In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.
(1. For the Ilaf of the Quraysh.) (2. Their Ilaf caravans, in winter and in summer.) (3. So, let them worship the Lord of this House.) (4. Who has fed them against hunger, and has made them safe from fear.)
They (the Companions) wrote "In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful'' on the line (i.e., the space) between these two Surahs. They did this even though this Surah is directly related to the one which precedes it, as Muhammad bin Ishaq and `Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam have both clarified. This is because the meaning of both of them is, "We have prevented the Elephant from entering Makkah and We have destroyed its people in order to gather (Ilaf) the Quraysh, which means to unite them and bring them together safely in their city.'' It has also been said that the meaning of this (Ilaf) is what they would gather during their journey in the winter to Yemen and in the summer to Ash-Sham through trade and other than that. Then they would return to their city in safety during their journeys due to the respect that the people had for them because they were the residents of Allah's sanctuary. Therefore, whoever knew them would honor them. Even those who came to them and traveled with them, would be safe because of them. This was their situation during their journeys and travels during their winter and summer. In reference to their living in the city, then it is as Allah said,
(Have they not seen that We have made it a secure sanctuary, while men are being snatched away from all around them) (29:67) Thus, Allah says,
(For the Ilaf of the Quraysh. Their Ilaf), this is a subject that has been transferred from the first sentence in order to give it more explanation. Thus, Allah says,
(Their Ilaf caravans, in winter and in summer.) Ibn Jarir said, "The correct opinion is that the letter Lam is a prefix that shows amazement. It is as though He (Allah) is saying, `You should be amazed at the uniting (or taming) of the Quraysh and My favor upon them in that. ''He went on to say, "This is due to the consensus of the Muslims that they are two separate and independent Surahs.'' Then Allah directs them to be grateful for this magnificent favor in His saying,
(So, let them worship the Lord of this House.) meaning, then let them single Him out for worship, just as He has given them a safe sanctuary and a Sacred House. This is as Allah says,
(I have been commanded only to worship the Lord of this city, Who has sanctified it and to Whom belongs everything. And I am commanded to be from among the Muslims.) (27:91) Then Allah says,
(Who has fed them against hunger,) meaning, He is the Lord of the House and He is the One Who feeds them against hunger.
(And has made them safe from fear.) meaning, He favors them with safety and gentleness, so they should single Him out for worship alone, without any partner. They should not worship any idol, rival or statue besides Him. Therefore, whoever accepts this command, Allah will give him safety in both this life and the Hereafter. However, whoever disobeys Him, He will remove both of them from him. This is as Allah says,
(And Allah puts forward the example of a township, that dwelt secure and well-content: its provision coming to it in abundance from every place, but it denied the favors of Allah. So, Allah made it taste extreme of hunger and fear, because of that which they used to do. And verily, there had come unto them a Messenger from among themselves, but they denied him, so the torment overtook them while they were wrongdoers.) (16:112-113).
This is the end of the Tafsir of Surah Quraysh, and all praise and thanks are due to Allah.
In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.
(1. Have you seen him who denies Ad-Din) (2. That is he who repulses the orphan,) (3. And urges not the feeding of Al-Miskin.) (4. So, woe unto those performers of Salah,) (5. Those who with their Salah are Sahun.) (6. Those who do good deeds only to be seen,) (7. And withhold Al-Ma`un.)
Here the word Din means the Hereafter, the Recompense and the Final Reward.
(That is he who repulses the orphan,) meaning, he is the one who oppresses the orphan and does not give him his just due. He does not feed him, nor is he kind to him.
(And urges not the feeding of Al-Miskin.) This is as Allah says,
(Nay! But you treat not the orphans with kindness and generosity! And urge not one another on the feeding of Al-Miskin!) (89:17-18) meaning, the poor man who has nothing to sustain him and suffice his needs. Then Allah says,
(So, woe unto those performers of Salah, those who with their Salah are Sahun.) Ibn `Abbas and others have said, "This means the hypocrites who pray in public but do not pray in private.'' Thus, Allah says,
(unto those performers of Salah,). They are those people who pray and adhere to the prayer, yet they are mindless of it. This may either be referring to its act entirely, as Ibn `Abbas said, or it may be referring to performing it in its stipulated time that has been legislated Islamically. This means that the person prays it completely outside of its time.
