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The Recitation of Surat Al-Layl in the `Isha' Prayer

The statement of the Prophet to Mu`adh has already preceded, where he said,

« فَهَلَّا صَلَّيْتَ بِــ
﴿ سَبِّحِ ٱسۡمَ رَبِّكَ ٱلۡأَعۡلَى
﴿ وَٱلشَّمۡسِ وَضُحَٮٰهَا
﴿ وَٱلَّيۡلِ إِذَا يَغۡشَىٰ

(Why did you not pray with (the recitation of) (Glorify the Name of your Lord the Most High) (87), and (By the sun and Duhaha) (91), and (By the night as it envelops) (92))

﴿ بِسۡمِ ٱللَّهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

﴿ وَٱلَّيۡلِ إِذَا يَغۡشَىٰ وَٱلنَّہَارِ إِذَا تَجَلَّىٰ وَمَا خَلَقَ ٱلذَّكَرَ وَٱلۡأُنثَىٰٓ إِنَّ سَعۡيَكُمۡ لَشَتَّىٰ فَأَمَّا مَنۡ أَعۡطَىٰ وَٱتَّقَىٰ وَصَدَّقَ بِٱلۡحُسۡنَىٰ فَسَنُيَسِّرُهُ ۥ لِلۡيُسۡرَىٰ وَأَمَّا مَنۢ بَخِلَ وَٱسۡتَغۡنَىٰ وَكَذَّبَ بِٱلۡحُسۡنَىٰ فَسَنُيَسِّرُهُ ۥ لِلۡعُسۡرَىٰ وَمَا يُغۡنِى عَنۡهُ مَالُهُ ۥۤ إِذَا تَرَدَّىٰٓ

(1. By the night as it envelops.) (2. By the day as it appears.) (3. By Him Who created male and female.) (4. Certainly, your efforts and deeds are diverse.) (5. As for him who gives and has Taqwa,) (6. And believes in Al-Husna.) (7. We will make smooth for him the path of ease.) (8. But he who is greedy and thinks himself self-sufficient,) (9. And denies Al-Husna.) (10. We will make smooth for him the path to evil.) (11. And what will his wealth avail him when he goes down (in destruction))

Swearing by the Diversity of Mankind in Their Efforts and informing of the Different Results of that

Allah swears by saying:

﴿ وَٱلَّيۡلِ إِذَا يَغۡشَىٰ

(By the night as it envelops.) meaning, when it covers the creation with its darkness.

﴿ وَٱلنَّہَارِ إِذَا تَجَلَّىٰ

(By the day as it appears.) meaning, with its light and its radiance.

﴿ وَمَا خَلَقَ ٱلذَّكَرَ وَٱلۡأُنثَىٰٓ

(By Him Who created male and female.) This is similar to Allah's saying,

﴿ وَخَلَقۡنَـٰكُمۡ أَزۡوَٲجً۬ا

(And We have created you in pairs.) (78:8) It is also similar to saying,

﴿ وَمِن ڪُلِّ شَىۡءٍ خَلَقۡنَا زَوۡجَيۡنِ

(And of everything We have created pairs.) (51:49) And just as these things that are being sworn by are opposites, likewise that which this swearing is about are opposing things. This is why Allah says,

﴿ إِنَّ سَعۡيَكُمۡ لَشَتَّىٰ

(Certainly, your efforts and deeds are diverse.) meaning, the actions of the servants that they have performed are also opposites and diverse. Therefore, there are those who do good and there are those who do evil. Allah then says,

﴿ فَأَمَّا مَنۡ أَعۡطَىٰ وَٱتَّقَىٰ

(As for him who gives and has Taqwa.) meaning, he gives what he has been commanded to give and he fears Allah in his affairs.

﴿ وَصَدَّقَ بِٱلۡحُسۡنَىٰ

(And believes in Al-Husna.) meaning, in the compensation for that. This was said by Qatadah. Khusayf said, "In the reward.'' Then Allah says,

﴿ فَسَنُيَسِّرُهُ ۥ لِلۡيُسۡرَىٰ

(We will make smooth for him the path of ease.) Ibn `Abbas said, "Meaning for goodness.'' Thus, Allah says,

﴿ وَأَمَّا مَنۢ بَخِلَ

(But he who is greedy) meaning, with that which he has.

﴿ وَٱسۡتَغۡنَىٰ

(and thinks himself self-sufficient,) `Ikrimah reported that Ibn `Abbas said, "This means he is stingy with his wealth and considers himself to be in no need of his Lord, the Mighty and Majestic.'' This was recorded by Ibn Abi Hatim.

﴿ وَكَذَّبَ بِٱلۡحُسۡنَىٰ

(And denies Al-Husna.) meaning, the recompense in the abode of the Hereafter.

