;
Which was revealed in Makkah
﴿ بِسۡمِ ٱللَّهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

﴿ أَلَمۡ نَشۡرَحۡ لَكَ صَدۡرَكَ وَوَضَعۡنَا عَنكَ وِزۡرَكَ ٱلَّذِىٓ أَنقَضَ ظَهۡرَكَ وَرَفَعۡنَا لَكَ ذِكۡرَكَ فَإِنَّ مَعَ ٱلۡعُسۡرِ يُسۡرًا إِنَّ مَعَ ٱلۡعُسۡرِ يُسۡرً۬ا فَإِذَا فَرَغۡتَ فَٱنصَبۡ وَإِلَىٰ رَبِّكَ فَٱرۡغَب

(1. Have We not opened your breast for you) (2. And removed from you your burden.) (3. Which weighed down your back) (4. And have We not raised high your fame) (5. Verily, along with every hardship is relief,) (6. Verily, along with every hardship is relief.) (7. So when you have finished, devote yourself to Allah's worship.) (8. And to your Lord turn intentions and hopes.)

The Meaning of opening the Breast

Allah says,

﴿ أَلَمۡ نَشۡرَحۡ لَكَ صَدۡرَكَ

(Have We not opened your breast for you) meaning, `have We not opened your chest for you.' This means, `We illuminated it, and We made it spacious, vast and wide.' This is as Allah says,

﴿ فَمَن يُرِدِ ٱللَّهُ أَن يَهۡدِيَهُ ۥ يَشۡرَحۡ صَدۡرَهُ ۥ لِلۡإِسۡلَـٰمِ‌ۖ

(And whomsoever Allah wills to guide, He opens his breast to Islam.) (6:125) And just as Allah expanded his chest, He also made His Law vast, wide, accommodating and easy, containing no difficulty, hardship or burden.

A Discussion of Allah's Favor upon His Messenger Concerning Allah's statement,
﴿ وَوَضَعۡنَا عَنكَ وِزۡرَكَ

(And removed from you your burden.) This means

﴿ لِّيَغۡفِرَ لَكَ ٱللَّهُ مَا تَقَدَّمَ مِن ذَنۢبِكَ وَمَا تَأَخَّرَ

(That Allah may forgive you your sins of the past and the future.) (48:2)

﴿ ٱلَّذِىٓ أَنقَضَ ظَهۡرَكَ

(Which weighed down your back) Al-Inqad means the sound. And more than one of the Salaf has said concerning Allah's saying,

﴿ ٱلَّذِىٓ أَنقَضَ ظَهۡرَكَ

(Which weighed down your back) meaning, `its burden weighed heavy upon you.'

The Recitation of Surat At-Tin in the Prayer while traveling

Malik and Shu`bah narrated from `Adi bin Thabit, who narrated that Al-Bara' bin `Azib said, "The Prophet used to recite in one of his Rak`ahs while traveling `At-Tin waz-Zaytun' (Surat At-Tin), and I have never heard anyone with a nicer voice or recitation than him.'' The Group has recorded this Hadith in their books.

﴿ بِسۡمِ ٱللَّهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

﴿ وَٱلتِّينِ وَٱلزَّيۡتُونِ وَطُورِ سِينِينَ وَهَـٰذَا ٱلۡبَلَدِ ٱلۡأَمِينِ لَقَدۡ خَلَقۡنَا ٱلۡإِنسَـٰنَ فِىٓ أَحۡسَنِ تَقۡوِيمٍ۬ ثُمَّ رَدَدۡنَـٰهُ أَسۡفَلَ سَـٰفِلِينَ إِلَّا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ وَعَمِلُواْ ٱلصَّـٰلِحَـٰتِ فَلَهُمۡ أَجۡرٌ غَيۡرُ مَمۡنُونٍ۬ فَمَا يُكَذِّبُكَ بَعۡدُ بِٱلدِّينِ أَلَيۡسَ ٱللَّهُ بِأَحۡكَمِ ٱلۡحَـٰكِمِينَ

(1. By At-Tin and Az-Zaytun.) (2. By Tur Sinin.) (3. By this city of security.) (4. Verily, We created man in the best form.) (5. Then We reduced him to the lowest of the low.) (6. Save those who believe and do righteous deeds. Then they shall have a reward without end.) (7. Then what causes you to deny after this the Recompense) (8. Is not Allah the best of judges)

The Explanation of At-Tin and what comes after it

Al-`Awfi reported from Ibn `Abbas that what is meant by At-Tin is the Masjid of Nuh that was built upon Mount Al-Judi. Mujahid said, "It is this fig that you have.''

