance avail him) meaning, how can remembrance then benefit him
(He will say: "Alas! Would that I had sent forth for my life!'') meaning, if he was a disobedient person, he will be sorry for the acts of disobedience he committed. If he was an obedient person, he will wish that he performed more acts of obedience. This is similar to what Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal recorded from Muhammad bin Abi `Amirah, who was one of the Companions of the Messenger of Allah . He said, "If a servant fell down on his face (in prostration) from the day that he was born until the day he died as an old man, in obedience to Allah, he would scorn this act on the Day of Judgement. He would wish to be returned to this life so that he could earn more reward and compensation.'' Allah then says,
(So on that Day none will punish as He will punish.) meaning, there is no one more severely punished than those whom Allah punishes for disobeying Him.
(And none will bind as He will bind.) meaning, there is no one who is more severely punished and bound than those the Az-Zabaniyah punish the disbelievers in their Lord. This is for the criminals and the wrongdoers among the creatures. In reference to the pure and tranquil soul -- which is always at rest and abiding by the truth it will be said to it,
(O tranquil soul! Come back to your Lord.) meaning, to His company, His reward and what He has prepared for His servants in His Paradise.
(well-pleased) meaning, within itself.
(well-pleasing.) meaning, pleased with Allah, and He will be pleased with it and gratify it.
(Enter then among My servants,) meaning, among their ranks.
(And enter My Paradise!) This will be said to it at the time of death and on the Day of Judgement. This is like the angels giving glad tiding to the believer at his time of death and when he rises from his grave. Likewise is this statement here. Ibn Abi Hatim recorded from Ibn `Abbas concerning Allah's statement,
(O tranquil soul! Come back to your Lord, well-pleased and well-pleasing!) He said, "This Ayah was revealed while Abu Bakr was sitting (with the Prophet ). So he said, `O Messenger of Allah! There is nothing better than this!' The Prophet then replied,
(This will indeed be said to you.)'' This is the end of the Tafsir of Surat Al-Fajr, and all praise and blessings are due to Allah.
In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.
(1. Nay! I swear by this city;) (2. And you are free in this city.) (3. And by the begetter and that which he begot.) (4. Verily, We have created man in Kabad.) (5. Does he think that none can overcome him) (6. He says: "I have wasted wealth in abundance!'') (7. Does he think that none sees him) (8. Have We not made for him two eyes) (9. And a tongue and two lips) (10. And shown him the two ways)
Here Allah has sworn by Makkah, the Mother of the Towns, addressing its resident (during the non-sacred months,) free in this city in order to draw his attention to the significance of its sanctity when its people are in the state of sanctity. Khusayf reported from Mujahid;
(Nay! I swear by this city;) "The word "La'' (Nay) refers to the refutation against them (Quraish). I swear by this city.'' Shabib bin Bishr narrated from `Ikrimah, from Ibn `Abbas that he said,
(Nay! I swear by this city;) "This means Makkah.'' Concerning the Ayah:
(And you are free in this city.) he (Ibn `Abbas) said, "O Muhammad! It is permissible for you to fight in it.'' Similar was reported from Sa`id bin Jubayr, Abu Salih, `Atiyah, Ad-Dahhak, Qatadah, As-Suddi and Ibn Zayd. Al-Hasan Al-Basri said, "Allah made it lawful (to fight in) for him (the Prophet ) for one hour of a day.'' The meaning of what they have said was mentioned in a Hadith that is agreed- upon as being authentic. In it the Prophet said,
(Verily, Allah made this city sacred on the Day that He created the heavens and the earth. Therefore, it is sacred by the sanctity of Allah until the Day of Judgement. Its trees should not be uprooted, and its bushes and grasses should not be removed. And it was only made lawful for me (to fight in) for one hour of a day. Today its sanctity has been restored just as it was sacred yesterday. So, let the one who is present inform those who are absent.) In another wording of this Hadith, he said,