﴿ فَسَنُيَسِّرُهُ ۥ لِلۡعُسۡرَىٰ

(We will make smooth for him the path to evil.) meaning, the path of evil. This is as Allah says,

﴿ وَنُقَلِّبُ أَفۡـِٔدَتَہُمۡ وَأَبۡصَـٰرَهُمۡ كَمَا لَمۡ يُؤۡمِنُواْ بِهِۦۤ أَوَّلَ مَرَّةٍ۬ وَنَذَرُهُمۡ فِى طُغۡيَـٰنِهِمۡ يَعۡمَهُونَ

(And We shall turn their hearts and their eyes away, as they refused to believe therein for the first time, and We shall leave them in their trespass to wander blindly.) (6:110) And there are many Ayat with this meaning, proving that Allah rewards those who intend good with success, while whoever intends evil is abandoned, and all of this is in accordance with a preordained decree. There are also many Hadiths that prove this.

The Narration of Abu Bakr As-Siddiq

Imam Ahmad recorded from Abu Bakr that he said to the Messenger of Allah, "O Messenger of Allah! Do we act according to what has already been decided, or is the matter just beginning (i.e., still undecided)'' He replied,

« بَلْ عَلَى أَمْرٍ قَدْ فُرِغَ مِنْه »

(Indeed it is according to what has already been decided.) Then Abu Bakr said, "Then what (good) are deeds, O Messenger of Allah'' He replied,

« كُلٌّ مُيَسَّرٌ لِمَا خُلِقَ لَه »

(Everyone will find it easy to do such deeds that will lead him to what he was created for.)

The Narration of `Ali

Al-Bukhari recorded from `Ali bin Abi Talib that they (the Companions) were with the Messenger of Allah at the cemetery of Baqi` Al-Gharqad for a funeral, when the Prophet said,

« مَا مِنْكُمْ مِنْ أَحَدٍ إِلَّا وَقَدْ كُتِبَ مَقْعَدُهُ مِنَ الْجَنَّةِ وَمَقْعَدُهُ مِنَ النَّار »

(There is none among you except that his place has already been written, a seat in Paradise and a seat in the Hellfire.) They said, "O Messenger of Allah! Should we depend on this'' He replied,

« اعْمَلُوا ، فَكُلٌّ مُيَسَّرٌ لِمَا خُلِقَ لَه »

(Perform deeds for everyone will have the deeds of what he was created for (Paradise or Hell) made easy for him.) Then he recited the Ayah

﴿ فَأَمَّا مَنۡ أَعۡطَىٰ وَٱتَّقَىٰ وَصَدَّقَ بِٱلۡحُسۡنَىٰ فَسَنُيَسِّرُهُ ۥ لِلۡيُسۡرَىٰ

(As for him who gives and has Taqwa, and believes in Al-Husna. “We will make smooth for him the path of ease.),” until the Ayah:

﴿ لِلۡعُسۡرَىٰ

(the path to evil) He (Imam Al-Bukhari) also recorded another similar narration from `Ali bin Abi Talib in which he said, "We were at a funeral in the cemetery of Baqi` Al-Gharqad when the Messenger of Allah came and sat down. So we came and sat around him and he had a stick with him. Then he bowed his head and he began to scratch the ground with his stick. He then said,

« مَا مِنْكُمْ مِنْ أَحَدٍ أَوْ مَا مِنْ نَفْسٍ مَنْفُوسَةٍ إِلَّا كُتِبَ مَكَانُهَا مِنَ الْجَنَّةِ وَالنَّارِ، وَإِلَّا قَدْ كُتِبَتْ شَقِيَّةً أَوْ سَعِيدَة »

(There is not anyone among you -- or is not a single soul (that has been created) -- except that his place has been written in Paradise or in the Fire, and it has been written that he will be miserable or happy.) A man said, "O Messenger of Allah! Should we just depend on what has been written for us and give up performing deeds. For whoever of us is of the people of happiness then he will be of the people of happiness, and whoever among us is of the people of misery then he will be of the people of misery.'' The Prophet replied,

« أَمَّا أَهْلُ السَّعَادَةِ فَيُيَسَّرُونَ لِعَمَلِ أَهْلِ السَّعَادَةِ، وَأَمَّا أَهْلُ الشَّقَاءِ فَيُيَسَّرُونَ إِلَى عَمَلِ أَهْلِ الشَّقَاءِ، ثُمَّ قَرَأَ:

(Those people who are the people of happiness, they will have the deeds of the people of happiness made easy for them. And those people who are the people of misery, they will have the deeds of the people of misery made easy for them.) Then he recited the Ayah:

﴿ فَأَمَّا مَنۡ أَعۡطَىٰ وَٱتَّقَىٰ وَصَدَّقَ بِٱلۡحُسۡنَىٰ فَسَنُيَسِّرُهُ ۥ لِلۡيُسۡرَىٰ وَأَمَّا مَنۢ بَخِلَ وَٱسۡتَغۡنَىٰ
﴿ وَكَذَّبَ بِٱلۡحُسۡنَىٰ فَسَنُيَسِّرُهُ ۥ لِلۡعُسۡرَىٰ

(As for him who gives and has Taqwa, and believes in Al-Husna. We will make smooth for him the path of ease (goodness). But he who is greedy and thinks himself self-sufficient, and belies Al-Husna. We will make smooth for him the path to evil.)) The other compilers of the Group have also recorded this Hadith.