﴿ وَٱلزَّيۡتُونِ

(By Az-Zaytun.) Ka`b Al-Ahbar, Qatadah, Ibn Zayd and others have said, "It is the Masjid of Jerusalem (Bayt Al-Maqdis).'' Mujahid and `Ikrimah said, "It is this olive which you press (to extract the oil).''

﴿ وَطُورِ سِينِينَ

(By Tur Sinin.) Ka`b Al-Ahbar and several others have said, "It is the mountain upon which Allah spoke to Musa.''

﴿ وَهَـٰذَا ٱلۡبَلَدِ ٱلۡأَمِينِ

(By this city of security.) meaning Makkah. This was said by Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, `Ikrimah, Al-Hasan, Ibrahim An-Nakha`i, Ibn Zayd and Ka`b Al-Ahbar. There is no difference of opinion about this. Some of the Imams have said that these are three different places, and that Allah sent a Messenger to each of them from the Leading Messengers, who delivered the Great Codes of Law. The first place is that of the fig and the olive, which was Jerusalem, where Allah sent `Isa bin Maryam. The second place is Mount Sinin, which is Mount Sinai where Allah spoke to Musa bin `Imran. The third place is Makkah, and it is the city of security where whoever enters is safe. It is also the city in which Muhammad was sent. They have said that these three places are mentioned at the end of the Tawrah. The verse says, "Allah has come from Mount Sinai - meaning the one upon which Allah spoke to Musa bin `Imran; and shined from Sa`ir - meaning the mountain of Jerusalem from which Allah sent `Isa; and appeared from the mountains of Faran - meaning the mountains of Makkah from which Allah sent `Isa; and appeared from the mountains of Faran - meaning the mountains of Makkah from which Allah sent Muhammad.'' Thus, He mentioned them in order to inform about them based upon their order of existence in time. This is why He swore by a noble place, then by a nobler place, and then by a place that is the nobler than both of them.

Man becoming Lowly even though He was created in the Best Form

and the Result of that Allah says,

﴿ لَقَدۡ خَلَقۡنَا ٱلۡإِنسَـٰنَ فِىٓ أَحۡسَنِ تَقۡوِيمٍ۬

(Verily, We created man in the best form.) This is the subject being sworn about, and it is that Allah created man in the best image and form, standing upright with straight limbs that He beautified.

﴿ ثُمَّ رَدَدۡنَـٰهُ أَسۡفَلَ سَـٰفِلِينَ

(Then We reduced him to the lowest of the low.) meaning, to the Hellfire. This was said by Mujahid, Abu Al-`Aliyah, Al-Hasan, Ibn Zayd and others. Then after this attractiveness and beauty, their destination will be to the Hell-fire if they disobey Allah and belie the Messengers. This is why Allah says,

﴿ إِلَّا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ وَعَمِلُواْ ٱلصَّـٰلِحَـٰتِ

(Save those who believe and do righteous deeds.) Some have said,

﴿ ثُمَّ رَدَدۡنَـٰهُ أَسۡفَلَ سَـٰفِلِينَ

(Then We reduced him to the lowest of the low.) "This means decrepit old age.'' This has been reported from Ibn `Abbas and `Ikrimah. `Ikrimah even said, "Whoever gathers the Qur'an (i.e., he memorizes it all), then he will not be returned to decrepit old age.'' Ibn Jarir preferred this explanation. Even if this was the meaning, it would not be correct to exclude the believers from this, because some of them are also overcome by the senility of old age. Thus, the meaning here is what we have already mentioned (i.e., the first view), which is similar to Allah's saying,

﴿ وَٱلۡعَصۡرِ إِنَّ ٱلۡإِنسَـٰنَ لَفِى خُسۡرٍ إِلَّا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ وَعَمِلُواْ ٱلصَّـٰلِحَـٰتِ

(By Al-`Asr. Verily man is in loss, except those who believe and perform righteous deeds.) (103:1-3) Concerning Allah's statement,

﴿ فَلَهُمۡ أَجۡرٌ غَيۡرُ مَمۡنُونٍ۬

(Then they shall have a reward without end.) meaning, that will not end, as we have mentioned previously. Then Allah says,

﴿ فَمَا يُكَذِّبُكَ

(Then what causes you to deny) meaning, `O Son of Adam!'