(So, if anyone tries to use the fighting of the Messenger (to conquer Makkah) as an excuse (to fight there), then tell him that Allah permitted it for His Messenger and He has not permitted it for you.) Concerning Allah's statement,
(And by the begetter and that which he begot.) Mujahid, Abu Salih, Qatadah, Ad-Dahhak, Sufyan Ath-Thawri, Sa`id bin Jubayr, As-Suddi, Al-Hasan Al-Basri, Khusayf, Shurahbil bin Sa`d and others have said, "Meaning, by the begetter, Adam, and that which he begot is his children.'' This view that Mujahid and his companions have chosen
is good and strong. This is supported by the fact that Allah swears by the Mother of the Towns, which are dwellings. Then after it He swears by the dwellers therein, who is Adam, the father of mankind, and his children. Abu `Imran Al-Jawni said, "It refers to Ibrahim and his progeny.'' Ibn Jarir recorded this statement as did Ibn Abi Hatim. Ibn Jarir preferred the view that it is general and it refers to every father and his children. This meaning is also acceptable. Allah then says,
(Verily, We have created man in Kabad.) Ibn Abi Najih and Jurayj reported from `Ata, from Ibn `Abbas concerning the phrase `in Kabad', "He was created while in hardship. Don't you see him'' Then he mentioned his birth and the sprouting of his teeth. Mujahid said,
(in Kabad.) "A drop of sperm, then a clot, then a lump of flesh, enduring in his creation.'' Mujahid then said, "This is similar to Allah's statement,
(His mother bears him with hardship. And she brings him forth with hardship.) (46:15) and she breast-feeds him with hardship, and his livelihood is a hardship. So he endures all of this.'' Sa`id bin Jubayr said,
(Verily, We have created man in Kabad.) "In hardship and seeking livelihood.'' `Ikrimah said, "In hardship and long-suffering.'' Qatadah said, "In difficulty.'' It is reported from Al-Hasan that he said, "Enduring the hardships of the world by life and the severity of the Hereafter.''
(Does he think that none can overcome him) Al-Hasan Al-Basri said,
(Does he think that none can overcome him) "Meaning no one is able to take his wealth.'' Qatadah said,
(Does he think that none can overcome him) "The Son of Adam thinks that he will not be asked about this wealth of his -- how he earned and how he spent it.'' Allah said:
(He says: "I have wasted wealth in abundance!'') This means, the Son of Adam says, "I spent an abundance of wealth.'' Mujahid, Al-Hasan, Qatadah, As-Suddi and others have said this.
(Does he think that none sees him) Mujahid said, "Does he think that Allah, the Mighty and Majestic, does not see him.'' Others among the Salaf have said similar to this. Allah said;
(Have We not made for him two eyes) meaning, for him to see with them.
(And a tongue) meaning, for him to speak with, and so that he can express that which is inside of him.
(and two lips) In order to help him with speaking, eating food, and beautifying his face and his mouth.
(And shown him the two ways) This refers to the two paths. Sufyan Ath-Thawri narrated from `Asim, from Zirr, from `Abdullah bin Mas`ud that he said,
(And shown him the two ways) "The good and the evil.'' Similar to this has been reported from `Ali, Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, `Ikrimah, Abu Wa'il, Abu Salih, Muhammad bin Ka`b, Ad-Dahhak, and `Ata' Al-Khurasani among others. Similar to this Ayah is Allah's statement,
(Verily, We have created man from Nutfah Amshaj, in order to try him: so We made him hearer and seer. Verily, We showed him the way, whether he be grateful or ungrateful.) (76:2-3)
(11. But he has not attempted to pass on the path that is steep.) (12. And what will make you know the path that is steep) (13. Freeing a neck) (14. Or giving food in a day full of Masghabah,) (15. To an orphan near of kin.) (16. Or to a Miskin cleaving to dust.) (17. Then he became one of those who believed and recommended one another to patience, and recommended one another to compassion.) (18. They are those on the Right,) (19. But those who disbelieved in Our Ayat, they are those on the Left.) (20. Upon them Fire will Mu'sadah.)