The Narration of `Abdullah bin `Umar

Imam Ahmad recorded from Ibn `Umar that `Umar said, "O Messenger of Allah! Do you think that the deeds that we do are a matter that is already predetermined or are they something just beginning or new'' The Prophet replied,

« فِيمَا قَدْ فُرِغَ مِنْهُ، فَاعْمَلْ يَا ابْنَ الْخَطَّابِ، فَإِنَّ كُلًّا مُيَسَّرٌ، أَمَّا مَنْ كَانَ مِنْ أَهْلِ السَّعَادَةِ فَإِنَّهُ يَعْمَلُ لِلسَّعَادَةِ، وَأَمَّا مَنْ كَانَ مِنْ أَهْلِ الشَّقَاءِ فَإِنَّهُ يَعْمَلُ لِلشَّقَاء »

(It is something that has already been predetermined. Therefore, work deeds, O son of Al-Khattab! For verily, each person will have things made easy for him. So whoever is from the people of happiness, then he will work deeds for happiness, and whoever is from the people of misery, then he will work deeds for misery.)'' This Hadith has been recorded by At-Tirmidhi in the Book of Al-Qadar and he said "Hasan Sahih.'' Another Hadith Narrated by Jabir Ibn Jarir recorded from Jabir bin `Abdullah that he said, "O Messenger of Allah! Are we performing deeds for something that has already been predetermined or is the matter based upon what we are just doing (now)'' The Prophet replied,

« لِأَمْرٍ قَدْ فُرِغَ مِنْه »

(It is a matter that has been predetermined.) Then Suraqah said, "Then what is the purpose of deeds'' The Messenger of Allah then said,

« كُلُّ عَامِلٍ مُيَسَّرٌ لِعَمَلِه »

(Everyone who does deeds will have his deeds made easy for him.) Muslim also recorded this Hadith. Ibn Jarir recorded from `Amir bin `Abdullah bin Az-Zubayr that he said, "Abu Bakr used to free servants upon their acceptance of Islam in Makkah. He used to free the elderly and the women when they accepted Islam. So his father said to him, `O my son! I see that you are freeing people who are weak. But if you freed strong men they could stand with you, defend you and protect you.' Abu Bakr replied, `O my father! I only want -- and I think he said -- what is with Allah.' Some people of my family have told me this Ayah was revealed about him:

﴿ فَأَمَّا مَنۡ أَعۡطَىٰ وَٱتَّقَىٰ وَصَدَّقَ بِٱلۡحُسۡنَىٰ فَسَنُيَسِّرُهُ ۥ لِلۡيُسۡرَىٰ

(As for him who gives and has Taqwa, and believes in Al-Husna. We will make smooth for him the path of ease.)'' Then Allah says,

﴿ وَمَا يُغۡنِى عَنۡهُ مَالُهُ ۥۤ إِذَا تَرَدَّىٰٓ

(And what will his wealth avail him when he goes down) Mujahid said, "This means when he dies.'' Abu Salih and Malik said -- narrating from Zayd bin Aslam, "When he goes down into the Fire.''

﴿ إِنَّ عَلَيۡنَا لَلۡهُدَىٰ وَإِنَّ لَنَا لَلۡأَخِرَةَ وَٱلۡأُولَىٰ فَأَنذَرۡتُكُمۡ نَارً۬ا تَلَظَّىٰ لَا يَصۡلَٮٰهَآ إِلَّا ٱلۡأَشۡقَى ٱلَّذِى كَذَّبَ وَتَوَلَّىٰ وَسَيُجَنَّبُہَا ٱلۡأَتۡقَى ٱلَّذِى يُؤۡتِى مَالَهُ ۥ يَتَزَكَّىٰ وَمَا لِأَحَدٍ عِندَهُ ۥ مِن نِّعۡمَةٍ۬ تُجۡزَىٰٓ إِلَّا ٱبۡتِغَآءَ وَجۡهِ رَبِّهِ ٱلۡأَعۡلَىٰ وَلَسَوۡفَ يَرۡضَىٰ

(12. Truly, on Us is (to give) guidance.) (13. And truly, unto Us (belong) the last (Hereafter) and the first (this world).) (14. Therefore I have warned you of a Fire Talazza.) (15. None shall enter it save the most wretched.) (16. Who denies and turns away.) (17. And those with Taqwa will be far removed from it.) (18. He who gives of his wealth for self-purification.) (19. And who has (in mind) no favor from anyone to be paid back.) (20. Except to seek the Face of his Lord, the Most High.) (21. He, surely, will be pleased.)