﴿ بَعۡدُ بِٱلدِّينِ

(after this the Recompense) meaning, `in the recompense that will take place in the Hereafter. For indeed you know the beginning, and you know that He Who is able to begin (the creation) is also able to repeat it which is easier. So what is it that makes you deny the final return in the Hereafter after you have known this' Then Allah says,

﴿ أَلَيۡسَ ٱللَّهُ بِأَحۡكَمِ ٱلۡحَـٰكِمِينَ

(Is not the Allah the best of judges) meaning, `is He not the best of judges, Who does not oppress or do any injustice to anyone' And from His justice is that He will establish the Judgment, and He will give retribution to the person who was wronged in this life against whoever wronged him. This is the end of the Tafsir of Surat wat-Tin waz-Zaytun and all praise and thanks are due to Allah.

This was the First of the Qur'an revealed
﴿ بِسۡمِ ٱللَّهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

﴿ ٱقۡرَأۡ بِٱسۡمِ رَبِّكَ ٱلَّذِى خَلَقَ خَلَقَ ٱلۡإِنسَـٰنَ مِنۡ عَلَقٍ ٱقۡرَأۡ وَرَبُّكَ ٱلۡأَكۡرَمُ ٱلَّذِى عَلَّمَ بِٱلۡقَلَمِ عَلَّمَ ٱلۡإِنسَـٰنَ مَا لَمۡ يَعۡلَمۡ

(1. Read! In the Name of your Lord Who created.) (2. He has created man from a clot.) (3. Read! And your Lord is the Most Generous.) (4. Who has taught by the pen.) (5. He has taught man that which he knew not.)

The Beginning of the Prophethood of Muhammad and the First of the Qur'an revealed

Imam Ahmad recorded that `A'ishah said: The first thing that began happening with the Messenger of Allah from the revelation was dreams that he would see in his sleep that would come true. He would not see any dream except that it would come true just like the (clearness of) the daybreak in the morning. Then seclusion became beloved to him. So, he used to go to the cave of Hira' and devote himself to worship there for a number of nights, and he would bring provisions for that. Then he would return to Khadijah and replenish his provisions for a similar number of nights. This continued until the revelation suddenly came to him while he was in the cave of Hira'. The angel came to him while he was in the cave and said, "Read!'' The Messenger of Allah said,

« فَقُلْتُ: مَا أَنَا بِقَارِىء »

(I replied: "I am not one who reads.) Then he said, "So he (the angel) seized me and pressed me until I could no longer bear it. Then he released me and said: `Read!' So I replied: `I am not one who reads.' So, he pressed me a second time until I could no longer bear it. Then he released me and said:

﴿ ٱقۡرَأۡ بِٱسۡمِ رَبِّكَ ٱلَّذِى خَلَقَ

(Read in the Name of your Lord who has created.) until he reached the Ayah,

﴿ مَا لَمۡ يَعۡلَمۡ

(That which he knew not.) So he returned with them (those Ayat) and with his heart trembling until he came (home) to Khadijah, and he said,

« زَمِّلُونِي زَمِّلُونِي »

(Wrap me up, wrap me up!) So they wrapped him up until his fear went away. After that he told Khadijah everything that had happened (and said),

« قَدْ خَشِيتُ عَلَى نَفْسِي »

(I fear that something may happen to me.) Khadijah replied, "Never! By Allah, Allah will never disgrace you. You keep good relations with your relatives, you speak the truth, you help the poor and the destitute, you serve your guests generously, and you help the deserving, calamity afflicted people.'' Khadijah then accompanied him to her cousin Waraqah bin Nawfal bin Asad bin `Abdul-`Uzza bin Qusay, who, during the period of ignorance became a Christian and used to scribe the Scriptures in Arabic. He would write from the Injil in Hebrew as much as Allah willed for him to write. He was an old man and had lost his eyesight. Khadijah said to him, "O my cousin! Listen to the story of your nephew.'' Waraqah asked, "O my nephew! What have you seen'' Allah's Messenger described what he saw. Waraqah said, "This is An-Namus whom Allah had sent to Musa. I wish I was young and could live until the time when your people would drive you out.'' Allah's Messenger asked,