`Ata' bin Dinar said, "All praise is due to Allah, the One Who said,
(with their Salah are Sahun.) and He did not say, `those who are absent minded in their prayer.''' It could also mean the first time of the prayer, which means they always delay it until the end of its time, or they usually do so. It may also refer to not fulfilling its pillars and conditions, and in the required manner. It could also mean performing it with humility and contemplation of its meanings. The wording of the Ayah comprises all of these meanings. However, whoever has any characteristic of this that we have mentioned then a portion of this Ayah applies to him. And whoever has all of these characteristics, then he has completed his share of this Ayah, and the hypocrisy of actions is fulfilled in him. This is just as is confirmed in the Two Sahihs that the Messenger of Allah said,
(This is the prayer of the hypocrite, this is the prayer of the hypocrite, this is the prayer of the hypocrite. He sits watching the sun until it is between the two horns of Shaytan. Then he stands and pecks four (Rak`ahs) and he does not remember Allah (in them) except very little.) This Hadith is describing the end of the time for the `Asr prayer, which is the middle prayer as is confirmed by a text (Hadith). This is the time in which it is disliked to pray. Then this person stands to pray it, pecking in it like the pecking of a crow. He does not have tranquility or humility in it at all. Thus, the Prophet said,
(He does not remember Allah (in them) except very little.) He probably only stands to pray it so that the people will see him praying, and not seeking the Face of Allah. This is just as if he did not pray at all. Allah says,
(Verily, the hypocrites seek to deceive Allah, but it is He Who deceives them. And when they stand up with laziness and to be seen of men, and they do not remember Allah but little.) (4:142) and Allah says here,
(Those who do good deeds only to be seen,) Imam Ahmad recorded from `Amr bin Murrah that he said, "We were sitting with Abu `Ubaydah when the people mentioned showing-off. A man known as Abu Yazid said, "I heard `Abdullah bin `Amr saying that the Messenger of Allah said,
(Whoever tries to make the people hear of his deed, Allah, the One Who hears His creation, will hear it and make him despised and degraded.)'' from what is related to his statement,
(Those who do good deeds only to be seen.) is that whoever does a deed solely for Allah, but the people come to know about it, and he is pleased with that, then this is not considered showing off. Allah said:
(And withhold Al-Ma`un.) This means that they do not worship their Lord well, nor do they treat His creation well. They do not even lend that which others may benefit from and be helped by, even though the object will remain intact and be returned to them. These people are even stingier when it comes to giving Zakah and different types of charity that bring one closer to Allah. Al-Mas`udi narrated from Salamah bin Kuhayl who reported from Abu Al-`Ubaydin that he asked Ibn Mas`ud about Al-Ma`un and he said, "It is what the people give to each other, like an axe, a pot, a bucket and similar items.'' This is the end of the Tafsir of Surat Al-Ma`un, and all praise and thanks are due to Allah.
In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.
(1. Verily, We have granted you Al-Kawthar.) (2. Therefore turn in prayer to your Lord and sacrifice.) (3. For he who hates you, he will be cut off.) Muslim, Abu Dawud and An-Nasa'i, all recorded from Anas that he said, "While we were with the Messenger of Allah in the Masjid, he dozed off into a slumber. Then he lifted his head smiling. We said, `O Messenger of Allah! What has caused you to laugh?’ He said,
(Verily, a Surah was just revealed to me.) Then he recited,
(Verily, We have granted you Al-Kawthar. Therefore turn in prayer to your Lord and sacrifice. For he who hates you, he will be cut off.) Then he said,
(Do you all know what is Al-Kawthar) We said, `Allah and His Messenger know best.' He said,
(Verily, it is a river that my Lord, the Mighty and Majestic, has promised me and it has abundant goodness. It is a pond where my Ummah will be brought to on the Day of Judgment. Its containers are as numerous as the stars in the sky. Then a servant of Allah from among them will be (prevented from it) and I will say: "O Lord! Verily, he is from my Ummah (followers).'' Then He (Allah) will say: "Verily, you do not know what he introduced (or innovated) after you.)'' This is the wording of Muslim. Ahmad recorded this Hadith from Muhammad bin Fudayl, who reported from Al-Mukhtar bin Fulful, who reported it from Anas bin Malik. Imam Ahmad also recorded from Anas that the Messenger of Allah said,
(I entered Paradise and I came to a river whose banks had tents made of pearls. So I thrust my hand into its flowing water and found that it was the strongest (smell) of musk. So I asked, "O Jibril! What is this'' He replied, "This is Al-Kawthar which Allah, the Mighty and Majestic has given you.'') Al-Bukhari recorded this in his Sahih, and so did Muslim, on the authority of Anas bin Malik. In their version Anas said, "When the Prophet was taken up to the heaven, he said,