The Matter of Guidance and other than it is in the Hand of Allah, and Allah's Warning about the Hellfire

Qatadah said,

﴿ إِنَّ عَلَيۡنَا لَلۡهُدَىٰ

(Truly, on Us is (to give) guidance.) "This means, We will explain what is lawful and what is prohibited.'' Others have said that it means, "Whoever traverses upon the path of guidance, then he will reach Allah (i.e., in the Hereafter).'' They consider this Ayah like Allah's saying,

﴿ وَعَلَى ٱللَّهِ قَصۡدُ ٱلسَّبِيلِ

(And upon Allah is the responsibility to explain the Straight path.) (16:9) This has been mentioned by Ibn Jarir. Allah said;

﴿ وَإِنَّ لَنَا لَلۡأَخِرَةَ وَٱلۡأُولَىٰ

(And truly, unto Us (belong) the last (Hereafter) and the first (this world).) This means, `they both belong to Us and I (Allah) am in complete control of them.' Then Allah says,

﴿ فَأَنذَرۡتُكُمۡ نَارً۬ا تَلَظَّىٰ

(Therefore I have warned you of a Fire Talazza.) Mujahid said, "Blazing.'' Imam Ahmad recorded from Simak bin Harb that he heard An-Nu`man bin Bashir giving a sermon, in which he said, "I heard the Messenger of Allah giving a sermon, in which he said:

« أَنْذَرْتُكُمُ النَّار »

(I have warned you of the Fire.) And he said it in such a voice that if a man was in the marketplace he could hear it from where I am standing now. And he said it (with such force) that the garment that was on his shoulder fell down to his feet.'' Imam Ahmad recorded from Abu Ishaq that he heard An-Nu`man bin Bashir giving a sermon, in which he said, "I heard the Messenger of Allah saying,

« إِنَّ أَهْوَنَ أَهْلِ النَّارِ عَذَابًا يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ رَجُلٌ تُوضَعُ فِي أَخْمَصِ قَدَمَيْهِ جَمْرَتَانِ يَغْلِي مِنْهُمَا دِمَاغُه »

(Verily, the person to be punished lightest of the people of the Fire on the Day of Judgment will be a man who will have placed on the soles of his feet two coals that will cause his brain to boil.)'' Imam Al-Bukhari also recorded this narration. Muslim recorded that Abu Ishaq narrated from An-Nu`man bin Bashir that the Messenger of Allah said,

« إِنَّ أَهْوَنَ أَهْلِ النَّارِ عَذَابًا مَنْ لَهُ نَعْلَانِ وَشِرَاكَانِ مِنْ نَارٍ يَغْلِي مِنْهُمَا دِمَاغُهُ كَمَا يَغْلِي الْمِرْجَلُ، مَا يَرَى أَنَّ أَحَدًا أَشَدُّ مِنْهُ عَذَابًا، وَإِنَّهُ لَأَهْوَنُهُمْ عَذَابًا »

(Verily, the lightest punishment received by the people of the Hellfire will be a man who will have two sandals whose straps will be made of fire that will cause his brain to boil just as a cauldron boils. Yet he will not think that anyone is receiving a torment more severe than him, even though he will be receiving the lightest punishment of them.) Allah says,

﴿ لَا يَصۡلَٮٰهَآ إِلَّا ٱلۡأَشۡقَى

(None shall enter it save the most wretched.) meaning, none will enter surrounded by it on all sides except the most wretched. Then Allah explains who this (the most wretched) is by His saying,

﴿ ٱلَّذِى كَذَّبَ

(Who denies) meaning, in his heart.

﴿ وَتَوَلَّىٰ

(and turns away.) meaning, from acting with his limbs and performing deeds according to their pillars. Imam Ahmad recorded from Abu Hurayrah that the Messenger of Allah said,

« كُلُّ أُمَّتِي يَدْخُلُ الْجَنَّـةَ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ إِلَّا مَنْ أَبَى »

(All of my followers will enter Paradise on the Day of Judgment except for whoever refuses.) They (the Companions) said, "Who would refuse, O Messenger of Allah'' He replied,

« مَنْ أَطَاعَنِي دَخَلَ الْجَنَّةَ، وَمَنْ عَصَانِي فَقَدْ أَبَى »

(Whoever obeys me, he will enter Paradise, and whoever disobeys me, then he has refused.) Al-Bukhari also recorded this Hadith. Allah then says,

﴿ وَسَيُجَنَّبُہَا ٱلۡأَتۡقَى

(And those with Taqwa will be far removed from it.) meaning, the righteous, pure, most pious person will be saved from the Fire. Then He explains who he is by His saying,

﴿ ٱلَّذِى يُؤۡتِى مَالَهُ ۥ يَتَزَكَّىٰ

(He who gives of his wealth for self-purification.) meaning, he spends his wealth in obedience of his Lord in order to purify himself, his wealth and whatever Allah has bestowed upon him of religion and worldly things.