« أَوَ مُخْرِجِيَّ هُمْ؟ »

(Will they drive me out) Waraqah replied in the affirmative and said, "Anyone who came with something similar to what you have brought, was treated with hostility and enmity; and if I should remain alive till that day then I would firmly support you.'' But Waraqah did not remain. He died and the revelation paused until Allah's Messenger became sad according to what we were told. Due to this grief he set out a number of times with the intent of throwing himself from the mountain tops. However, every time he would reach the peak of a mountain to throw himself from it, Jibril would appear to him and say, "O Muhammad! You are truly the Messenger of Allah!'' Therefore, his worry would be eased, his soul would be settled and he would return (down from the mountain). Then, when the revelation did not come again for a long time, he set out as he had done before. So when he reached the peak of the mountain, Jibril appeared to him again and said to him the same as he had said before.'' This Hadith has been recorded in the Two Sahihs by way of Az-Zuhri. We have already discussed this Hadith's chain of narration, its text and its meanings at length in the beginning of our explanation of Sahih Al-Bukhari. Therefore, whoever would like to read it, it is researched there, and all praise and blessings are due to Allah. So the first thing that was revealed of the Qur'an were these noble and blessed Ayat. They are the first mercy that Allah bestowed upon His servants and the first bounty that Allah favored them with.

The Honor and Nobility of Man is in His Knowledge

These Ayat inform of the beginning of man's creation from a dangling clot, and that out of Allah's generosity He taught man that which he did not know. Thus, Allah exalted him and honored him by giving him knowledge, and it is the dignity that the Father of Humanity, Adam, was distinguished with over the angels. Knowledge sometimes is in the mind, sometimes on the tongue, and sometimes in writing with the fingers. Thus, it may be intellectual, spoken and written. And while the last (written) necessitates the first two (intellectual and spoken), the reverse is not true. For this reason Allah says,

﴿ ٱقۡرَأۡ وَرَبُّكَ ٱلۡأَكۡرَمُ ٱلَّذِى عَلَّمَ بِٱلۡقَلَمِ عَلَّمَ ٱلۡإِنسَـٰنَ مَا لَمۡ يَعۡلَمۡ

(Read! And your Lord is the Most Generous. Who has taught by the pen. He has taught man that which he knew not.) There is a narration that states, "Record knowledge by writing.'' There is also a saying which states, "Whoever acts according to what he knows, Allah will make him inherit knowledge that he did not know.''

﴿ كَلَّآ إِنَّ ٱلۡإِنسَـٰنَ لَيَطۡغَىٰٓ أَن رَّءَاهُ ٱسۡتَغۡنَىٰٓ إِنَّ إِلَىٰ رَبِّكَ ٱلرُّجۡعَىٰٓ أَرَءَيۡتَ ٱلَّذِى يَنۡهَىٰ عَبۡدًا إِذَا صَلَّىٰٓ أَرَءَيۡتَ إِن كَانَ عَلَى ٱلۡهُدَىٰٓ أَوۡ أَمَرَ بِٱلتَّقۡوَىٰٓ أَرَءَيۡتَ إِن كَذَّبَ وَتَوَلَّىٰٓ أَلَمۡ يَعۡلَم بِأَنَّ ٱللَّهَ يَرَىٰ كَلَّا لَٮِٕن لَّمۡ يَنتَهِ لَنَسۡفَعَۢا بِٱلنَّاصِيَةِ نَاصِيَةٍ۬ كَـٰذِبَةٍ خَاطِئَةٍ۬ فَلۡيَدۡعُ نَادِيَهُ ۥ سَنَدۡعُ ٱلزَّبَانِيَةَ كَلَّا لَا تُطِعۡهُ وَٱسۡجُدۡ وَٱقۡتَرِب ۩

(6. Nay! Verily, man does transgress.) (7. Because he considers himself self-sufficient.) (8. Surely, unto your Lord is the return.) (9. Have you seen him who prevents) (10. A servant when he prays) (11. Have you seen if he is on the guidance) (12. Or enjoins Taqwa) (13. Have you seen if he denies and turns away) (14. Knows he not that Allah sees) (15. Nay! If he ceases not, We will scorch his forehead) (16. A lying, sinful forehead!) (17. Then let him call upon his council.) (18. We will call out the guards of Hell!) (19. Nay! Do not obey him. Fall prostrate and draw near (to Allah)!)