(I came to a river whose banks had domes of hollowed pearl. I said: "O Jibril! What is this'' He replied: "This is Al-Kawthar.'')'' This is the wording of Al-Bukhari. Ahmad recorded from Anas that a man said, "O Messenger of Allah! What is Al-Kawthar'' He replied,
(It is a river in Paradise which my Lord has given me. It is whiter than milk and sweeter than honey. There are birds in it whose necks are (long) like carrots.) `Umar said, "O Messenger of Allah! Verily, they (the birds) will be beautiful.'' The Prophet replied,
(The one who eats them (i.e., the people of Paradise) will be more beautiful than them, O `Umar.) Al-Bukhari recorded from Sa`id bin Jubayr that Ibn `Abbas said about Al-Kawthar, "It is the good which Allah gave to him (the Prophet).'' Abu Bishr said, "I said to Sa`id bin Jubayr, `Verily, people are claiming that it is a river in Paradise.''' Sa`id replied, `The river which is in Paradise is part of the goodness which Allah gave him.''' Al-Bukhari also recorded from Sa`id bin Jubayr that Ibn `Abbas said, "Al-Kawthar is the abundant goodness.'' This explanation includes the river and other things as well. Because the word Al-Kawthar comes from the word Kathrah (abundance) and it (Al-Kawthar) linguistically means an abundance of goodness. So from this goodness is the river (in Paradise). Imam Ahmad recorded from Ibn `Umar that the Messenger of Allah said,
(Al-Kawthar is a river in Paradise whose banks are of gold and it runs over pearls. Its water is whiter than milk and sweeter than honey.) This Hadith was recorded in this manner by At-Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah, Ibn Abi Hatim and Ibn Jarir. At-Tirmidhi said, "Hasan Sahih.'' Then Allah says,
(Therefore turn in prayer to your Lord and sacrifice.) meaning, `just as We have given you the abundant goodness in this life and the Hereafter -- and from that is the river that has been described previously -- then make your obligatory and optional prayer, and your sacrifice (of animals) solely and sincerely for your Lord. Worship Him alone and do not associate any partner with Him. And sacrifice pronouncing His Name alone, without ascribing any partner to Him.' This is as Allah says,
(Say: "Verily, my Salah, my sacrifice, my living, and my dying are for Allah, the Lord of all that exists. He has no partner. And of this I have been commanded, and I am the first of the Muslims.'') (6:162-163) Ibn `Abbas, `Ata,' Mujahid, `Ikrimah and Al-Hasan all said, "This means with this the Budn should be sacrificed.'' Qatadah, Muhammad bin Ka`b Al-Qurazi, Ad-Dahhak, Ar-Rabi`, `Ata' Al-Khurasani, Al-Hakam, Isma`il bin Abi Khalid and others from the Salaf have all said the same. This is the opposite of the way of the idolators, prostrating to other than Allah and sacrificing in other than His Name. Allah says,
(And do not eat from what Allah's Name has not been pronounced over, indeed that is Fisq.) (6:121)
(For he who hates you, he will be cut off.) meaning, `indeed he who hates you, O Muhammad, and he hates what you have come with of guidance, truth, clear proof and manifest light, he is the most cut off, meanest, lowliest person who will not be remembered. Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, Sa`id bin Jubayr and Qatadah all said, "This Ayah was revealed about Al-`As bin Wa'il. Whenever the Messenger of Allah would be mentioned (in his presence) he would say, `Leave him, for indeed he is a man who is cut off having no descendants. So when he dies he will not be remembered.' Therefore, Allah revealed this Surah.'' Shamir bin `Atiyah said, "This Surah was revealed concerning `Uqbah bin Abi Mu`ayt.'' Ibn `Abbas and `Ikrimah have both said, "This Surah was revealed about Ka`b bin Al-Ashraf and a group of the disbelievers of the Quraysh.'' Al-Bazzar recorded that Ibn `Abbas said, "Ka`b bin Al-Ashraf came to Makkah and the Quraysh said to him, `You are the leader of them (the people). What do you think about this worthless man who is cut off from his people? He claims that he is better than us while we are the people of the place of pilgrimage, the people of custodianship (of the Ka`bah), and the people who supply water to the pilgrims.' He replied, `You all are better than him.' So Allah revealed,
(For he who hates you, he will be cut off.)'' This is how Al-Bazzar recorded this incident and its chain of narration is authentic. It has been reported that `Ata' said, "This Surah was revealed about Abu Lahab when a son of the Messenger of Allah died. Abu Lahab went to the idolators and said, `Muhammad has been cut off (i.e., from progeny) tonight.' So concerning this Allah revealed,
(For he who hates you, he will be cut off.)'' As-Suddi said, "When the male sons of a man died the people used to say, `He has been cut off.' So, when the sons of the Messenger of Allah
died they said, `Muhammad has been cut off.' Thus, Allah revealed,
(For he who hates you, he will be cut off.)'' So they thought in their ignorance that if his sons died, his remembrance would be cut off. Allah forbid! To the contrary, Allah preserved his remembrance for all the world to see, and He obligated all the servants to follow his Law. This will continue for all of time until the Day of Gathering and the coming of the Hereafter. May the blessings of Allah and His peace be upon him forever until the Day of Assembling. This is the end of the Tafsir of Surat Al-Kawthar, and all praise and blessings are due to Allah.