﴿ وَمَا لِأَحَدٍ عِندَهُ ۥ مِن نِّعۡمَةٍ۬ تُجۡزَىٰٓ

(And who has (in mind) no favor from anyone to be paid back.) meaning, giving his wealth is not done so that he may gain some favor from someone wherein they return some good to him, and therefore he gives to get something in return. He only spends his wealth

﴿ ٱبۡتِغَآءَ وَجۡهِ رَبِّهِ ٱلۡأَعۡلَىٰ

(to seek the Face of his Lord, the Most High) meaning, hoping to attain the blessing of seeing Him in the final abode in the Gardens of Paradise. Allah then says,

﴿ وَلَسَوۡفَ يَرۡضَىٰ

(He, surely, will be pleased.) meaning, indeed those with these characteristics will be pleased.

The Cause of this Revelation and the Virtue of Abu Bakr

Many of the scholars of Tafsir have mentioned that these Ayat were revealed about Abu Bakr As-Siddiq. Some of them even mentioned that there is a consensus among the Qur'anic commentators concerning this. There is no doubt that he is included in the meaning of these Ayat, and that he is the most deserving of the Ummah to be described with these characteristics in general, for indeed, the wording of these Ayat is general. As in Allah's saying,

﴿ وَسَيُجَنَّبُہَا ٱلۡأَتۡقَى ٱلَّذِى يُؤۡتِى مَالَهُ ۥ يَتَزَكَّىٰ وَمَا لِأَحَدٍ عِندَهُ ۥ مِن نِّعۡمَةٍ۬ تُجۡزَىٰٓ

(And those with Taqwa will be far removed from it. He who gives of his wealth for self-purification. And who has (in mind) no favor from anyone to be paid back.) However, he (Abu Bakr) was the first and foremost of this Ummah to have all of these characteristics and other praiseworthy characteristics as well. For verily, he was truthful, pious, generous, charitable, and he always spent his wealth in obedience of His Master (Allah) and in aiding the Messenger of Allah . How many Dirhams and Dinars did he spend seeking the Face of His Most Noble Lord. And did not consider any of the people as owning him some favor that he needed to get compensation for. Rather, his virtue and kindness was even shown towards leaders and chiefs from all the other tribes as well. This is why `Urwah bin Mas`ud, who was the chief of the Thaqif tribe, said to him on the day of the Treaty of Hudaybiyyah, "By Allah, if I did not owe you a debt, which I have not paid you back for, I would have responded to you (i.e., your call to Islam).'' Abu Bakr As-Siddiq became angry with him for saying such a thing (i.e., I owe you something). So if this was his position with the chiefs of the Arabs and the heads of the tribes, then what about those other than them. Thus, Allah says,

﴿ وَمَا لِأَحَدٍ عِندَهُ ۥ مِن نِّعۡمَةٍ۬ تُجۡزَىٰٓ إِلَّا ٱبۡتِغَآءَ وَجۡهِ رَبِّهِ ٱلۡأَعۡلَىٰ وَلَسَوۡفَ يَرۡضَىٰ

(And who has (in mind) no favor from anyone to be paid back. Except to seek the Face of his Lord, the Most High. He, surely, will be pleased.) And in the Two Sahihs it is recorded that the Messenger of Allah said,

« مَنْ أَنْفَقَ زَوْجَيْنِ فِي سَبِيلِ اللهِ دَعَتْهُ خَزَنَةُ الْجَنَّةِ يَا عَبْدَ اللهِ، هَذَا خَيْر »

(Whoever equipped two riding animals in the way of Allah, the Gatekeepers of Paradise will call to him saying, "O servant of Allah! This is good.'') So Abu Bakr said, "O Messenger of Allah! The one who is called from them will not have any need. Will there be anyone who will be called from all of them'' The Prophet replied,

« نَعَمْ ، وَأَرْجُو أَنْ تَكُونَ مِنْهُم »

(Yes, and I hope that you will be one of them.) This is the end of the Tafsir of Surat Al-Layl, and all praise and thanks are due to Allah.

Which was revealed in Makkah
﴿ بِسۡمِ ٱللَّهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

(In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

﴿ وَٱلضُّحَىٰ وَٱلَّيۡلِ إِذَا سَجَىٰ مَا وَدَّعَكَ رَبُّكَ وَمَا قَلَىٰ وَلَلۡأَخِرَةُ خَيۡرٌ۬ لَّكَ مِنَ ٱلۡأُولَىٰ وَلَسَوۡفَ يُعۡطِيكَ رَبُّكَ فَتَرۡضَىٰٓ أَلَمۡ يَجِدۡكَ يَتِيمً۬ا فَـَٔاوَىٰ وَوَجَدَكَ ضَآلاًّ۬ فَهَدَىٰ وَوَجَدَكَ عَآٮِٕلاً۬ فَأَغۡنَىٰ فَأَمَّا ٱلۡيَتِيمَ فَلَا تَقۡهَرۡ وَأَمَّا ٱلسَّآٮِٕلَ فَلَا تَنۡہَرۡ وَأَمَّا بِنِعۡمَةِ رَبِّكَ فَحَدِّثۡ

(1. By the forenoon.) (2. By the night when it darkens.) (3. Your Lord has neither forsaken you nor hates you.) (4. And indeed the Hereafter is better for you than the present.) (5. And verily, your Lord will give you so that you shall be well-pleased.) (6. Did He not find you an orphan and gave you a refuge) (7. And He found you unaware and guided you) (8. And He found you poor and made you rich) (9. Therefore, treat not the orphan with oppression.) (10. And repulse not the one who asks.) (11. And proclaim the grace of your Lord.)

The Reason for the Revelation of Surat Ad-Duha

Imam Ahmad recorded from Jundub that he said, "The Prophet became ill, so he did not stand for prayer for a night or two. Then a woman came and said, `O Muhammad! I think that your devil has finally left you.' So Allah revealed,

﴿ وَٱلضُّحَىٰ وَٱلَّيۡلِ إِذَا سَجَىٰ مَا وَدَّعَكَ رَبُّكَ وَمَا قَلَىٰ

(By the forenoon. By the night when it darkens. Your Lord has neither forsaken you nor hates you.)'' Al-Bukhari, Muslim, At-Tirmidhi, An-Nasa'i, Ibn Abi Hatim and Ibn Jarir, all recorded this Hadith. This Jundub (who narrated it) is Ibn `Abdullah Al-Bajali Al-`Alaqi. In a narration from Al-Aswad bin Qays, he said that he heard Jundub say that Jibril was slow in coming to the Messenger of Allah. So the idolaters said, "Muhammad's Lord has abandoned him.'' So Allah revealed,

﴿ وَٱلضُّحَىٰ وَٱلَّيۡلِ إِذَا سَجَىٰ مَا وَدَّعَكَ رَبُّكَ وَمَا قَلَىٰ

(By the forenoon. By the night when it darkens. Your Lord has neither forsaken you nor hates you.)

﴿ وَٱلضُّحَىٰ وَٱلَّيۡلِ إِذَا سَجَىٰ

(By the forenoon. By the night when it darkens.) Al-`Awfi reported from Ibn `Abbas, "When the Qur'an was revealed to the Messenger of Allah, Jibril was delayed from coming to him for a number of days (on one occasion). Therefore, the Messenger of Allah was affected by this. Then the idolaters began to say, `His Lord has abandoned him and hates him.' So Allah revealed,

﴿ مَا وَدَّعَكَ رَبُّكَ وَمَا قَلَىٰ

(Your Lord has neither forsaken you nor hates you.)'' In this, Allah is swearing by the forenoon and the light that He has placed in it.

﴿ وَٱلَّيۡلِ إِذَا سَجَىٰ

(By the night when it darkens (Saja).) meaning, it settles, darkens meaning, it settles, darkens and overcomes them. This was said by Mujahid, Qatadah, Ad-Dahhak, Ibn Zayd and others. This is a clear proof of the power of the Creator of this (light) and that (darkness). This is as Allah says,

﴿ وَٱلَّيۡلِ إِذَا يَغۡشَىٰ وَٱلنَّہَارِ إِذَا تَجَلَّىٰ

(By the night as it envelops. By the Day as it appears.) (92:1-2) Allah also says,

﴿ فَالِقُ ٱلۡإِصۡبَاحِ وَجَعَلَ ٱلَّيۡلَ سَكَنً۬ا وَٱلشَّمۡسَ وَٱلۡقَمَرَ حُسۡبَانً۬ا‌ۚ ذَٲلِكَ تَقۡدِيرُ ٱلۡعَزِيزِ ٱلۡعَلِيمِ

((He is the) Cleaver of the daybreak. He has appointed the night for resting, and the sun and the moon for reckoning. Such is the measuring of the Almighty, the All-Knowing.) (6:96) Allah then says,

﴿ مَا وَدَّعَكَ رَبُّكَ

(Your Lord has neither forsaken you) meaning, `He has not abandoned you.'

﴿ وَمَا قَلَىٰ

(nor hates (Qala) you.) meaning, `He does not hate you.'

The Hereafter is Better Than This First Life
﴿ وَلَلۡأَخِرَةُ خَيۡرٌ۬ لَّكَ مِنَ ٱلۡأُولَىٰ

(And indeed the Hereafter is better for you than the present.) meaning, the abode of the Hereafter is better for you than this current abode. For this reason the Messenger of Allah used to be the most abstinent of the people concerning the worldly things, and he was the greatest of them in his disregard for worldly matters. This is well known by necessity from his biography. When the Prophet was given the choice at the end of his life between remaining in this life forever and then going to Paradise, or moving on to the company of Allah, he chose that which is with Allah over this lowly world. Imam Ahmad recorded that `Abdullah bin Mas`ud said, "The Messenger of Allah was lying down on a straw mat and it left marks on his side. Then when he woke up he began to rub his side. So I said, `O Messenger of Allah! Will you allow us to spread something soft over this straw mat' He replied,

« مَالِي وَلِلدُّنْيَا، إِنَّمَا مَثَلِي وَمَثَلُ الدُّنْيَا كَرَاكِبٍ ظَلَّ تَحْتَ شَجَرَةٍ ثُمَّ رَاحَ وَتَرَكَهَا »

(I have nothing to do with this world. The parable of me and this world is like a rider who rests in the shade of a tree, then he passes on and leaves it.)'' At-Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah both recorded this Hadith by way of Al-Mas`udi. At-Tirmidhi said, "Hasan Sahih.''

The Numerous Bounties of the Hereafter are waiting for the Messenger of Allah

Then Allah says,

﴿ وَلَسَوۡفَ يُعۡطِيكَ رَبُّكَ فَتَرۡضَىٰٓ

(And verily, your Lord will give you so that you shall be well-pleased.) meaning, in the final abode Allah will give him until He pleases him concerning his followers, and in that which He has prepared for him from His generosity. From this will be the River of Al-Kawthar, which will have domes of hollowed pearls on its banks, and the mud on its banks will be the strongest fragrance of musk, as will be mentioned. Imam Abu `Amr Al-Awza`i recorded that Ibn `Abbas said, "The Messenger of Allah was shown that which his Ummah would be blessed with after him, treasure upon treasure. So he was pleased with that. Then Allah revealed,

﴿ وَلَسَوۡفَ يُعۡطِيكَ رَبُّكَ فَتَرۡضَىٰٓ

(And verily, your Lord will give you so that you shall be well-pleased.) So, Allah will give him in Paradise one million palaces, and each palace will contain whatever he wishes of wives and servants.'' This was recorded by Ibn Jarir and Ibn Abi Hatim from his route of transmission. This chain of narration is authentic to Ibn `Abbas, and statements like this can only be said from that which is Tawqif.

A Mention of some of Allah's Favors upon the Messenger Enumerating His favors upon His Messenger, Muhammad

Allah says;

﴿ أَلَمۡ يَجِدۡكَ يَتِيمً۬ا فَـَٔاوَىٰ

(Did He not find you an orphan and gave you a refuge) This refers to the fact that his father died while his mother was still pregnant with him, and his mother, Aminah bint Wahb died when he was only six years old. After this he was under the guardianship of his grandfather, `Abdul-Muttalib, until he died when Muhammad was eight years old. Then his uncle, Abu Talib took responsibility for him and continued to protect him, assist him, elevate his status, honor him, and even restrain his people from harming him when he was forty years of age and Allah commissioned him with the prophethood. Even with this, Abu Talib continued to follow the religion of his people, worshipping idols. All of this took place by the divine decree of Allah and His decree is most excellent. Until Abu Talib died a short time before the Hijrah. After this (Abu Talib's death) the foolish and ignorant people of the Quraysh began to attack him, so Allah chose for him to migrate away from them to the city of Al-Aws and Al-Khazraj among those who helped him (in Al-Madinah). Allah caused his Sunnah to be spread in the most perfect and complete manner. Then, when he arrived at their city, they gave him shelter, supported him, defended him and fought before him (against the enemies of Islam) (may Allah be pleased with all of them). All of this was from Allah's protection for him, guarding over him and caring for him. Then Allah says,

﴿ وَوَجَدَكَ ضَآلاًّ۬ فَهَدَىٰ

(He found you unaware and guided you) This is similar to Allah's saying,

﴿ وَكَذَٲلِكَ أَوۡحَيۡنَآ إِلَيۡكَ رُوحً۬ا مِّنۡ أَمۡرِنَا‌ۚ مَا كُنتَ تَدۡرِى مَا ٱلۡكِتَـٰبُ وَلَا ٱلۡإِيمَـٰنُ وَلَـٰكِن جَعَلۡنَـٰهُ نُورً۬ا نَّہۡدِى بِهِۦ مَن نَّشَآءُ مِنۡ عِبَادِنَا‌ۚ

(And thus We have sent to you a Ruh from Our command. you knew not what is the Book, nor what is Faith. But We have made it a light wherewith We guide whosoever of our servants We will...) (42:52) Allah says,

﴿ وَوَجَدَكَ عَآٮِٕلاً۬ فَأَغۡنَىٰ

(And He found you poor and made you rich) meaning, `you were poor having dependents, so Allah made you wealthy and independent of all others besides Him.' Thus, Allah combined for him the two positions: the one who is poor and patient, and the one who is wealthy and thankful. In the Two Sahihs it has been recorded from Abu Hurayrah that the Messenger of Allah said,

« لَيْسَ الْغِنَى عَنْ كَثْرَةِ الْعَرَضِ، وَلَكِنَّ الْغِنَى غِنَى النَّفْس »

(Wealth is not determined by abundance of possessions, but wealth is the richness of the soul.) In Sahih Muslim, it is recorded from `Abdullah bin `Amr that the Messenger of Allah said,

« قَدْ أَفْلَحَ مَنْ أَسْلَمَ وَرُزِقَ كَفَافًا وَقَنَّعَهُ اللهُ بِمَا آتَاه »

(Whoever accepts Islam, is provided with his basic needs, and Allah makes him content with what He has given him, then he will be successful.)

How should this Bounty be responded to

Then Allah says,

﴿ فَأَمَّا ٱلۡيَتِيمَ فَلَا تَقۡهَرۡ

(Therefore, treat not the orphan with oppression.) meaning, `just as you were an orphan and Allah sheltered you, then do not oppress the orphan.' In other words, `do not humiliate him, scorn him or despise him. Rather, you should be kind and gentle to him.' Qatadah said, "Be like a merciful father to the orphan.''

﴿ وَأَمَّا ٱلسَّآٮِٕلَ فَلَا تَنۡہَرۡ

(And repulse not the one who asks.) meaning, `just as you were astray and Allah guided you, then do not scorn the one who asks for knowledge seeking to be guided.' Ibn Ishaq said,

﴿ وَأَمَّا ٱلسَّآٮِٕلَ فَلَا تَنۡہَرۡ

(And repulse not the one who asks.) "This means do not be oppressive, arrogant, wicked, or mean to the weak among Allah's servants.'' Qatadah said, "This means respond to the poor with mercy and gentleness.''

﴿ وَأَمَّا بِنِعۡمَةِ رَبِّكَ فَحَدِّثۡ

(And proclaim the grace of your Lord.) meaning, `just as you were poor and needy, and Allah made you wealthy, then tell about Allah's favor upon you.' Abu Dawud recorded from Abu Hurayrah that the Prophet said,

« لَا يَشْكُرُ اللهَ مَنْ لَا يَشْكُرُ النَّاس »

(Whoever is not thankful to the people, then he is not thankful to Allah.) At-Tirmidhi also recorded this Hadith and he said, "Sahih''. Abu Dawud recorded from Jabir that the Prophet said,

« مَنْ أُبْلِيَ بَلَاءً فَذَكَرَهُ فَقَدْ شَكَرَهُ، وَمَنْ كَتَمَهُ فَقَدْ كَفَرَه »

(Whoever overcomes some test (i.e., calamity) and mentions it (to others), then he is indeed thankful. And whoever conceals it, then indeed he was ungrateful.) Abu Dawud was alone in recording this Hadith. This is the end of the Tafsir of Surat Ad-Duha, and unto Allah is due all praise and thanks.

Which was revealed in Makkah
﴿ بِسۡمِ ٱللَّهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

﴿ أَلَمۡ نَشۡرَحۡ لَكَ صَدۡرَكَ وَوَضَعۡنَا عَنكَ وِزۡرَكَ ٱلَّذِىٓ أَنقَضَ ظَهۡرَكَ وَرَفَعۡنَا لَكَ ذِكۡرَكَ فَإِنَّ مَعَ ٱلۡعُسۡرِ يُسۡرًا إِنَّ مَعَ ٱلۡعُسۡرِ يُسۡرً۬ا فَإِذَا فَرَغۡتَ فَٱنصَبۡ وَإِلَىٰ رَبِّكَ فَٱرۡغَب

(1. Have We not opened your breast for you) (2. And removed from you your burden.) (3. Which weighed down your back) (4. And have We not raised high your fame) (5. Verily, along with every hardship is relief,) (6. Verily, along with every hardship is relief.) (7. So when you have finished, devote yourself to Allah's worship.) (8. And to your Lord turn intentions and hopes.)